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F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol
 

F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol

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Alcohol - Definition, Nomenclature, Manufacturing Process, Types of Alcoholic Beverages, etc

Alcohol - Definition, Nomenclature, Manufacturing Process, Types of Alcoholic Beverages, etc

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    F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol Document Transcript

    • ALCOHOLINTRODUCTION________________________________Alcohol is a mobile, volatile fluid obtained by fermentation of a sugar containingliquid. Its strength (concentration) can be further increased by distillation.Alcohol, in general, is a family of organic chemical compounds. Thus, there are variouskinds of alcohols in this alcohol family. It includes Methanol (Methyl alcohol), Ethanol(Ethyl Alcohol), Propanol (Propyl alcohol), Butanol (Butyl Alcohol) and so on. All thesealcohols are obtained on replacing one Hydrogen (-H) atom by one Hydro-oxide (-OH)atom in its parent chemical compound. For example: one Hydrogen atom in Methane(CH4) is replaced by one Hydroxide atom to form Methanol (CH 3OH), one Hydrogenatom in Ethane (C2H6) is replaced by one Hydroxide atom to form Ethanol (C 2H5OH) andso on.Methyl alcohol (methanol) and Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) are the main alcohols in thisfamily. Out of these two organic chemical compounds, Ethanol (C 2H5OH) is potable andif sensibly consumed, is a beneficial alcohol. It has a faint but pleasant ethereal smelland it is the alcohol that shall be dealt with. On the other hand, Methanol is a powerfullydangerous poison if drunk. Its importance is that it is widely used in industrialprocesses.NOMENCLATURE_______________________________The name Alcohol is derived from the Arabic word al-kohl. Kohl is a black, very finestaining powder that is used cosmetically for staining the eyelids (and is particularlyused by ladies). Later, the name was applied to highly refined chemical powders andessences and then to spirits produced by distillation and rectification and now to anyalcohol (alcoholic beverage) in general.ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE_________________________An alcoholic beverage is any potable (meaning drinkable) liquid containing ethanol orethyl alcohol. In USA, Federal Government during the Prohibition time defined that it 1
    • may have as little as 0.5% to 95% alcohol by volume. However, social and economicfactors, so also the taxation laws determine what are alcoholic beverages. For example:Certain bitters and medicinal compounds contain as much as 40% alcohol; even thenthey are not considered as alcoholic beverages and are not taxed.HOW IS POTABLE ALCOHOL (ALCOHOLICBEVERAGE) OBTAINED?_________________________All alcohols or alcoholic beverages are obtained by a process called fermentation. It isconcentrated or increased in strength by a process called Distillation. Both theseprocesses are discussed below:FERMENTATIONFrench biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) explained scientifically the principle offermentation, which is basic to the making of all alcoholic beverages. When yeast isadded to any sugar containing liquid, it reacts with sugar of the liquid to formalcohol and carbon dioxide. This fundamental process is called fermentation. Ifthis liquid is not protected from air, it is later converted to vinegar.Thus, fermentation is the breaking down of organic substances (sugars particularlymaltose) by enzymes secreted by yeast cells into mainly ethyl alcohol and carbondioxide gas. This is an exothermic reaction i.e. heat is liberated during this reaction. Fermentable Sugars + Yeast Enzymes → Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide Gas↑ + HeatScientifically describing, the enzymes secreted by yeast cells react with one molecule ofsugar (maltose) to produce two molecules of Ethanol and two molecules of CarbonDioxide Gas. Heat is generated during this reaction. C6H12O6 + Yeast Enzmyes → 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2↑+ Heat EnergyCarbon dioxide gas is usually but not always allowed to escape. Here, the alcohol(ethanol)-a liquid remains behind in the original liquid, which is then called afermented alcoholic beverage. These fermented alcoholic beverages are preferablyrested, aged, matured and blended before being bottled for sale. Fermented alcoholic 2
    • beverages have an alcoholic strength of generally 4% to 14% by volume. For example:Wines, Mead, Pulque, Cider, Perry, Beers etc.A point, which is very important, is that alcohol is obtained from ingredients containingsugar. For example: grape juice, apple juice, pear juice etc. But, it can also be obtainedfrom ingredients such as grain, cereals and potatoes, which have no sugar but have thepotential to form sugar i.e. these cereals have a lot of starch present in them. Once thestarch is converted into fermentable sugars, mainly maltose, yeast is introduced andfermentation begins.Another point that requires mention is that certain fermented alcoholic beverages likeBeer, Sake etc are brewed before they are fermented. i.e. the mixture of grist (mashedcereals) and hot water is brewed to extract flavour, taste and aroma before beingfermented. NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Table, sparkling, fortified and other wines - Grapes Cider - Apples Perry - Pears Mead - Honey Pulque - Blue Agave or Maguey NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME BREWED AND FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Lagers, Ales and other beers - Grains Sake - RiceDISTILLATIONThe process of separating one or more liquids by heating a mixture of liquids iscalled distillation. It involves the sub-processes of evaporation and condensation.The principle of distillation is that ethyl alcohol vaporizes at a lower temperature (78.5° C) than water, which vaporizes at 100 °C. So, when any fermented liquid is heated in an 3
    • enclosed vessel called a still to a temperature of 78.5 °C, water remains in the still andalcohol vaporizes which is channeled off and later condensed to obtain a concentratedalcoholic liquid again. This concentrated alcoholic liquid obtained after distillation iscalled a spirit-a kind of distilled alcoholic beverage. This distilled alcoholic beverage(spirit) depending upon the method of distillation (whether pot still or patent still) maybe rested, matured, blended, and reduced in strength by adding de-ionized water andprobably given colour enhancement before being bottled for sale. For example: Gin,Vodka, Whisky etc. These fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages generally havean alcoholic strength ranging from 37.5% to 57.5% by volume. But, some distilledalcoholic beverages have an alcoholic strength as high as 75% by volume.Important points that are notable in this process are as follows:(i) The still is the apparataus, which allows the seperation of water and alcohol from afermented liquid to be carried out (thus, a fermented liquid is a must for distillation).Also, the quality of the final product depends a lot on the shape and size of this still.(ii) Water is constantly vaporizing to some extent so every distillation will contain water.(iii) The final product obtained after distillation also consists of Congeners. Congenersare minor amounts of aldehydes, ethers, esters, volatile acids, organic compounds andalso fusel oils (higher alcohols like propanol, butanol etc) which give the product itsdistinctive, individual character of taste, flavour and aroma. They come along with thevaporizing process or by the extraction from the residue. These are further enhanced asthe spirit ages in wood. For example: Aldehydes are produced from a combination ofalcohols and air, and are particularly important for the character of a spirit. Esters resultfrom a combination of acids and alcohol and form a volatile substance that contributesto the aroma of a spirit.There are two main methods of distillation by which distilled alcoholic beverages (spirits)may be obtained:(i) POT STILL: It originated in the middle ages and is associated with separate, slow andlow-temperature distillations. As a result, the end product contains a good proportion ofcongeners and spirits obtained by this method have to be matured for atleast two years bylaw. But, usually it is matured longer than that. The entire heavy, highly flavoursome spiritsare distilled by this method. For example: brandy, malt whisky, dark rums, tequila and fineCalvados etc.The pot still is shaped like a giant onion and consists of two parts: a still and a wormcondenser. The still is made of copper because it is a good conductor of heat and alsoresists the effects of acids, which are normally capable of dissolving metal. The copper wormcondenser is connected to the still by a copper pipe. The worm passes through a jacket offlowing cold water, which speeds up the condensation of the alcohol-rich vapours. The potstill is time consuming and costly to operate. It needs to be cooled, cleaned and refilled aftereach distillation, but it produces spirits of remarkable individuality, quality and flavour. 4
    • POT STILLWorking: The fermented liquid is placed in the still and slowly heated over a naked flame.When the temperature reaches 78.5°C the alcoholic vapours rise and pass through the wormto a condenser. Here the vapours are condensed back into a liquid containing about 30%alcohol. This is re-distilled. The first part of the distillate to emerge is known as the heads(foreshots) and contains a high proportion of methanol. This is put to one side. The centralportion (heart) of the distillation - the best part -- has an alcoholic strength of about 80% andis channeled into the spirit receiver and ultimately into maturing casks. The final part ofthe distillation, known as tails (feints or after-shots), is weak in alcohol and contains thenauseating fusel oils and other impurities. The heads and tails are sent back to be re-distilled and refined. The new spirit (distilled alcoholic beverage) may be reduced instrength by the addition of deionised water, which does not react with the chemicalelements of the spirit. It is then well matured before bottling and sending it for sale.(ii) PATENT STILL: The patent still or Coffey still is named after its inventor AeneasCoffey-a Dublin excise officer. It works on the principle of distillation by steam andproduces a continuous flow of high strength alcohol. It uses rectification to make theend product as pure and congener-free as possible. As a result, no maturing period isrequired by law and the resultant product may be sold immediately it has beenproduced. It is cheaper than the pot still to operate as it is lighter on fuel and does notrequire the labour-intensive tasks of emptying, cleaning and refilling. The patent still isassociated with all the light spirits such as vodka, gin, white and light rums, grainwhiskies etc. 5
    • PATENT STILLWorking: The patent still consists of two columns about 18 m high. The analyzerseparate the constituent liquid parts while the rectifier condenses the alcoholic vapours,raises the strength of and purifies the spirit. Each column is sub-divided horizontally intochambers by perforated copper plates, which have a drip pipe leading to the chamberunderneath. Both columns are preheated by steam and the fermented liquid (also calledwash) enters at the top of the rectifier through a pipe and gradually descends.By the time, the wash reaches the bottom of the rectifier through the pipe; it is almost atboiling point. It is then pumped into the analyser where it gradually makes its way 6
    • downwards through perforated plates and bubble caps. As it descends, it is met by acurrent of raw steam, which has been injected under pressure into the bottom of theanalyser. On contact, the steam boils the wash and produces alcoholic vapours that riseand are channelled by a pipe into the bottom of the rectifier. The spent wash is removedfrom the bottom of the analyser.Meanwhile inside the rectifier, the alcoholic vapours pass through a series of perforatedplates. As they rise they meet the cold wash being carried down the rectifier by thewash coil. Partial condensation takes place - the vapours getting cooler and the wash,on its way to the analyser, getting hotter. When the spirit vapours reach two-thirds ofthe way up in the rectifier, they hit a cold spiral plate or water frame and precipitate.The first liquid to emerge - the heads or foreshots - is removed and sent back to theanalyser because it is pungent and needs further refining. The comparative pure spiritthat follows is guided into a spirit receiver. The new spirit is then reduced in alcoholicstrength by deionised water and matured for a short time before being treatedaccording to style.NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES (SPIRITS) Cognac, Armagnac & other brandies - Grapes or Wine Whisky - Grains or Beer Vodka, Kornbranntwein - Grains/Potatoes Light, golden & dark Rums - Molasses (Sugarcane) Arrack - Dates, Palm Sap Mezcal, Tequila - Blue Agave or Pulque Gin - Grains Aquavit - Grains, PotatoesNAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES FROM FRUITS OTHER THAN GRAPES (EAU DE VIE DES FRUITS) Calvados - Apples Slivovitz, Mirabelle, Quetsch - Plums Kirsch - Cherries Eau de Vie de Poire - Pears Eau de Vie de Fraise - Strawberries Eau de Vie de Framboise - Raspberries 7
    • CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES (STYLES) OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES_______________________The main purpose of classification of Alcoholic Beverages are two: (i) to provide thebase for accessing and collecting taxes by the government and (ii) to protect theconsumer by making them understand the differences between the products.The chart showing the classification and different styles of alcoholic beverages is givenhereby:It shows that ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are basically classified into FERMENTEDALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES and DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES dependingupon whether they are fermented or distilled.These FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are classified into WINES, MEAD,PULQUE, CIDER, PERRY, BEER, SAKE etc on the basis of base ingredients used.WINES are further categoried into TABLE, SPARKLING, FORTIFIED, AROMATISED,TONIC, VIN DOUX NATURELA, ORGANIC etc. on the basis of theirnature/characteristics. All these WINE TYPES can also be classified (i) on the basis oftheir colour into RED, PINK (ROSE) AND WHITE, (ii) on the basis of their body intoHEAVY BODIED, MEDIUM BODIED OR LIGHT BODIED (especially red wines) (iii) onthe basis of their degree of sweetness into DRY, MEDIUM DRY, MEDIUM SWEET,SWEET etc (especially white wines). (iv) on the basis of alcohol content into LOWALCOHOL WINES (max 1.2% by volume), DE-ALCOHOLISED WINES (max 0.5% byvolume) and ALCOHOL FREE OR NO ALCOHOL WINES (max 0.05% by volume).BEER is classified on the basis of type of fermentation (bottom or top) into mainlyLAGERS and ALES. However, there are other types like PORTER, PILSNER, STOUT,GUINNESS, BOCK, STEAM etc.The DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are classified into SPIRITS, LIQUEURS,BITTERS etc on the basis of their nature and characteristics. SPIRITS are furthercategorised into WHISKY, GIN, RUM, VODKA, TEQUILA, BRANDY, CALVADOS, EAUDE VIE DES FRUITS AND OTHERS depending upon the base ingredient used.Further, famous WHISKIES are of four main types depending upon the country of origin,base ingredient, method of manufacture etc: SCOTCH, IRISH, AMERICAN ANDCANADIAN. GIN styles include FRUIT GINS, PLYMOUTH GIN, LONDON DRY GIN,HOLLANDS GIN, MALT WINE etc. RUM styles are LIGHT RUM, GOLDEN RUM ANDDARK RUM. TEQUILA styles include WHITE and GOLDEN (ANEJO). BRANDY typesinclude COGNAC, ARMAGNAC AND OTHERS. EAU DE VIE DES FRUITS includeEAU DE VIE DE POIRE, FRAISE, FRAMBOISE etc. LIQUEURS are further classifiedinto GENERIC LIQUEURS and BRANDED LIQUEURS. 8
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    • ALCOHOLIC STRENGTH_________________________The concentration of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage is called its alcoholic strength.Alcoholic strength of any alcoholic beverage is required to be measured so that thegovernments can tax them properly and consumers might come to know about it,forcing them to drink sensibly. Various methods are followed all over the world todetermine the alcoholic strength of an alcoholic beverage. Traditional or Primitivemethods were followed before the scientific methods were evolved. Both these kinds ofvarious methods are listed here:PRIMITIVE METHODS: It includes two methods:(a) Gunpowder: To test alcoholic strength initially distillers mixed equal quantities ofspirit and gunpowder and applied a flame to it. If the mixture failed to ignite, the spiritwas too weak; if it exploded or burned too brightly, it was too strong, but if it burnedevenly with a mild blue flame, it was proved suitable and safe to drink (potable).Hence, the word “proof”.(b) Clarke’s Float: In the seventeenth century, Clarke invented a weighted float. Whenthis float was dropped into a spirit, the depth to which it sank revealed the density of theliquor and the alcoholic strength could be calculated from this. It was then able tocalibrate a particular strength as proof and any with a greater or lesser concentration ofalcohol was overproof’ or underproof’ respectively.MODERN SCIENTIFIC METHODS: It includes four methods:(a) Sykes Hydrometer: In 1816, Sykes introduced Sykes Hydrometer. Sykesdetermined that 100° was proof and that pure alcohol was 175° (75° overproof). On thisscale, the figure for pure alcohol is I 3/4 times the figure accorded to proof spirit. In otherwords, 100° proof equals 57.1% alcohol and 42.9% water. The system also calledBritish system became traditional throughout the United Kingdom where spirits weresold at a potable strength of 70° proof (30° underproof). So to convert the British proofinto percent by volume of alcohol, simply multiply the proof by four and divide by seven. 70 X 4 = 40% 7(b) Gay-Lussac System: Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) invented this system, which wasadopted throughout mainland Europe. In Gay-Lussac or GL system 0° is the absence of 11
    • alcohol and 100° pure alcohol. Here, the alcoholic strength is measured at 15°C. Thus,degree equals percentage.© American System: The Americans introduced their own system that was reasonablylogical. They decided that proof spirit was an exact balance of alcohol and water andthat pure alcohol is 200° Proof. Each degree of proof equals one-half percent of alcohol.So, a spirit marketed at 90° proof would contain 45% of alcohol by volume.(d) OIML Scale: The Organisation Internationale de Metrologie Legale (OIML)expresses alcoholic strength as a percentage by volume of alcohol (0% - 100%). It isvery similar to the Gay-Lussac system except that OIML measures strength at 20°C.Thus, Gay-Lussac system gives a slightly higher reading. The difference is almostnegligible except when deciding excise duty on very large quantities of drink. Thissystem is followed now a days in the continent of Europe.APPROXIMATE ALCOHOLIC STRENGTHS__________TYPE ALCOHOL BY VOLUMEAlcohol free - maximum 0.05%De-alcoholised - maximum 0.5%Low alcohol - maximum 1.2%Cider - 4 – 6% but ‘specials’ upto 8%Beer - Light: 3 – 6%, Strong: 8 – 10%Table Wines - 8 – 15%, usually 10 – 13%Sparkling Wines - 10 – 13%Fortified Wines - 16 – 22%Aromatised Wines - 14 – 20%Vin doux Naturel - 15 – 18%Spirits - usually 37.5 – 45%, some upto 57.5%Liqueurs - 17 – 55%BENEFITS OF ALCOHOL_________________________Some of the benefits of alcohol are as follows:(i) Alcohol is not a direct cause of any disease nor will it cure any disease. But, it isused medicinally for treatment of certain physical conditions. It is world’s second oldestdisinfectant.(ii) Alcohol is good when drunk in moderation. It is a source of nutrition and energy as itcreates heat. 12
    • (iii) As a food it is an appetizer, an accompaniment, an enhancer of flavours and taste,aids digestion and sometimes used as correctifs as well.(iv) It accentuates sensory perception, sharpens memory and gives some protection tothe heart and blood vessels by raising the level of good cholesterol.(v) It depresses centres of anxiety, relieving tension and stress. Sometimes, itexhilarates the spirit.ABUSES OF ALCOHOL__________________________Alcohol must be treated very seriously and with respect. It is only a problem to thosewho abuse it. Long time heavy drinking may lead to:(i) serious illness including liver cirrhosis, hastening of age and deterioration of nervoussystem.(ii) situations where it becomes an impediment in person’s speed and quality ofperformance,(iii) the person becoming a danger to themselves and others; especially when driving oroperating machines.(iv) personality changes in extreme cases. They become extremely unpleasant andunreliable.(v) a person becoming unfit for work and a cause for embarrassment and burden totheir families and friends.SAFE & SENSIBLE DRINKING_____________________Ingested alcohol is readily and rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. The liver burnsup almost all this alcohol. Whatever is remaining behind is discharged via urine orperspiration. The liver burns up only one unit of alcohol per hour and as it being a livingorgan cannot cope up with too much alcohol. To avoid any damage to health, thealcoholic intake should be limited to 21 units a week for men and 14 units a week forwomen. Care should be taken that this consumption should be spread throughout theweek. Usually,1 unit = 0.5 pint (28 cl) of ordinary beer or lager 1 glass (12.5cl) of wine 1 measure (2.5cl) of spirit 1 glass (5cl) of sherry 1 measure (5cl) of vermoth or other aperitif 13
    • The limit for drivers is generally 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood. The number ofunits required to reach this level varies between individuals but it can be as little as 3units. After consumption, alcohol remains in the bloodstream for up to 18 hours._____________________________________________________________________THINK IT OVER_________________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Pulque (b) Mead (c) Distillation (d) Alcohol [Nov- 05 / Nov-04]2. Explain any four methods of calculating the strength of alcoholic beverages. [Nov- 05 / April-05 / April-04]3. Differentiate between Pot Still Distillation and Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-05 / April-05]4. List the raw material required for the manufacturing of the following: (a) Gin (b) Vodka (c) Canadian Whisky (d) Tequila (e) Perry (f) Arrak [Nov-05]5. Drawing a chart, classify alcoholic beverages. [April-05 / Nov-04]6. Explain in one sentence: (a) Cider (b) Pastis [April-05]7. Draw and describe Pot Still Distillation. [April-05]8. With the help of a diagram, explain the working of Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-04 / April-04]9. Define “Proof”. Also explain: (a) British Proof (b) U.S. Proof [Nov-04]10. Drawing the classification chart of alcoholic beverages. Also classify the following there-in: Underberg, Riesling, Caracao, Kirsch, London Dry Gin, Weissbier, Drambuie, Malaga, Spumante, Trappiste, Calvados, Rye, Sekt, Perry, Gypsy, Kir, Barolo, Anjou [April-04]11. Write a short-note on “Fermentation”. [April-04]12. 80° USA Proof is equivalent to _______________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04]13. 100° BP is equivalent to ________________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] ***************** ************** ********** ****** 14
    • The limit for drivers is generally 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood. The number ofunits required to reach this level varies between individuals but it can be as little as 3units. After consumption, alcohol remains in the bloodstream for up to 18 hours._____________________________________________________________________THINK IT OVER_________________________________1. Explain the following terms: (a) Pulque (b) Mead (c) Distillation (d) Alcohol [Nov- 05 / Nov-04]2. Explain any four methods of calculating the strength of alcoholic beverages. [Nov- 05 / April-05 / April-04]3. Differentiate between Pot Still Distillation and Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-05 / April-05]4. List the raw material required for the manufacturing of the following: (a) Gin (b) Vodka (c) Canadian Whisky (d) Tequila (e) Perry (f) Arrak [Nov-05]5. Drawing a chart, classify alcoholic beverages. [April-05 / Nov-04]6. Explain in one sentence: (a) Cider (b) Pastis [April-05]7. Draw and describe Pot Still Distillation. [April-05]8. With the help of a diagram, explain the working of Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-04 / April-04]9. Define “Proof”. Also explain: (a) British Proof (b) U.S. Proof [Nov-04]10. Drawing the classification chart of alcoholic beverages. Also classify the following there-in: Underberg, Riesling, Caracao, Kirsch, London Dry Gin, Weissbier, Drambuie, Malaga, Spumante, Trappiste, Calvados, Rye, Sekt, Perry, Gypsy, Kir, Barolo, Anjou [April-04]11. Write a short-note on “Fermentation”. [April-04]12. 80° USA Proof is equivalent to _______________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04]13. 100° BP is equivalent to ________________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] ***************** ************** ********** ****** 14