F & B Service Notes for 2nd year Hotel Management Students: Chap 05. fortified wines


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

F & B Service Notes for 2nd year Hotel Management Students: Chap 05. fortified wines

  1. 1. FORTIFIED WINESDEFINITION & INTRODUCTION____________________Table wines that are strengthened by the addition of alcohol, usually a grapespirit (brandy) are called fortified wines. Brandy may be added during fermentationas in Port wine or after fermentation as in Sherry. These wines are usually red or whitein colour. These wines are now known as Liqueur wines or vins de liqueur. Theiralcoholic strength varies between 16 – 22% by volume. For instance: Sherry - (16-21%) - made in Spain Port - (18-22%) - made in Portugal Madeira - 18%) - made at Madeira island, Portugal Marsala - (18%) - made at Sicily, Italy Malaga - (18%) - made in southern SpainOther examples include Muscat and Muscatel made from Muscat grape. They aresweet and raisin-like with a strong bouquet. For example: Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise in Cotes du Rhone. This wine is fortified with spirit before fermentation iscomplete so that some of the natural sugar remains in the wine. It is drunk young.VARIOUS FORTIFIED WINES______________________(i) SHERRY:Real Sherry comes only from the demarcated area of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalucia,south-west Spain. Jerez (pronounced Hereth), Sanlucar de Barrameda and Peurto deSanta Maria are the centers of production.Grapes: Listan Palomino, Pedro_Xeminez and Moscatel are used for the production ofSherry. Palomino accounts for 85% of the yield and provides the base wine from whichall sherries are produced.Soil: Three types of soil accommodate the vine. ALbariza is white, chalky and the best.Barro is next best and is of heavy, mud clay. Arena is sandy soil, which is graduallybeing used for crops other than the grape. 1
  2. 2. Climate: The climate is uneven and when the rain falls in late October and earlyNovember, they are conserved. This is done by digging a square metre of soil downtowards the roots of each vine, which is called as serpia. The excess soil is formed intoa rim along the square. The rains lodge within the rim and later seep through to theroots to keep the vine healthy and productive in the torrid summer heat.MAKING SHERRYThe grapes (gathered in September) are laid out on esparato grass mats to dry. Theyare then mechanically crushed in bodegas (cellars). Fermentation takes place in oakcasks or stainless steel vats. At first the fermentation is tumultuous (bubbling, seething,foaming as if a pot was boiling) and then slumbers gently to a completion. The new wineis put into a group of small casks called criaderas. Its alcoholic strength is 12.5%.In this nursery or cradle, the wines progress is monitored. By springtime, flor (flower) isformed on the surface of some wines. Technically, it is a yeast strain calledSaccharomyces beticus that forms a 10 mm thick crust. Flor contributes to the winesindividual taste and character besides sealing the wine from harmful bacteria andprevents it from oxidising. However, the development of flor is unpredictable. Wines thathave the development of flor will become Finos and the others Olorosos. The finos arethen fortified up to 15.5% and Olorosos are strengthened to 18% by volume by theaddition of high-strength local brandy. Both styles will be fortified again before beingsold. Bottled Sherries vary in strength between 16 and 21% - the sweeter varieties aremore heavily fortified. All Sherries are put into an appropriate solera, once theirclassification is done. 2
  3. 3. THE SOLERA SYSTEMThe word solera comes from the Italian word suelo, which means shoe-sole. But, interms of sherry, it is translated to mean casks touching the ground. The purpose ofsolera system is to provide a consistent product. It is thus, a system of blending andmaturing.The solera comprises of a group of casks placed one on top of the other four or morescales high. The oldest wines are always in the bottom casks and the youngest in thetop row. The wine required for sale is partially drawn off from the bottom casks. Only,one-third of the volume is extracted each year. This is replaced by wine from casks inthe scale immediately above. Thus, it continues through the tiers with the older winescontinually refreshed and replenished by those from above. Inevitably, the youngerwines take on the characteristics of the old.Before botling the wine is tested for strength, quality, and clarity. Pedro Ximenez andMoscatel grape juice is boiled down to one-fifth by volume and added to the blend forfor final sweetness and colour to suit the style.STYLES OF SHERRY(a) Fino: It is pale, dry, light and delicate sherry with a wonderful bouquet. It is aproducers dream because it can be converted into any style. It is served chilled.(b) Manzanilla: It is a type of fino sherry - light and dry with an attractive salty tang,which is obtained from its maturation by the sea. It is made from grapes grown by thesea at Sanlucar de Barrameda. As it ages, it loses its flor and becomes ManzanillaPasada. It is served chilled.© Amontillado: It is an extension of a robust style fino and resembles wine from thenearby region of Montilla. Often it is slightly sweetened and coloured to suit internationalmarkets. It may be prefixed “dry” but in real sense are not so.(d) Oloroso: Like all Sherries, it is naturally dry but considerable sweetening is added.It is promoted under names such as Milk, Cream, Golden, Brown and Amoroso. Thecolour is deep golden or brown. It is served at room temperature.(e) Palo Cortado: It is a wonderful style of sherry served at room temperature. It smellslike Amontillado and tastes like Oloroso. It is not available outside Spain.(f) Almacenista: These are dry, old, unblended, exceptional quality Sherries. It meansa stockholder, warehouse or bodega owner who produces sherry to be sold to a biggerconcern. They are used to improve more mundane brands. 3
  4. 4. SHERRY SHIPPERSThe best known sherry shippers are: Croft Duff Gordon Garvey Gonzalez Byas Harveys La Riva Osborne Pedro Domecq Sandeman Williams & Humbert(ii) PORT:Port is a great fortified wine associated with England. The name comes from Porto(Oporto city), and is made from grapes grown in Upper Douro valley in northernPortugal – a demarcated region of production.Grapes: Grape varieties that may be used to make red Port are Bastardo, DonzelinhoTinto, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Francisca, Touriga Francesa, Tinta Cao and Mourisco. 4
  5. 5. Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Malvesia Rei, Donzelinho and Rabigato are varieties for whiteport.Soil: Vineyards are mostly sited on hillsides overlooking the Douro river. The soil inthese terraced vineyards is made up of granite and schistose stone. Schist is brown,slatey, and rich in minerals and is very important for port production. Picks, crowbarsand explosives are used to break it for planting. Cultivation of vine is extremely labour-intensive and expensive as the vineyards are steep and mechanization is not possible.Climate: Winters are very cold and summers are very hot in Douro valley i.e. it has anextreme climate. All the rainfall falls in the winter month of December. When the rainsfall, the water lodges in the terraces and the moisture is conserved to keep the vineshealthy throughout the long, hot summer.BACKGROUND & HISTORYIn the seventeenth and eighteenth century, because of friction between France andEngland, a trade relationship developed between the later and Portugal. Portuguesewines were imported in England at one-third less duty than French wines.At that time, the wines of Douro were red & sweetish and traveled badly on their voyageto England. Sometimes, a second fermentation would occur and spoil the wine. As aresult, the British merchants found a solution of adding brandy to keep the wine healthyand stop the refermentation. Real success came when the brandy was added early inthe fermenting process resulting in retaining of natural sweetness.MAKING PORTThe stalks are removed (as only a little tannin is required) and the grapes are crushedwithout breaking the pips in a centrifugal crusher. The juice and skins are pumped into aspecial vat called an autovinificator and the must starts to ferment. Pressure also buildsup. The must is forced up into an open reservoir with the help of a must-propellingmachine at the top of the vat where carbon dioxide is released. The must comes backdown through the cap (manta) of grape skins, extracting maximum colour andgoodness. The CO2 escape valves close automatically on top. The procedure isrepeated until the saccharometer shows the desired sugar content reading.When the alcoholic strength reaches between 6% and 8% i.e. sugar content is at 6°Baume, the must is pumped into a vat in the adega (barn-like cellar). Aguardiente (localbrandy at an alcoholic strength of 78%) is also added at the same time to stop furtherfermentation. The proportion allowed is 100 litres of brancy to every 450 litres of wine.The mixture is thoroughly roused and integrated. The fortified wine obtained is naturallysweet and has alcoholic strength of 16.5%.This wine is rested in winter. The sediment falls to the bottom of the vat and makes thewine bright. Before June (i.e. after about three months), the wine is transported from theDouro to the shippers loja (meaning lodges or warehouses) at Vila Nova de Gaia. 5
  6. 6. These lodges are located on the left bank of Douro. The new port is now fortified to 21%alcoholic strength. This is settled, classified and transferred to wooden tuns or pipes. Apipe holds 115 gallons or produces 660 bottles of port.STYLES OF PORTVarious styles of Port are as follows:(a) Ruby port: It is a young port, deep red or ruby in colour and hence the name. It is ablended port of different years and is matured for about four years during which it takeson its hue. Air penetration and the racking process help in this colour-change. This portwas used in the drink - port and lemon.(b) Tawny port: It is a blended port of different years and matured in cask until itbecomes tawny or russet brown in colour. It is matured from 8 to 20 years in casks.Colheitas are old tawny ports from a single vintage. They are smooth and delicate, oftenmaturing for 20 to 40 years in cask. Cheap tawny ports are blends of ruby and whiteports.(c) Crusted port: It is a blend of several vintages and bottled young. As it ages in bottleit forms a crust (deposit or lees), hence the name. It is smooth and requires decanting.(d) Vintage port: It is a product of a single year when all the elements have combinedto produce-the ultimate in quality. Shippers declare a vintage on average once everyfour years. The wine receives a short maturing period in cask and is bottled withoutfining between 1st July in the second year and 30th June of the third year. It spends therest of its life slowly ageing in bottle. The wine is usually aged for over 20 years. Corksare usually replaced every 15 years as they become brittle and crumbly because of theirlong contact with alcohol. Decanting is required while serving them.(e) Late bottled vintage (LBV): This is a wine of a single good year, but kept twice aslong maturing in cask than for vintage ports. It is bottled between 1st July of the fourthyear and 30th June of the sixth year. Once bottled it is ready for drinking and does notrequire decanting.(f) Vintage character port: It is a blend of different years and matured in cask for aboutfour years. It is of good quality but not like vintage quality. It is ready to drink oncebottled.(g) Single Quinta port: This is a port made from one estate in a year when the generalstandard was not good enough to be declared a vintage. It may be treated as forvintage port.(h) White port: It is made as other ports from white grapes. It is pale gold in colour witha soft, rich, honeyed taste. White port is matured in wood before bottling. 6
  7. 7. (i) Aperitif white port: It is made from white grapes and fermented until almostcompletely dry. It is thus fortified after the fermentation is over. It is matured in woodand bottled for sale.CLASSIFICATIONPort that has spent most of its life maturing in cask - white, ruby, tawny - is classified aswood port and that aged in glass for most of its life is classified as bottle port.PORT WINE SHIPPERSPort wine shippers include: Calem Churchill Cocksburn Croft Delaforce Dow Ferreira Fonseca Graham Sandeman Taylor & Warre Quinta do Noval(iii) MADEIRA:Madeira is a versatile fortified wine served as an aperitif, as a soup wine, as a dessertwine or as an after-dinner wine and produced on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Thisisland lies in the Atlantic Ocean, 560 kms from Lisbon.Grapes: There are four main vines in cultivation which produce white grapes: Sercial,Verdelho, Bual (Portuguese Boal) and Malmsey. The grapes are grown near the coaston the steep terraced slopes, where irrigation is necessary to keep the vines healthy.These vines are trained on pergolas, which give the grapes some protection from thefierce sunrays. The grapes grown at sea level - Bual and Verdelho - are picked first,then the Malmsey and lastly the Sercial grapes that are cultivated on the higher, coolerterraces. The grapes are mainly troddened by foot and the juice is transported down ingoatskin containers to the central wineries at Funchal.BACKGROUND & HISTORYMadeira island was discovered by Joao Gonsalves Zarco. As it was covered with trees,it was named as Madeira - meaning wood or timber. The trees were set on fire, whichburnt for seven long years, enriching the volcanic soil with potash. This soil is verysuitable for cultivation of vine and sugar cane. The vine flourished with the help of sub-tropical climate and the wines of Madeira were exported to England and other Europeancountries by the end of 15th century. 7
  8. 8. MAKING MADEIRAFermentation: The drier Madeiras (Sercial and Verdelho) are vinified as for sherry andare fortified only after the completion of fermentation. The sweet Madeiras (Bual andMalmsey) are made in the fashion of port and fortification takes place duringfermentation, thus retaining their natural sweetness. Grape spirit i.e. brandy or highlyrectified rum is generally used for fortification.The estufa system: Madeira casks were used as ballast on ships going to and from theEast Indies. This long journey (involving crossing the equator twice) imparted anattractive cooked flavour to the wine.An estufagem is a simulated version of this process. It consists of an estufa - a heatedchamber with tanks. After filling these with wine, the tanks are slowly heated, neverincreasing by more than 5° C per day. As the temperature increases the wine is baked,over a month, up to a temperature of 45-50°C. it is held at this heat for a minimum ofthree months. Some shippers keep the wine in the estufa longer at lower maximumtemperatures as they feel it gives better results. Another month is then taken to turn theheat down in the same slow, gradual manner. (A thermometer, with a governmentalseal, is attached to each estufa. If the estufa is heated beyond a certain permittedtemperature the seal will break and the wine cannot be sold as Madeira.)The wine is given a light fortification before going into the estufa and a more substantialone when it comes out. Madeira is eventually bottled at an alcoholic strength of 21%.Before that it will be matured through the solera system and rested before sale.STYLES OF MADEIRAEach style of Madeira is based on one of the types of grapes used in its production.Tinta Negramole is sometimes used to make a cheaper version of these famousbrands.(a) Serdal: It is dry, amber in colour, nutty flavoured and has a crisp, piquant aftertaste.It is served chilled as an aperitif and refreshes the palate.(b) Verdelho: It is a golden, versatile, medium sweet wine with a dry finish. It can bedrunk as an aperitif, with soup or cake, or enjoyed on its own.© Bual: It is richer, stronger, deeper and sweeter than Verdelho. Bual has a slightlyhoneyed flavour that is never cloying. It is ideal as a dessert wine.(d) Malmsey: It is the most renowned of all Madeiras. It is deep-brown, luscious, fat,dessert wine. Although it is gloriously sweet it has a lovely, contrasting dryness on thepalate. 8
  9. 9. (e) Rainwater: It is a blend of the lighter Madeiras - Sercial and Verdelho. Rainwater ispopular in America and in some parts of England. It gets its name from the time whencasks of Madeira were accidentally diluted with rainwater.(f) Vintage Madeiras: These are very rare. Solera-dated Madeiras are readilyavailable but are not vintage Madeiras. The date on the label indicates when thesolera was first established. -MADEIRA SHIPPERSMadeira shippers include: Blandy Cossart Gordon Leacock Lomelino Rutherford Miles(iv) MARSALA:It is the main dessert wine of Italy and takes its name from a town by same name innorth-west of Sicily. It is a dark, assertively flavoured luscious wine with a scorchedtaste like that of Madeira. It has a versatile use in the kitchen being used to flavoursome veal dishes and sweet dishes, such as Zabaglione & Tiramisu. Variousconcoctions like Marsala all”uovo are famous. It is an inexpensive after-dinner drink.Catarratto, Grillio and Inzolia grape varieties used in production of Marsala are semi-dried before being harvested. A sweet wine is made from these grapes. Brandy is mixedwith this wine to get sifone. Caramelised reduction of unfermented grape juice calledvino cotto is added to this sifone to get Marsala. Some are matured for four months andbetter varieties upto five years. It is often blended and matured by solera system. Thereis a fairly dry variety, called Virgin, extensively consumed as an aperitif.(v) MALAGA:It is sweet liqueur wine with an aroma and bouquet of raisins and comes from the areaaround the town of that name in Andalucia, Spain. Germany is its main market.It is made mainly from two grapes: Moscatel and Pedro Ximenez. Usually, the grapesare shriveled in sun and the sugar is concentrated. For dry Malagas, juice is extractedimmediately after picking. 9
  10. 10. Malaga Lagrima – a wine of great finesse is made from Lagrima - juice released fromgrapes by the pressure of their own weight. The juice is fermented in large oak or resin– lined cement vats and then matured and blended through the solera system.Typically, Malagas are sweet (dolce) but dry (seco) and medium sweet (semi-dolce) arealso available.OTHER FORTIFIED WINES________________________Some of the less famous sweet fortified wines produced in these as well other countriesare as follows:(i) TARRAGONA: Known as poor man’s port, it comes from the area south ofBarcelona, Spain. It is a thick, deeply coloured, very sweet wine at a moderate price.(ii) MOSCATEL DE SETUBAL: Setubal is less concentrated sweet fortified winewith a perfume of fruit. It is made at the port of Setubal, thirty kilometers south of Lisbonby method similar to those used for making port.(iii) PORT AND SHERRY STYLES PRODUCED IN NEW WORLDCOUNTRIES: There is vast production of port-styles and sherry-styles outside theDouro valley and the area of Jerez.Some port-styles from South Africa and Australia are comparable to or surpass, theplainest kinds of authentic port. In South Africa, a large range of excellent sherries ismade offering better value for money than the humbler wines from Jerez. Especiallysuccessful are South African finos. Cyprus produces an extensive range of Sherrie. Thesweet Sherries are not without appeal though they lack the finesse of well-made sweetSpanish Sherries. One or two dry Sherries are also made.POINTS TO PONDER____________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Bodega [Nov-05]2. Describe the manufacturing process of Madeira and Sherry. [Nov-05 / Nov-04]3. Give two examples of grapes used in the production of Sherry & Port. [April-05 / Nov-04]4. Explain the following types of Port: (a) Tawny Port (b) Vintage Port (c) Single Quinta Port (c) Crusted Port (d) Crusted Port (e) Ruby Port (f) White Port [April-05]5. Explain four styles of sherry. [April-05]6. Name the grapes used in the manufacture of Port. [April-04]7. Explain the various types of Port and name the four shippers of Port wine. [April-04 / Nov-04] 10
  11. 11. 8. With the help of a labeled diagram explain the Solera system with reference to the production of Sherry. [April-04 / Nov-04]9. Explain the following terms: (a) Butt (b) Quintas (c) Bodegas (d) Estufa [April-04]10. Write a short note on Estufa system with reference to Madeira wine. [Nov-04] ********************** ***************** *********** 11
  12. 12. 8. With the help of a labeled diagram explain the Solera system with reference to the production of Sherry. [April-04 / Nov-04]9. Explain the following terms: (a) Butt (b) Quintas (c) Bodegas (d) Estufa [April-04]10. Write a short note on Estufa system with reference to Madeira wine. [Nov-04] ********************** ***************** *********** 11