Lecture 3--Research Ethics

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Lecture 3--Research Ethics

  1. 1. #3 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
  2. 2. Elements of Ethical Treatment <ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Full Information </li></ul><ul><li>Consent </li></ul>
  3. 3. Privacy <ul><li>Information about research participants is private (Anonymity vs. Confidentiality) </li></ul><ul><li>Treat with same standards as clinical information </li></ul><ul><li>Data Storage and retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying Information </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Question One <ul><li>You are participating in a study about services satisfaction in a mental health clinic. A research staff member has hard copy files in their car, and their car is stolen. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel upon finding out your name was in those files? What are the ethical ramifications? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Voluntary <ul><li>Participation is voluntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of coercion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of undue influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of duress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal is free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At any time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For any reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With no adverse consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standing to decide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Standing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Question Two <ul><li>You are a patient at a public health clinic, and you are also a TANF recipient. A research recruiter offers you $250 to participate in a research study. You agree to participate and quickly sign the informed consent form. </li></ul><ul><li>How voluntary is your participation? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Full Information <ul><li>Purpose of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanticipated Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Greater Good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources available to non-participants </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Consent <ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Assent- used with persons with diminished capacity (i.e. children), but still based on full information and is voluntary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consent is a Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between researcher and potential participant to facilitate decision making and define the relationship. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Question Three <ul><li>You are an adolescent and your parents have given their informed consent for you to participate in a study of different teaching methods. The researcher introduces you to your new instructor and the instructor asks you to have a seat in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel? What are the ethical ramifications of this situation? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Before Becoming Participants: <ul><li>Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dignity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent Worth </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Researcher Behavior <ul><li>Follow Ethical Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure IRB Approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Informed Consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow Approved Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate Reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Information Safely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give credit where it is due </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on substantial contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make dissemination decisions a priority </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Is An IRB? <ul><li>Institutional Review Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federally Mandated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure Rights and ethical treatment of Research Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives For Vulnerable Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Protocols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approvals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Politics and Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All research occurs in a political environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feminism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science is politically neutral, but scientists, as people, hold political views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted scientific practices are a safeguard against intrusions of bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misuse and/or distortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research funding is political and scientific </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. If Researchers Are Unethical… <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reprimand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension / Termination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debarment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned From Conducting Funded Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For A Fixed Time Period (e.g.; 3 Years) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must Disclose Debarment Forever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Litigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were Approved Protocols Followed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes = Shared Liability By Researcher / Institution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No = Researcher Liability </li></ul></ul></ul>

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