#11 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Appropriate Design Craft Knowledge Appropriate Sampling Decisions Previous Research Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Ongoing Research Interpretation Dissemination
SURVEY RESEARCH SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES INTERVIEW SURVEYS TELEPHONE SURVEYS
QUESTIONNAIRES May be mailed, administered at a site, delivered to a home, or electronically There are a number of computer-assisted methods for telephone, in person, or self-report surveying
MAIL SURVEYS A cover letter A way for the respondent to reply A way to track return rates A follow-up mailing to increase return rates A response rate of 50% is adequate, 60% is good, 70% or higher is very good Response rate has an inverse relationship to response bias
General Rules for Interview Surveys Interviewer appearance and demeanor Interviewer familiarity with the questionnaire Following question wording exactly Accurate recording Probing for response clarity Interviewer specifications, how to deal with novel or troubling situations
TELEPHONE SURVEYS Class bias Unlisted numbers as a factor unless random digit dialing is used Using a central location Improve coordination and control Establishing credibility Not a bogus survey Incomplete surveys Likelihood due to hang-ups
Question 1 The Spokane County Sheriff wants to know about public perceptions of how his deputies carry out their duties What method would you use? Why? What should you consider in using this method?
SURVEY METHODS Self-administered surveys are cheaper to conduct, and can provide anonymity Interviews are more likely to gather complete data Afford the opportunity for clarifying through probing More costly if done in person Telephone surveys have the advantages of in-person interviews at a lower cost
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF SURVEY RESEARCH Good for describing large populations Large samples are feasible Can analyze multiple variables Flexibility in analysis Measurement accuracy
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF SURVEY RESEARCH Surveys can be superficial Surveys do not measure context well Surveys a priori limit variables and responses
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF SURVEY RESEARCH Artificiality Social desirability Survey responses are a proxy variable Measurement or testing effects Reliability is high but validity is open to dispute
Question 2 Lutheran Social Services wants to know about how their staff are perceived when collaborating with allied agencies What method would you use? Why? What are the strengths and weaknesses of using this method?