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Hervé Panetto. A framework for analysing product information traceability

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Presentation from the 1st Workshop on Future Internet Enterprise Systems - FINES 2010: Ontologies and Interoperability, made at 10.11.2010 in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for …

Presentation from the 1st Workshop on Future Internet Enterprise Systems - FINES 2010: Ontologies and Interoperability, made at 10.11.2010 in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

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  • 1. A framework for analysing product information traceability Dr. Hervé Panetto Full Professor of Enterprise Information Systems Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy (CRAN - UMR 7039), Nancy-University, CNRS, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France Herve.Panetto@cran.uhp-nancy.fr http://www.panetto.fr Chair of the IFAC TC 5.3 « Enterprise Integration and Networking » http://www.ifac-tc53.org School of Engineering in Information Technology
  • 2. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Where Am I from?
  • 3. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Nancy-University Nancy-University (40 000 students) Federation of three universities in Nancy University Henri Poincaré Nancy I (Sciences & Technology) University Nancy II (Economics, Law, Arts, Literature, Foreign Languages) Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (Engineering) In 2012: University of Lorraine (60 000 students)
  • 4. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Université Henri Poincaré Nancy I Since 1572 Science and Technology 17 000 students 45 research laboratories: many associated to the CNRS (French National Research Centre) 1000 researchers, 800 PhD students 5 faculties
  • 5. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Research Centre for Automatic Control JRU associate to Nancy-University and CNRS 5 Scientific Research Groups  Automatic Control : Systems Control and observation (ACOS)  Systems Identification and Signal Processing (IRIS)  Ambient Manufacturing Systems (SYMPA)  Dependability and System Diagnosis (SURFDIAG)  Health Engineering (IPS) 200 persons (1st Jan. 2010) 30 Professors 42 Associate Professors 7 Researchers CAV 23 Engineers and TechAdminist 85 PhD students 13 Post-doct http://www.cran.uhp-nancy.fr
  • 6. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Ambiant Manufacturing Systems 3 Research projects Interoperating systems Product-Driven systems Networked-Driven systems 50 persons (1st Jan. 2010)
  • 7. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Agenda The context: Enterprise Applications Product-Driven Paradigm Traceability uses and needs IEC 62264 standards The Zachman Framework … for Product information traceability Conclusions
  • 8. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The enterprise applications « constellation » CRMAPS SCE MES ERP Main Prod StockSales Trans Conf EMA SAV GCO CTI SFA BI SCM SFC
  • 9. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The Product « views » HR Human Resources ERP Logistics SCM Supply Chain Management MES Manufacturing Execution Systems CRM Customer Relationship Management ERP Financials PLM Product Lifecycle Management The product
  • 10. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Product-Driven Paradigm ERP APS CRMERP APS CRM Business world MESMES SCESCE MESMES SCESCE Product Manufacturing world PLM Model-Driven Product/Process Engineering Manufacturing Execution Product Lifecycle Management
  • 11. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Product Lifecycle Management Customer behaviour Global markets Global competition Product complexity Product Design Process Design Plant Design PP&C After Sales Logistics …… (Globally Scaled) Product and Production Lifecycle Integration between processes/tools/enviroments Product Lifecycle Management
  • 12. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Traceability Traceability is a PLM question: Organizational perspective (allocation of tracing task) Information perspective (coding and decoding) Infrastructure perspective (systems for traceability) Traceability in literature: Traceability for Quality procedures (ISO 9000 – Chen and Simmons 1994) Traceability is the abilitity to trace in a forward and backward direction (Jansen-Vullers et al. 2003) Traceability deals with mantaining records (Karkkainen et al. 2003)
  • 13. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Traceability  Industrial sectors:  Traceability in Food industry (e.g. Moe 1998)  Traceability in Construction (e.g. Finch 1996)  Traceability in Software Development (e.g. Gothel 1994)  Industrial Applications:  Traceability in SCM (e.g. Karkkainen et al. 2003)  Traceability in After Sales (e.g. Sohal 1997)  Traceability in Plant Management (e.g. Garner et al. 2003)  Tracing systems:  Traceability with bar code (EAN/JAN consortium, 2D)  Traceability with RFID (e.g. AutoID)  Traceability with MEMS (e.g. RAND)
  • 14. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Traceability limits  “Product” Traceability deals with coding and identification, for mantaining records  Then, information records are stored into (one or more) database, accessed using product code or directly into tags such as RFID  A merging activity between product and information is needed for tracing (e.g. AutoID, Dialog efforts)  This activity is not risk-free (Karkkainen et al. 2003):  Accessibility unavailable  Timing and costing of accessibility Info Product Info ProductP
  • 15. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Needs Standards For structuring the information related to a product, independently to the applications For bringing semantics to that information Frameworks For helping modellers to think about traceability at the initial stage of the system design
  • 16. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) IEC 62264 Standard (IEC 62264, 2002) Based on the ISA95 « Enterprise-control systems integration » ISO and IEC Defines the interface between Business and Manufacturing worlds in terms of information exchange and semantics
  • 17. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Business To Manufacturing Integration - What does it mean? Coordinating the functions and goals of the business with the functions and goals of the business’s manufacturing operations In simple terms  make sure that manufacturing is building the right products, at the right time, using the right materials to meet the business’s needs,  and make sure that the business has correct information on production and actual material, personnel, and equipment use Business Logistics Manufacturing Operations
  • 18. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Because … In many cases business needs are not effectively made known to manufacturing operations In many cases actual production is not effectively made known to business operations Delays and errors are common, often expected, and very expensive
  • 19. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Functional hierarchy as defined in IEC 62264 Business Planning & Logistics Information Plant Production Scheduling, Operational Management, etc Manufacturing Operations & Control Information Area Supervision, Production Planning, Reliability, Assurance, etc Product Definition Information (How to make a product) Production Capability Information (What is available for use) Production Schedule (What to make and use) Production Performance (What was made and used)
  • 20. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The IEC 62264 models hierarchy Production Capability Capability Property Resource Capability Production Capability What resources are available Production Performance Production Response Segment Response Actual Property Resource Actual Production Information What was made & used Production Request Segment Requirement Requirement Property Resource Requirement Production Scheduling What is it to be made & used Production Schedule Production Rule Product Segment Specification Property Resource Specification Product Definition What must be defined to make a product Process Segment Segment Property Resource Segment Capability Process Specification What can be done with the resources
  • 21. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) IEC 62264 Models Material Model Equipment Model Personel Model Product Definition Model Process Segment Model Production Schedule Model Production Capability Model Production Performance Model
  • 22. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The conceptualised IEC 62264 Material model MaterialClass +Description MaterialDefinition +Description:string QAMaterialTestSpecification +Description +Name +Version MaterialLot +Description +Status MaterialSubLot +Description +Status MaterialClassProperty +Description +Value MaterialDefinitionProperty +Description +Value:string MaterialLotProperty +Description +Value * 1..* Is tested By * 1..* Is tested by * Defines a procedure for obtaining a * *1 Defined by * 1 Made up of * 1 Has properties of * 1 Has properties of * 1 Has values for * * Defines a grouping Location +Description * Location 0..1 MaterialCapability +CapabilityType +Description +EndTime +MaterialUse +Quantity +Reason +StartTime * 1 MaterialInformation +Description +PublishedDate 0..1 Location * * MaterialDefinition * MaterialClass *MaterialLot * * QAMaterialTestSpecification *MaterialSubLot * 0..1 * Location
  • 23. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The Material Model Lot HCL-50-100019 pH 7.0 Density 1.32 Color Yellow Purity .5% M aterial Definition Material Definition HCl 50% Color PuritypH Material Class Acid M aterial Class Density Sublot HCL-50-100019 Barrel 15 LocationQA Test Specification QA Test Results Common material information
  • 24. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Needs Standards For structuring the information part of a product, independently to the applications For bringing semantics to that information Frameworks For helping modellers to think about traceability at the initial stage of the system design
  • 25. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The Zachman framework John Zachman proposed the framework for Enterprise Architecture (Zachman, 1987) and extended it in 1992 (Sowa and Zachman, 1992) He organized a lifecycle around the points of view taken by the various players in a system engineering project
  • 26. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Players’ points of view Planner  The one who has undertaken to do business in a particular industry and runs the organization Owner  the systems analyst who wants to represent the business in a disciplined form Designer  the designer, who applies specific technologies to solve the problems of the business Builder  the builder of the system who specifies how it executes Sub-contractor  The developer of the system
  • 27. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The categories of models Data (What) Function (How) Network (Where) People (Who) Time (When) Motivation (Why)
  • 28. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The Zachman framework matrix Based on work by John A. Zachman VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE (What is important for the enterprise) Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (What is available) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (How to build products) Designer TECHNOLOGY MODEL (How to implement) Builder DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS Sub-Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE SCOPE (What is important for the enterprise) Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (What is available) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (How to build products) Designer TECHNOLOGY MODEL (How to implement) Builder DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS Sub-Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Things Important to the Business Entity = Class of Business Thing Processes Performed Function = Class of Business Process Semantic Model Ent = Business Entity Rel = Business Relationship Business Process Model Proc = Business Process I/O = Business Resources Business Logistics System Node = Business Location Link = Business Linkage Work Flow Model People = Organization Unit Work = Work Product Master Schedule Time = Business Event Cycle = Business Cycle Business Plan End = Business Objective Means = Business Strategy Important Organizations People = Major Organizations Business locations Node = Major Business Locations Events Significant to the Business Time = Major Business Event Business Goals and Strategy Ends/Means = Major Business Goals Logical Data Model Ent = Data Entity Rel = Data Relationship Application Architecture Proc = Application Function I/O = User Views Distributed System Architecture Node = IS Function Link = Line Characteristics Human Interface Architecture People = Role Work = Deliverable Processing Structure Time = System Event Cycle = Processing Cycle Business Rule Model End = Structural Assertion Means = Action Assertion Physical Data Model Ent = Segment/Table Rel = Pointer/Key System Design Proc = Computer Function I/O = Data Elements/Sets Technology Architecture Node = Hardware/Software Link = Line Specifications Presentation Architecture People = User Work = Screen Format Control Structure Time = Execute Cycle = Component Cycle Rule Design End = Condition Means = Action Data Definition Ent = Field Rel = Address Program Proc = Language Statement I/O = Control Block Network Architecture Node = Addresses Link = Protocols Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub -Condition Means = Step Data Ent = Rel = Function Proc = I/O = Network Node = Link = Organization People = Work = Schedule Time = Cycle = Strategy End = Means = Processing Structure Time = System Event Cycle = Processing Cycle Business Rule Model End = Structural Assertion Means = Action Assertion Physical Data Model Ent = Segment/Table Rel = Pointer/Key System Design Proc = Computer Function I/O = Data Elements/Sets Technology Architecture Node = Hardware/Software Link = Line Specifications Presentation Architecture People = User Work = Screen Format Control Structure Time = Execute Cycle = Component Cycle Rule Design End = Condition Means = Action Data Definition Ent = Field Rel = Address Program Proc = Language Statement I/O = Control Block Network Architecture Node = Addresses Link = Protocols Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub -Condition Means = Step Data Ent = Rel = Function Proc = I/O = Network Node = Link = Organization People = Work = Schedule Time = Cycle = Strategy End = Means = Based on work by John A. Zachman VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When Based on work by John A. Zachman VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why - - Things Important to the Business Entity = Class of Business Thing Processes Performed Function = Class of Business Process Semantic Model Ent = Business Entity Rel = Business Relationship Business Process Model Proc = Business Process I/O = Business Resources Business Logistics System Node = Business Location Link = Business Linkage Work Flow Model People = Organization Unit Work = Work Product Master Schedule Time = Business Event Cycle = Business Cycle Business Plan End = Business Objective Means = Business Strategy Important Organizations People = Major Organizations Business locations Node = Major Business Locations Events Significant to the Business Time = Major Business Event Business Goals and Strategy Ends/Means = Major Business Goals Logical Data Model Ent = Data Entity Rel = Data Relationship Application Architecture Proc = Application Function I/O = User Views Distributed System Architecture Node = IS Function Link = Line Characteristics Human Interface Architecture People = Role Work = Deliverable Processing Structure Time = System Event Cycle = Processing Cycle Business Rule Model End = Structural Assertion Means = Action Assertion Physical Data Model Ent = Segment/Table Rel = Pointer/Key System Design Proc = Computer Function I/O = Data Elements/Sets Technology Architecture Node = Hardware/Software Link = Line Specifications Presentation Architecture People = User Work = Screen Format Control Structure Time = Execute Cycle = Component Cycle Rule Design End = Condition Means = Action Data Definition Ent = Field Rel = Address Program Proc = Language Statement I/O = Control Block Network Architecture Node = Addresses Link = Protocols Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub -Condition Means = Step Data Ent = Rel = Function Proc = I/O = Network Node = Link = Organization People = Work = Schedule Time = Cycle = Strategy End = Means = People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub -Condition Means = Step Data Ent = Rel = Function Proc = I/O = Network Node = Link = Organization People = Work = Schedule Time = Cycle = Strategy End = Means =
  • 29. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Recursivity of the framework At a first stage, the framework defines abstraction levels of the engineering process Scope Enterprise model MDA CIM Level System model MDA PIM Level Technology model MDA PSM Level Detailed implementation
  • 30. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) IEC 62264 standards on the Zachman abstraction view Based on work by John A. Zachman VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE (CONTEXTUAL) ENTERPRISE MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) SYSTEM MODEL (LOGICAL) TECHNOLOGY MODEL (PHYSICAL) DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE SCOPE (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (LOGICAL) Designer TECHNOLOGY MODEL (PHYSICAL) Builder DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS (OUT -OF -CONTEXT) Sub -Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Master Schedule Time = Business Event Cycle = Business Cycle Business Plan End = Business Objective Means = Business Strategy Events Significant to the Business Time = Major Business Event Business Goals and Strategy Ends /Means = Major Business Goals Business Rule Model End = Structural Assertion Means = Action Assertion Rule Design End = Condition Means = Action Data Definition Ent = Field Rel = Address Program Proc = Lang.Statement I/O = Control Block Network Architecture Node = Addresses Link = Protocols Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub-Condition Means = Step Data Ent = Rel = Function Proc = I/O = Network Node = Link = Organization People = Work = Schedule Time = Cycle = Strategy End = Means = IEC 62264 Standards Holonic Process Models B2MML XML Schemas Goods & Services Processes Sites Actors
  • 31. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) IEC 62264 models mapped onto the players view Based on work by John A. Zachman VA Enterprise Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE (What is important for the enterprise) Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (What is available) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (How to build products) Designer TECHNOLOGY MODEL (How to implement) Builder DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS Sub-Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE SCOPE (What is important for the enterprise) Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (What is available) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (How to build products) Designer TECHNOLOGY MODEL (How to implement) Builder DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS Sub-Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Business Plan End = Business Objective Means = Business Strategy Business Goals and Strategy Ends/Means = Major Business Goals Business Rule Model End = Structural Assertion Means = Action Assertion Physical Data Model Ent = Segment/Table Rel = Pointer/Key System Design Proc = Computer Function I/O = Data Elements/Sets Technology Architecture Node = Hardware/Software Link = Line Specifications Presentation Architecture People = User Work = Screen Format Control Structure Time = Execute Cycle = Component Cycle Rule Design End = Condition Means = Action Data Definition Ent = Field Rel = Address Program Proc = Language Statement I/O = Control Block Network Architecture Node = Addresses Link = Protocols Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job Timing Definition Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle Rule Design End = Sub -Condition Means = Step Schedule Strategy IEC 62264 Material Model IEC 62264 Personnel Model IEC 62264 Product Definition Model IEC 62264 Equipment Model IEC 62264 Production Schedule Model IEC 62264 Production Capability Model IEC 62264 Process Segment Model IEC 62264 Production Performance Model
  • 32. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Abstraction view Players view The Zachman framework: filter for views definition of products information traceability models
  • 33. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) The IEC 62264 modelling framework workflow Produc ts
  • 34. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) System Engineering for Product Traceability Enterprise Planning Manufacturing Execution Process Control Engineering Applications Incopla n Factory Suite Product Data Management FlexNet Product Traceability Product Service-oriented Interoperability Product information-oriented Interoperability Models-oriented Interoperability Exploitation/Application Engineering
  • 35. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Conclusions  We define a specific perspective of the framework dealing with the players view as a guideline for better understanding the product informations for traceability  The IEC 62264 deals with products information at both Business and Manufacturing levels, thus it is a good candidate set of models for product traceability  However, the models are complex because they are generic to any kind of application domains.  The framework helps at defining product lifecycle information models for traceability  The result of this modelling approach is the emergence of all information objects that deal with product information along its life cycle
  • 36. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Thank you! Any Questions? Herve.Panetto@cran.uhp-nancy.fr
  • 37. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) References  Panetto H., Baïna, S., Morel G. (2006). Mapping the IEC 62264 models onto the Zachman framework for analysing products information traceability: a case study. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Springer Verlag, ISSN 0956-5515, to appear in 2007  Baïna S., Panetto H., and Morel G. (2005), Holon-oriented B2M process modelling approach for applications interoperability in manufacturing systems environment, Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress, July 4-7, Prague, Czech Republic, ISBN: 0-08-045108-X  Bézivin J. (2004). In search of a Basic Principle for Model Driven Engineering, Novatica/Upgrade, Vol. V, N°2, April, pp. 21-24, http://www.upgrade- cepis.org/issues/2004/2/upgrade-vol-V-2.html  Cheng M.L. and Simmons J. E. L. (1994). Traceability in manufacturing systems. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 14, 4-16  C4ISR Architecture Framework Version 2.0 (1997). Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Washington D.C., November  delaHostria E. (2005). Manufacturing Application Integration Scheme using ISO 15745 and IEC 62264. Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress, July 4-7, Prague, Czech Republic, ISBN: 0-08-045108-X  IEC 62264 (2002). IEC 62264. Enterprise-control system integration, Part 1. Models and terminology, Part 2: Model object attributes. ISO/IEC, Geneva  ISO IS 15704 (2000). ISO/IS 15704:2000 Industrial automation systems—Requirements for enterprise—reference architectures and methodologies, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland  ISO 15745-1, (2003) Industrial automation systems and integration – Open systems application integration framework - Part 1: Generic reference description. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland  Frankel D. S., et al. (2003). The Zachman Framework and the OMG's Model Driven Architecture. Business Process Trends Whitepaper, September, http://www.bptrends.com  Jansen-Vullers J., van Dorp A., and Beulens B. (2003). Managing traceability information in manufacture, International Journal of Information Management, 23, 395-413  McFarlane D., Sarma J., Chirn G., Wong J., Ashton A. (2003). Auto-ID systems and intelligent manufacturing control, Journal of Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 16, 365 – 376  Mellor S.J., Kendall S., Uhl A. and Weise D. (2004). Model Driven Architecture, Addison-Wesley Pub Co, March, ISBN: 0201788918.  Morel G., Panetto H., Zaremba M.B. and Mayer F. (2003). Manufacturing Enterprise Control and Management System Engineering: paradigms and open issues. IFAC Annual Reviews in Control. 27/2:199-209, December  Noran O. (2003). An analysis of the Zachman framework for enterprise architecture from the GERAM perspective. IFAC Annual Reviews in Control. 27/2:163-183, December  Osvalds G. (2003). Use of UML in Modeling Enterprise and Systems Architecture. INCOSE Chesapeake Chapter Meeting, Columbia, August  O'Rourke C., Fishman N. and Selkow W. (2003). Enterprise Architecture Using the Zachman Framework,, Thomson Learning, Inc. Boston, MA. ISBN: 0-619-06446-3. April  Sowa J. F. and Zachman J. A. (1992). Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture, IBM Systems Journal, 31/3, 590–616  Sowell P. K. (1999). Consolidated Mapping of C4ISR Framework Products to Federal Framework Models. The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia.  Terzi S. (2005). Elements of Product Lifecycle Management: Definitions, Open Issues and Reference Models, PhD dissertation, University Henri Poincaré Nancy I and Politecnico di Milano, May 25th  Terzi S., Cassina J., and Panetto H. (2005). Development of a metamodel to foster interoperability along the product lifecycle traceability. Proceedings of the IFIP/ACM INTEROP-ESA conference, February 23-25, Geneva, Switzerland, Springer Science publisher, pp. 1-11, ISBN: 1-84628-151-2  UML (2005). Unified Modeling Language. UML 2.0 Superstructure, v2.0 formal 05/07/04. OMG  Zachman J. A. (1987). A Framework for Information Systems Architecture, IBM Systems Journal, 26/3, 276–295
  • 38. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Subset of the planner view Equipment Model Product D efinition Flour Bag: ProductDefinitionType PublishedDate Version Description Fill a Bag: ProductS egmentType Description Duration Parameter Hasassociated Prepare Flour: ProductS egmentType Description Duration Parameter PrepFull: ProductS egmentDependency OtherValue:string=AfterEnd Hasanexecution dependencyon Bag filler: EquipmentS pecificationType Quantity:Quantity={50, Kg} Description Equipmentspecification Mixer: EquipmentS pecificationType Description Quantity:Quantity Equipmentspecification Mixer 50:Equipment Description Equipment Bag filler:Equipment Description Equipment DATA What NETWORK Where SCOPE (What is important for the enterprise) Planner FUNCTION How
  • 39. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Subset of the owner view Equipment Model Material Model Flour:MaterialDefinition Description:string FlourBags:MaterialLot S tatus Description Definedby C omposition type: MaterialDefinitionProperty Value Description Haspropertiesof Flour type: MaterialDefinitionProperty Value Description Haspropertiesof Packing: MaterialLotProperty Description Value Hasvaluesfor Flour type: MaterialLotProperty Description Value Hasvaluesfor Palette:Location Description EquipmentElementLevel Location Mixer 50:Equipment Des cription Zone2:Location Description Level: EquipmentElementLevelType OtherValue:string=ProductionLIne EquipmentElementLevel Location Bag filler:Equipment Des cription Location HasValuefor Bag:MaterialDefinition Description:string Level: EquipmentElementLevelType OtherValue:string=S torageUnit BagC apacity:EquipmentProperty Value:Quantity={50, Kg} Description:string=Capacity of Bags to be filled TestR esult ENTERPRISE MODEL (What is available) Owner DATA What NETWORK Where
  • 40. © Hervé Panetto (CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy-University, CNRS) Subset of the designer view Material Model Equipment Model Process Segment Fill Bags: Process S egmentType Parameter Description PublishedDate Duration Bag: MaterialS egmentS pecification Type MaterialUse:string=Consumed Quantity:Quantity=1 Description Bag:MaterialDefinition Description:string MaterialDefinition Flour: MaterialS egmentS pecification Type MaterialUse:string=Consumed Quantity:Quantity={50, Kg} Description Flour:MaterialDefinition Description:string MaterialDefinition MaterialSegmentSpecification MaterialSegmentSpecification FlourBag: MaterialS egmentS pecification Type MaterialUse:string=Produced Quantity:Quantity=1 Description MaterialSegmentSpecification Bag filler: EquipmentS egmentS pecification Type Description Quantity EquipmentSegment Specification Equipment C orbeil:Location Description Level: EquipmentElementLevel Type OtherValue:string=S ite EquipmentElementLevel Location Bag filler:Equipment Description DATA What NETWORK Where FUNCTION How SYSTEM MODEL (How to build products) Designer