#3 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
Elements of Ethical Treatment
Information about research participants is private (Anonymity vs. Confidentiality)
Treat with same standards as clinical information
Data Storage and retrieval
You are participating in a study about services satisfaction in a mental health clinic. A research staff member has hard copy files in their car, and their car is stolen.
How do you feel upon finding out your name was in those files? What are the ethical ramifications?
Participation is voluntary
Free of coercion
Free of undue influence
Free of duress
Withdrawal is free
At any time
For any reason
With no adverse consequences
Standing to decide
You are a patient at a public health clinic, and you are also a TANF recipient. A research recruiter offers you $250 to participate in a research study. You agree to participate and quickly sign the informed consent form.
How voluntary is your participation?
Purpose of research
For Greater Good
Resources available to non-participants
Informed Assent- used with persons with diminished capacity (i.e. children), but still based on full information and is voluntary.
Consent is a Process
Between researcher and potential participant to facilitate decision making and define the relationship.
You are an adolescent and your parents have given their informed consent for you to participate in a study of different teaching methods. The researcher introduces you to your new instructor and the instructor asks you to have a seat in the class.
How do you feel? What are the ethical ramifications of this situation?
Before Becoming Participants:
Follow Ethical Protocols
Secure IRB Approval
Secure Informed Consent
Follow Approved Protocols
Share Information Safely
Give credit where it is due
Based on substantial contribution
Make dissemination decisions a priority
What Is An IRB?
Institutional Review Board
Ensure Rights and ethical treatment of Research Participants
Representatives For Vulnerable Groups
Politics and Research
All research occurs in a political environment
Science is politically neutral, but scientists, as people, hold political views
Accepted scientific practices are a safeguard against intrusions of bias
Misuse and/or distortion
Research funding is political and scientific
If Researchers Are Unethical…
Suspension / Termination
Banned From Conducting Funded Research
For A Fixed Time Period (e.g.; 3 Years)
Must Disclose Debarment Forever
Were Approved Protocols Followed?
Yes = Shared Liability By Researcher / Institution