F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students Chap 02. wines
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Wines: Definition, Classification, Factors affecting its quality, diseases in vines, Wine Label, Naming Wines...

Wines: Definition, Classification, Factors affecting its quality, diseases in vines, Wine Label, Naming Wines...

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F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students Chap 02. wines F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students Chap 02. wines Document Transcript

  • WINEDEFINITION____________________________________Wine is a kind of fermented alcoholic beverage. It can be defined as an alcoholicbeverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes.The fermentation takes place in the district of origin, according to local traditionsand practice.CLASSIFICATION OF WINE TYPES_________________ WINES (Characteristic/Nature) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ TABLE SPARKLING FORTIFIED VIN DOUX ORGANIC AROMATIZED TONIC WINES WINES WINES NATURAL WINES WINES WINES ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ (Colour) Body (Degree of Sweetness) (Alcoholic Content) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ RED PINK WHITE DRY MEDIUM MEDIUM SWEET DRY SWEET ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ LIGHT MEDIUM HEAVY LOW DE- NO BODIED BODIED BODIED ALCOHOL ALCOHOLISED ALCOHOLNATURE AND CHARACTERISTICSWines are classified in many ways. But most importantly, they are classified all over theworld by its nature or characteristics. By its nature or characteristics, wines areclassified into: 1
  • (i) Table Wines: Table wines are also called Still Wines and form the largest category.These are natural wines and are the result of fermentation of grape juice with little or noaddition of other substances. These are made without any diversions from naturalprocesses. These wines may be red, pink or white in colour. Their alcoholic contentvaries between 8 – 15% by volume, more usually between 10 – 13% by volume. Forexample: Medoc, Beaujolais, Hock, Moselle, Alsace etc(ii) Sparkling Wines: Wines that have a sparkle or effervescence in them are calledsparkling wines. This effervescence is caused by carbon dioxide (CO 2) gas; producedduring (second) fermentation, which is trapped and not allowed to escape or injectedartificially. These wines are usually white or pink in colour, but reds are also available.For example: Champagne, Marquis de Pompadour etc(iii) Fortified Wines: Table wines that are strengthened by the addition of alcohol,usually a grape spirit (brandy) are called fortified wines. Brandy may be added duringfermentation as in Port wine or after fermentation as in Sherry. These wines are usuallyred or white in colour. These wines are now known as Liqueur wines or vins de liqueur.Their alcoholic strength varies between 16 – 22%, by volume. Example: Port, Sherry,Madeira, Marsala, Malaga etc.(iv) Vin doux Naturel: Vin doux Naturels are sweet wines that have had theirfermentation muted by the addition of alcohol in order to retain their natural sweetness.Muting takes place when the alcohol level reaches between 5 % and 8% by volume.These wines have a final alcoholic strength of 17% by volume.(v) Organic Wines: Organic wines are also called ‘Green’ or ‘Environment friendly’wines. These wines are made from grapes grown without the aid of artificialinsecticides, pesticides or fertilizers. These wines are not adulterated in any way, savefor minimal amounts of Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2) - the traditional preservative, which iscontrolled at source. For example: Vinho Verde of Portugal.(vi) Aromatized wines: Wines that are flavoured and fortified are called Aromatizedwines. Sweetening agent may or may not be added. Examples are Vermouth,Commandaria, Dubonnet, Punt – e – Mes etc.(vii) Tonic Wines: Table wines, which have had vitamins and/or health improversadded to them are called Tonic wines. For example: Wincarnis contains beef extract.COLOURAll the wines mentioned above can also be classified on the basis of their colour intoRed, Pink or white. 2
  • (i) Red wines: Red wines are made from black grapes. These wines are fermented incontact with grape skins from which the wine gets its colour. The grape juice (must)remains with the skins from 10 to 30 days to extract colour and tannin. The lighter thecolour required, the less time it spends with the skins. Normally these are dry wines.(ii) White wines: White wines are usually made from white grapes, but can be madefrom black grapes as well. Here, the grape juice (must) is usually fermented away fromthe skin but this is not necessary in case of white grapes. Speed is required to seperatethe must from the skin in case of black grape, otherwise dyes would liberate into themust. Normally these wines are dry to very sweet.(iii) Pink wines: Also known as Rosé wines, these can be made in three ways – fromred grapes fermented on the skins for upto 48 hours; by mixing red and white winestogether or by pressing grapes so that some colour is extracted. It may be dry or semi-sweet. These are called Blush wines in USA when made wholly from red grapes.ALCOHOL CONTENTAll the wines can be classified on the basis of alcohol content (which is reduced) intofour main types:(i) Low alcohol wines (LABs): These wines contain a maximum of 1.2% alcohol.(ii) De-alcoholised wines (DABs): These wines contain a maximum of 0.5% alcohol.(iii) Alcohol free or No alcohol wines (NABs): These wines contain a maximum of0.05% alcohol.(iv) Reduced alcohol wines (RABs): These wines contain a maximum of 5.5%alcohol.These wines are made in the normal way and then the alcohol is removed by one of thefollowing two methods:(a) The hot treatment: This treatment uses the distillation process. It removes most ofthe flavour as well.(b) The cold treatment: This treatment uses reverse osmosis or fine filtration process.This removes the alcohol by mechanically separating or filtering out the molecules ofalcohol and water through membranes made of cellulose or acetate, leaving behind asyrupy wine concentrate. Then, a little water and must is added to preserve much of theflavour of the original wine. 3
  • DEGREE OF SWEETNESSWines can also be classified on the basis of degree of sweetness in them. Generally,White wines are classified on the degree of sweetness. The degree of sweetness on ascale ranges from Brut (Very dry) to Doux (sweet) with extra sec (dry), sec (mediumdry), demi-sec (medium sweet) between them.(i) Dry wines: It results when the yeast consumes all the sugar during fermentation,and none has been added. Such wines will be totally lacking in sweetness and hencecalled dry.(ii) Sweet wines: It results when sugar remains in the wine after the yeast has diedduring fermentation or extra sugar has been added.BODY OF WINEWines are also classified on the basis of its body. Body is the feel of the wine in themouth; coming from the amount of alcohol, sugar, glycerine (a soluble substanceformed during fermentation) and extracts from the grapes, such as tannin. Thus, body isalso the weight of wine felt in the mouth i.e. higher the density or speciic gravity higheris the body and vice-versa. The body of wine ranges from full bodied wine to lightbodied wine with medium bodied wine in between them. Generally, Red wines areclassified depending upon body.(i) Light bodied wine: A light bodied wine is usually referred to as light wine; it is low inone or more of the body components.(ii) Full bodied wine: A full-bodied wine is typically high in body components. It clingsto the side of the glass if swished around. When a full-bodied wine is tasted, the mouthis filled in a sensuous way.FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF WINE_1. CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE & BIO-CLIMATEClimate: The grapes will provide juice of the quality necessary for conversion into a drinkable wine where two climatic conditions prevail: 4
  •  Enough sun to ripen the grape and  The winter is moderate, yet cool enough to give the vine a chance to rest and restore its strength for the growing and fruiting seasonThis shows that the grapes and hence the vine needs a good balance of heat, cold andmoisture. Temperature should average 14 - 16°C. The lowest annual averagetemperature necessary for the vine to flourish is 10°C. It is estimated that the vineneeds about 27 inches of rain per year mainly in winter and spring and atleast 1400hours of sunshine.Micro-climate: A particular beneficial weather pattern prevailing in a single vineyard ora group of vineyards or within a small region is called a micro-climate. It could be hills ormountains protecting the vines from heavy winds, or even a break in the mountainrange allowing the air to freshen and fan the vines in very hot weather. It could be theangle of the sun, especially the clear brilliant morning sun that strikes one vineyard morefavourably than another. The rise and fall of the terrain also has an effect, as also thelocation besides water body for ground moisture and reflected heat. These subtledifferences in atmospheric conditions, combined with the quality of the soil and the grapevariety used, are the reasons why some vineyards have such outstanding reputations.Bio-climate: The relationship of soil and climate in a specific vineyard is called its bio-climate. Knowledge about bio-climate is used to obtain stable yields of high-qualitygrapes.2. ASPECTVineyards are ideally planted on south-facing slopes (particularly in the northernhemisphere) where they point the sun and benefit from maximum sunshine and gooddrainage. Siting is of prime importance to capture the sunlight for photosynthesis andgood ripening. Some vineyards are sited at a height of 243 m or more onmountainsides, while many of the great vineyards are located in river valleys and alonglakesides benefitting from humidity and reflected heat.3. NATURE OF THE SOIL AND SUBSOILVineyards thrive where other crops struggle. Poor soils rich in minerals are best for thevine as they provide nutrients such as phosphate, iron, potassium, magnesium andcalcium. These minerals and nutrients contribute to the final taste of the wine. Favouredsoils are chalk, limestone, slate, sand, schist, gravel, pebbles, clay, alluvial andvolcanic. These soils have a good drainage and moisture retention capability to keep 5
  • the vine roots healthy. Soil is analysed annually and any chemical deficiency iscompensated for. Drainage is very important, as the vine does not like having wet feet.4. VINE FAMILY, COMPOSITION OF VINE AND GRAPESPECIESVine: The plant, which bears the grape, is called a Vine. The vine belongs to theAmpelidaceae family. This family has around 10 genera but only genus Vitis isimportant for making wines. This genus has a subgenus known as Euvites and thissubgenus has around 60 species. Some of these species are Vinifera, Labbrusca,Riparia, Rupestris, Berlandieri etc. Thus, there are five family of species: Vitis Vinifera,Vitis Lambrusca, Vitis Riparia, Vitis Rupestris, Vitis Berlandieri whose noblegrapes can be used for producing classic wines. The plant Vitis Viniffera producesgrapes, which are used for the production of best quality wines throughout the world,with few exceptions. These are in the east coast of America and Canada where otherspecies are cultivated because they are more suited to the terrain and climaticconditions. Thus, Vine family is one of the important factors that influence the quality ofwine.Composition of vine: The vine consists of: Roots: These are for anchorage and forabsorbing nutrients and moisture from the earth. The root system is large and can reachto a depth of about 12 metres. Leaves: When sunlight falls on leaves that havechlorophyll, carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere and combines with water,absorbed through roots, to make sugar. The sap stores this sugar within the grape.Leaves also shade the grapes in very hot climate. Flowers: Vine flowers are very smalland self-pollinate between May to June in the northern hemisphere and from Novemberto December in the southern hemisphere. Flowering lasts for about ten days. If frostarrives during the flowering, unprotected vines will not bear grapes. Grapes: Afterpollination, grapes are formed which are small, hard and green initially but swell out andchange colour as they ripen in August and September. They are usually fully ripe 100days after flowering. A ton of grapes produces 675 litres, equivalent to 960 bottles ofwine.Grape: The grape must be in harmony with the soil, the location of the vineyard andlocal climatic conditions. It should be disease resistant, give a good yield and producethe best quality wine possible. Wine is produced from either varietal grapes, which is aclassic single grape like Riesling or from hybrids, which are a cross such as Riesling XSilvaner = Miiller -Thurgau. Grapes behave differently in different soils. Hence, Pinot Noiris a classic in Burgundy and a disaster in Bordeaux. 6
  • 5. VITICULTUREViticulture denotes the method of cultivation of vine. An overworked vineyard withoutcompensatory treatment or a neglected vineyard will only produce second-rate wine, sothe farming of the vineyard is of great importance. It involves:  Vine selection;  keeping the vineyard healthy;  ploughing to aerate the soil;  weeding;  fertilising;  pruning to regulate quality;  training the vines;  spraying to combat diseases;  harvesting.6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GRAPEThe grape is made up of stalk, skin, pips and pulp and its respective roles are asfollows:Stalk: The stalk imparts tannic acid to wine. It is mostly used in the making of big,flavoursome heavy bodied red wine and is not used when making white and lightbodied wines. Tannin acts as a preservative and antioxidant. If over-used, it makesthe wine astringent and nasty. It is recognized on the palate by its tongue-furringproperties.Skin: The outer skin or cuticle has a whitish cloudy coat called bloom. This waxysubstance contains wild yeasts and wine yeasts, which contribute to the fermentationprocess. It also contains other microorganisms such as bacteria acetobacter that is apotential danger to wine. If uncontrolled, it turns wine into vinegar. The inside of the skinimparts colour that is extracted during fermentation.Pips: Crushed pips impart tannic acid, oils and water. They do not contribute tovinification, if left uncrushed.Pulp: The flesh of the grape provides the juice called must, which is essential forfermentation. The must contains 78-80% water; 10-25% sugar and 5-6% acids. Watermakes up the bulk. Sugar is formed in the grape by sunlight and is of two kinds: grapesugar (dextrose and glucose) and fruit juice (levulose and fructose). They are found in 7
  • about equal quantities. Tartaric, malic, tannic and citric acids in the must help topreserve and keep the wine fresh and brilliant. It gives it a proper balance. Esters areformed when the acids come in contact with alcohol and it gives the wine its aroma orbouquet. The must (unfermented grape juice) also has trace elements of nitrogeneouscompounds such as albumen, peptones, amides, ammonium salts and nitrates, as wellas potassium, phosphoric acid and calcium, all of which have an influence on theeventual taste of the wine.7. YEAST AND FERMENTATIONThere are two mam categories of yeast:NATURAL YEASTSThe natural yeasts, moulds and bacteria that hover and float in the air, eventually setonto ripe grapes. Many insects including the fruit fly drosophila help in this process ofsettling down of natural yeasts. It is known that a single grape before fermentation willharbour on its skin (cuticle) 1,00,000 wine yeasts; 1,00,000 moulds and up to ten millionwild yeast. They adhere to the pruina a waxy substance formed on the grape skin. Thisdull whitish haze of yeasts and microorganisms is known as bloom is wine language. 8
  • CULTURED YEASTSThese are pedigree strains of natural yeasts cultivated in a laboratory. They are efficienctin converting sugar into alcohol as compared to natural yeasts and are less susceptible tosulphur in the fermenting process. Sometimes, they are selected to do a specific job orare used in situations where natural yeasts have been washed away by heavy rain orwhen some of the yeasts have been brushed off in transit. There are up to a thousandvarieties of cultured yeast, but the name is normally associated with a type of unicellularfungi called Saccharomyces. Two varieties of Sacharomyces are important in producingalcohol in wines:(i) Saccbaromyces apiculatus: These are also called wild yeasts or starteryeasts. These yeasts start the fermentation, but they are feeble fermenters and arekilled when the alcohol concentration reaches 4% by volume. The wine yeasts takeover the fermentation after this stage. Normally, wild yeasts are aerobic i.e they workonly in the presence of oxygen and hence there is always a risk of acetification. Theyimpart an off-flavour and delay the action of the true wine yeasts. As they have onlylimited tolerance to sulphur dioxide (SO2), a strictly controlled quantity of SO2 is addedto the grape juice before fermentation. In modern wine-making they are usuallydispensed with.(ii) Saccharomyces ellipsoideus: This is the true wine yeast. It is much moretolerant to SO2 and is also anaerobic i.e it is able to work in the absence of oxygen.There are many varieties of the species, each suited to its native wine district or region.Most wine regions have yeasts that cling to each other and the fermenting vessel, andthis clinging property assists the wine-maker to clear the wine and make it star bright.Champagne yeasts, on the other hand, do not cling to each other or the containingvessel, which facilitates the operation known as remuage prior to disgorging theexhausted yeast to clear the wine. Depending on the amount of sugar in the grapejuice, wine yeasts are rapid workers fermenting quickly up to 13% alcohol and thenmore slowly up to 16% alcohol. At that concentration, they are destroyed by the veryalcohol they have worked so hard to produce. Thus, types of yeast used duringfermentation affects the quality of wine.8. VINIFICATIONVinification encompasses the methods of making wine. This includes:  the pressing of the grapes;  the treatment and fermentation of the must;  ageing & maturing the wine and occasionally topping it up to keep the air out; 9
  •  racking, fining and filtration to make the wine star bright: Racking is running the clear wine off its lees or sediment from one cask to another. Fining is further clarification of wine usually before bottling. A fining agent such as isinglass, bentonite clay etc is added and this attracts the sediment suspended in the wine, causing it to coagulate and fall to the bottom of the container. Filtration is the final clarification before bottling. It removes any remaining suspended matter and leaves the wine healthy and star bright in appearance.  blending - compensatory or otherwise;  bottling for further maturing or for sale.9. LUCK OF THE YEARIn some years, everything in the vineyards and cellars go well, combining to producea wine of excellence - a vintage wine. In other years, there can be greatdisappointments brought on by an excess of sun, rain, snow, frost and the dreadedhail, which will produce either poor or worse wines. So, the wine-grower can neverbe confident, but must always be vigilant.10. METHOD OF SHIPPING AND TRANSPORTATIONWell, if the wine is not correctly balanced i.e if it is too much acidic and less inalcoholic content then it would deteriorate during transportation. Also, if duringtransportation and shipping it is mishandled or exposed to extremes of temperaturesit gets roughed up and deteriorates. Problems also arise if the wine is too young ortoo old when shipped. Hence, now a days mostly all wines travel in refrigerated tanksor bottles which are transported by rail, tankers or ships at appropriate temperatures.In all cases, wine should be given an acclimatizing or resting period before beingoffered for sale.11. STORAGE AND STORAGE TEMPERATURESWines are stored in attractive humidity and temperature-controlled cabinets that areavailable readily. The wines should be located away from excessive heat: hot waterpipes, a heating plant or any hot unit such as a freezer! Heat does far more damage towine than cold.Ideally, wine should be stored in an underground cellar that has a northerly aspect andis free from vibrations, excessive dampness, draughts and unwanted odours. The cellarshould be absolutely clean, well ventilated, with only subdued lighting and a constant 10
  • cool temperature of 12.5°C (55°F) to help the wine develop gradually. Highertemperatures bring wines to maturity more quickly, which is not preferable.Table wines should be stored on their sides in bins so that the wine remains in contactwith the cork. This keeps the cork expanded and prevents air from entering the wine - adisaster that would quickly turn wine to vinegar. White, sparkling and rose wines arekept in the coolest part of the cellar and in bins nearest the ground (because warm airrises). Red wines are best stored in the upper bins. Commercial establishments usuallyhave special refrigerators or cooling cabinets for keeping their sparkling, white and rosewines at serving temperature. These may be stationed in the dispense bar - a barlocated between the cellar and the restaurant - to facilitate prompt service.FAULTS IN WINE________________________________Faults or sickness occasionally develop in the living wines as they mature in bottles.Sometimes, these faults are very obvious and at other times there is just a hint orsuspicion of it. But, now a days with improved techniques and attention being paid tobottling and storage, faults in wine are a rarity. Some of the faults in wine are as follows:(i) Corked wines: These are wines affected by a diseased cork caused through bacterialaction or excessive bottle age. The wine tastes and smells foul. It is not the harmless corkresidue that falls in wine while opening a bottle.(ii) Maderization or oxidation: Due to bad storage the cork of the wine bottle dries out. Asa result, the wine becomes too much exposed to air and colour of the wine darkens orbecomes brown and the tastes ‘spoilt’. The taste slightly resembles Madeira, hence thename.(iii) Acetification: This is caused when the wine is overexposed to air. The vinegar microbe(acetobacters) develops a film on the surface of the wine, which produces acetic acid. Thewine tastes sour, resembling wine vinegar (vin aigre = sour wine).(iv) Tartare flake: This is the crystallization of potassium bitartrate at very coldtemperatures. These crystal-like flakes; soluble in water but not in alcohol, are sometimesseen in white wine spoiling the appearance of the wine, which is otherwise perfect to drink.If the wine is stabilized before bottling, this condition will not occur.(v) Excess sulphur dioxide (S02): Sulphur dioxide is added to wine to preserve and keepit healthy. Once the bottle is opened, the stink disappears and, after a few minutes, thewine is perfectly drinkable.(vi) Secondary fermentation: This happens when traces of sugar and yeast are left in winein bottle. It leaves the wine with an unpleasant, prickly taste. It is ofcourse not the petillant,spritzig characteristics associated with other styles of healthy and refreshing wines. 11
  • (vii) Foreign contamination: This may be caused when wine has been put into previouslyused bottles that have not been hygienically cleaned or sterilized. Faulty bottlingmachinery may also cause glass to splinter and get into the wine. Wines may also beadversely affected if they are stored in a badly kept cellar at incorrect temperatures orstored next to strong odours such as petrol, vinegar or fish.(viii) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S): The wine tastes and smells of rotten eggs. Discard itimmediately.(ix) Sediment, lees, crust or dregs: Organic matter discarded by the wine as it maturesin cask or bottle is called sediment, lees, crust or dregs. It is removed by racking, fining orin the case of bottled wine, by decanting.(x) Cloudiness: It is caused by suspended matter in the wine, disguising its true colour. Itmay be due to extremes in storage temperatures.(xi) Weeping: This is the seeping of wine from the cork. It is caused when a small corkis used or faulty cork is used or when a secondary fermentation pushes the cork used.(xii) Wine that ‘does not travel’: This was very common in olden days. It is becauseeither the wine is not correctly balanced or the wine might have been roughed upbecause of bad handling or might have undergone too many extremes of temperatureon the journey. Now a days all wines travel happily in refrigerated tanks. Problems doarise when the wine is too young or too old when shipped. Wines should generally begiven an acclimatizing or resting period before being offered for sale.ENEMIES OF VINE_______________________________(i) Oidium Tuckerii: It is a powdery mildew that covers the grapes consequentlysplitting and rotting them. This is avoided by treating the vines with sulphur spray beforeand after blossoming. (ii) Phylloxera Vastatrix: It is a louse-like, almost invisible aphid that attacks the roots of the vine vitis vinifera as it is not resistant to it. It arrived in Europe in the mid 1800s by accident, transported on American vines imported into various European countries from the eastern states of America. It ravaged many of the vineyards of Europe at that time. The cure that was found was to graft the European vine (vitis vinifera) scion (shoot cut for grafting) to resistant American root stocks (vitis rupestris). This practise became standard throughout the world wherever Vitis vinifera is grown. However, there are some pockets of vineyards resistant to Phyloxera either due to geographical isolation or that the vines are planted on sandy soil that the louse finds impossible to penetrate. 12
  • (iii) Grey Root Or Pourriture Gris : In warm damp weather, this fungus attacks the leavesand fruit of the vine. It is recognized by a grey mould. As a result of this fungus, anunpleasant flavour is imparted to the wine. To avoid this, anti-rot sprays are used.(iv) Noble Rot Or Pourriture Noble (Botrytis Cinerea): This is the same fungus in itsbeneficent form, which may occur when humid conditions are followed by hot weather. Thefungus punctures the grape skin, the water content evaporates and the grape shrivels,thus concentrating the sugar inside. This process gives the luscious flavours characteristicof Sauterness, German Trockenbeerenauslese and Hungarian Tokay Aszu.(v) Coulure: This happens when there is a soil deficiency or too much rain or uneventemperature. The flowers on the vine are infertile, resulting in a dis-appointing yield ofgrapes. This condition of berries not developing is known as millerandage. To avoid thiscondition treat the soil with good fertilizers.(vi) Chlorosis: Too much limestone in the soil causes yellowing and even death of theplant. This is called chlorosis. It can remedied by treating the soil with iron sulphate.(vii) Pyralis, Endemis and Cochylis: These are tiny butterfly moths (pests) that piercethe grapes and destroy the crops within hours. To avoid this happening, sprayinsecticides.(viii) Frost: Frost (especially during spring), stunts the formation of the buds that greatlyreduces the yield. Treatment: fire heat, spraying with water.(ix) Hail: Hail is a danger, especially just before the vintage when the grape skins arevery thin and vulnerable. In this condition, it can easily puncture the skin and ruin thecrop. Prayer ‘that it doesn’t happen’ is only the remedy.WINE LABEL INFORMATION______________________The European Community has strict regulations that govern what is printed on a bottlelabel. These regulations also apply to wine entering EC. A lot of useful information isgiven on the label of a wine-bottle. The language used will normally be that of thecountry of origin, the wine belongs to. The information includes: (i) The country where the wine was made, (ii) Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (% vol), (iii) Contents in litres, cl, or ml, (iv) Name and address or trademark of supplier 13
  • It may also include: (v) The year the grapes were harvested, called the vintage, (vi) The region where the wine was made, (vii) The quality category of the wine, (viii) Details of bottlerHOW WINES ARE NAMED________________________Every wine label carries a name to identify the product inside the bottle. These winesare generally named in four ways: (i) by the predominant variety of grapes used(varietal); (ii) by broad general type (generic); (iii) by brand name; and (iv) by theplace of origin.(i) Varietal Names: Here, the name of the single grape, which predominates, isthe name of the wine. This grape gives the wine its predominant flavour andaroma. E.g. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, and Zinfandel.Within the European Economic Community at least 85% of varietal wine mustcome from the grape named and some countries like France have raised thisrequirement to 100%.The names of varietal wines once learned are quickly recognized and thebetter-known varietals almost sell themselves. Varietals range in price frommoderate to high, depending to some extent on the wine quality. Taste thembefore buying, because they vary greatly from one producer to another and onevintage to another (This is true of all wines). The name and fame of the grapealone do not guarantee the quality of the wine. 14
  • (ii) Generic Names: These wines are of a general style or type, such asBurgundy or Chablis. Their names are borrowed from European wines thatcome from well-known wine districts. But in reality, their resemblance to theseEuropean wines is slight to nonexistent and the name does not indicate thetrue character or quality of wine. Law requires all generics to include the placeof origin on the label (such as California, Washington State, Napa Valley etc).This distinguishes them clearly from the European wines whose names theyhave borrowed.The best of the generics are pleasant, uncomplicated, affordable wines that areoften served as house wines. Generics frequently come in large-size bottles (1-4 litres) and are sometimes called jug wines. Nowadays these wines oftencome in bag-in-a-box form, in which a sturdy cardboard box contains a plasticbag holding 10 to 15 gallons of wine. The wine is drawn off through a spigot inthe side of the box, and the bag shrinks as wine is withdrawn, so the wineremaining in the bag is unspoiled by contact with air.Generics are not so popular today because of mass awareness and wineries havebegun to use the names Red Table Wines and White Table Wines instead of the oldgeneric names.(iii) Brand Names: A brand name (also called a proprietary name or a monopole inFrance) is one belonging exclusively to a vineyard or a shipper who produces and/orbottles the wine and takes responsibility for its quality. It may be anything from aninexpensive blend to a very fine wine with a prestigious pedigree.A brand name distinguishes a wine from others of the same class or type. Brand namesare also used deliberately for high-quality wines that do not meet the 75 percent varietalrequirement because better wine with more skillful blending of the dominant grape withothers can be made. Examples of these are Reviera, Bosca etc.A brand name alone does not tell anything about the wine. The reputation of theproducer and the taste of the wine are better keys to choice.(iv) Place-of-Origin Names: II is more common to use a place of origin as a name onthe label. The place of origin is usually a rigidly delimited and controlled area thatproduces superior wines of a certain character deriving from its special soil, climate,grapes, and production methods. Wines from such an area must meet stringentgovernment regulations and standards in order to use the name. The defined area maybe large (a district, a region) or small (a commune, a parish, a village, a vineyard).Generally, the smaller the subdivision - the more rigorous the standards and the morefamous the wine.Along with the area name on the label is a phrase meaning "controlled name oforigin"—Appellation Controlee in France, Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOCfor short) in Italy. Other countries have similar requirements for using the name of adelimited area. Generally a wine from a controlled area has a certain claim to quality,and the best wine-growing areas have the best claim. But the name is not a guarantee,and all wines from the same area are not the same. 15
  • THINK IT OVER_________________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Viticulture [Nov-05]2. Name four Table wines from India. {Nov-05]3. Define Wine. Explain the following terms: (a) Sweet wines (b) Fortified wines (c) Organic wines [April-05]4. Explain the following terms: (a) Corky [Nov-04]5. Draw the classification chart of Fermented beverages. [Nov-04]6. With the help of examples describe any four types of wines. [Nov-04 / April-04]7. The stalk and pips of the grape contains alkaloid named ____________. [Nov-04]8. Yeast cells settles on the skin of the grapes to form the characteristic ____________. [Nov-04]9. What are Organic Wines? [Nov-04] ****************** ************** ********** ****** 16
  • THINK IT OVER_________________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Viticulture [Nov-05]2. Name four Table wines from India. {Nov-05]3. Define Wine. Explain the following terms: (a) Sweet wines (b) Fortified wines (c) Organic wines [April-05]4. Explain the following terms: (a) Corky [Nov-04]5. Draw the classification chart of Fermented beverages. [Nov-04]6. With the help of examples describe any four types of wines. [Nov-04 / April-04]7. The stalk and pips of the grape contains alkaloid named ____________. [Nov-04]8. Yeast cells settles on the skin of the grapes to form the characteristic ____________. [Nov-04]9. What are Organic Wines? [Nov-04] ****************** ************** ********** ****** 16
  • THINK IT OVER_________________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Viticulture [Nov-05]2. Name four Table wines from India. {Nov-05]3. Define Wine. Explain the following terms: (a) Sweet wines (b) Fortified wines (c) Organic wines [April-05]4. Explain the following terms: (a) Corky [Nov-04]5. Draw the classification chart of Fermented beverages. [Nov-04]6. With the help of examples describe any four types of wines. [Nov-04 / April-04]7. The stalk and pips of the grape contains alkaloid named ____________. [Nov-04]8. Yeast cells settles on the skin of the grapes to form the characteristic ____________. [Nov-04]9. What are Organic Wines? [Nov-04] ****************** ************** ********** ****** 16