What kinds of_second_hand_knowledge_are_there_

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  • 1. What Kinds  of Second Hand Knowledge Are There? Mina Edwards, Cat Mckay, Michael Pollock, Misa Yamada
  • 2. Advantages/Disadvantages
      • Advantage: Increased Quantity of Knowledge
        • By sharing our experiences (through language) we can learn a lot more about the world
      • Disadvantage:  Decreased Quality of Knowledge
        • "Authority Worship"-  blindly accepting what we are told. 
  • 3. Types of Second-hand Knowledge:
      • Cultural Tradition
      • School
      • The Internet ***
      • Expert Opinion
      • The News Media
    • Also known as Knowledge by Authority or Knowledge by Testimony.....
  • 4. Culture
      • 'Normality'   
        • clothing 
        • food 
        • customs
      • Balance 
        • respecting traditional beliefs
        • being willing to change or question them 
      • 'Common Sense' is derived from cultural traditions
  • 5. School
      • Given knowledge through teachers and textbooks
      •  Strengths
        • Considered  to be very reliable
        • Broader understanding of knowledge (ability to ask questions and receive answers)
      •  Weaknesses
        • Given by an (often) unquestioned authority figure
        • Taken from second, third, forth-hand knowledge
  • 6. The Internet 
      • People rely on the internet for information
      • Strengths
        • Fast and accessible
        • Huge quantities of information
      • Weakness
        • Information can be incorrect or biased
      • Example: 
        • Wikipedia- it is an open source, so people can add           anything, but everyone can share their knowledge
  • 7. Expert Opinion
      • Rely on expert opinion 
      • Strength - valuable information can be added to subjects, such as science 
      • Weakness - experts can be incorrect and have limited competence 
      • Example:
        • History- rely on information given in textbooks
          • Strength - we can have some idea of what could have happened
          • Weakness - bias and no way of knowing the exact truth
  • 8. News Media
      • Strengths
        • Widely available from multiple sources
        • Varied range of bias can even out
      • Weaknesses
        • Often taken as fact without question
        • Rarely unbiased
        • Focused on extraordinary news, bad news in order to attract consumers