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    Eisrj vol-2-issue-1-10 Eisrj vol-2-issue-1-10 Document Transcript

    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010 The Multiple Intelligences of Grade V Pupils: Bases for the Proposed Learning Enhancement Program Of David Elementary School Divina G. NaoeAbstract This study identified the multiple intelligences of the Grade V pupils of DavidElementary School through instructional process which integrates the Multiple IntelligencesTheory that helped the learners recognize the importance of discovering and awakening theirlatent intelligences. The present situation of the Special Education Program in Pangasinan led theresearcher to conduct her study in David Elementary School, which was at that time beingprepared to be the Center for Excellence in SPED. It was a blessing for the researcher duringthe time that she was writing this study since the brainchild of the M I Theory, Dr. HowardGardner came to the country to be the plenary speaker of the 1st Philippine MultipleIntelligences Convention at the Manila Hotel held on February 11 and 12, 2005. Theresearcher took the opportunity to collect some materials that she needed like questionnaires,checklist and other important information which she got from the different speakers. Thesepieces of information contributed a lot in the designed MI module that steer the learners’intelligences. The prepared module was content-validated by selected SPED teachers/administrator in Baguio City. Gathered information from the respondents, namely: fifteen (15) parents, four (4)teachers and fifteen (15) pupils were processed and analyzed using frequency counts,percentages, weighted mean, and t-test. The pupils who attended the MI class were found to possess all the eight intelligencesin varied degrees. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, as perceived by the pupils, appeared to betheir strongest intelligence. It was also found out that among the three important subjects thatthe researcher tested namely Science, English, and Math, the pupil respondents appeared to benaturalists. Both the parent and teacher groups had almost the same perception with regard tothe children’s pupils’ intelligences. However, it was in the intrapersonal intelligence that thetwo adult groups differed significantly in their perception. Except for this area of intelligence,the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the parents’ and the teachers’perception on the different multiple intelligences of the pupils is accepted. The activities thatintegrate the MI theory were most preferred by the pupils, which gave them relatively highscores in the posttest. This result led to the rejection of the null hypothesis stating a nosignificant difference in the pupils’ pretest and posttest scores before and after theadministration of the Multiple Intelligences activities. Indeed, integrating and applying theMultiple Intelligence theory in the classroom can make learning fun, interesting, and moremeaningful in the lives of the children. IntroductionSituation Analysis Many decades ago and even up to the present time, the society including educators,generally believe that the word “intelligent” is limited to those who possess linguistic andnumerical superiority. Intelligence appears to be a gift or domain only of pupils and students 90
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010who feature prominently and are recognized in academic competitions. These are the peoplestereotyped as topnotchers in written examinations. They are the same group of people who aretraditionally accorded distinct honor for their academic excellence during graduation andcommencement exercises. These are the so-called “scholars” and culture has placed them in apedestal. Unfortunately, people who excel in the arts, in music, in sports, in leadership and inother fields of human endeavor are given only “minor awards” suggesting a standard belowthat of the intellectual aspect. Society glaringly puts a high premium on the academicallysuperior and seemingly treats non-academic prowess as purely entertainment and accidental.Apparently outstanding artists, musicians, dancers and environmentalists are not as highlyvalued as academic scholars. Lately however, a paradigm shift in educational planning has begun to take shape. Ourpolitical and educational leaders have come torealize the age-old philosophy of education to develop the “total man” who is endowed withmore potentials of doing great things other than merely “intellectualizing.” Given theappropriate education, resources and opportunities, one can become a productive member ofthe society. This enlightened awareness and awakening have resulted to innovations ineducational planning and practice. This led to a welcoming attitude to, and acceptance ofrecent educational and technological changes. One such recent development in education is the Multiple Intelligence Theorypioneered by Dr. Howard Gardner. A major breakthrough in Philippine education wascrystallized when Dr. Howard Gardner himself, the proponent and author of the MultipleIntelligence theory, came to grace the first Multiple Intelligence Convention in Southeast Asiaon February 11-12, 2005 at the Manila Hotel. With the theme seminar “Changing Minds:Teaching and Parenting for the 21st Century,” the seminar gathered together diverse clientelesof over 2,000 school administrators, teachers, parents, physicians, and psychologists all overthe country. That convention opened the door to an emerging awareness of an educationalconcern that could be one rallying point of modern educational practices. One program in Philippine education that could be the catalyst for the MultipleIntelligences theory is Special Education. SPED is an educational program or service designedto meet the unique needs of exceptional children to enable them to profit most from education.In the Division of Pangasinan II, a total of four SPED Programs that started in 1991 areoperating and delivering services to public elementary school children with special needs,through the following educational provisions namely Learning Disabled Pull-Out System,Center of Excellence for the Fast Learners, Hearing-Impaired, and Visually-Impaired Children(see Appendix J ). In the summer of 2004, a new SPED program was established at David ElementarySchool, Mangaldan, Pangasinan. Preparing the district as a center for excellence in SPED,Mrs. Gloria Leoveras, the District SPED Coordinator, together with the pupils’ respective classadvisers, initially assessed the pupils from Grade II to Grade VI using a Teacher ObservationChecklist. This instrument is composed of a taxonomy of different observable characteristicsof gifted pupils. Pupils who got a score of 17 or 85% were referred to the assessment team ledby Mrs. Gloria Leoveras, for further screening. The pupils’ grade point average in the differentsubjects was also considered in choosing who will compose the SPED Class. The identifiedfast learners were grouped in a special class and were assigned to teachers who attended theRegional Training Seminar on the Organization of SPED Classes for the Gifted or FastLearners on June 17-18, 2004 in David Elementary School. The standardized Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Person Test was also administered to the selected pupils. 91
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010 Through an informal interview with the school principal, the researcher learned that the curriculum in this special class is the same as the one being used in the regular class. It is a highly academic-focused curriculum. Apparently, it is not versatile and diverse enough to provide for the other developmental needs of fast learners. Little do the teachers in this school, and in most schools for that matter, realize that children, especially the bright and the talented, possess multiple potentials that need to be discovered and nurtured in order for them to potentiate and emerge as more productive members of society. It has been observed that many traditional schools, even those claiming to be special schools, fail to consider, ignore, or may not yet be aware of the most recent learning theory: the Multiple Intelligence theory.Conceptual Framework The Multiple Intelligence Theory was formulated in 1983 by Gardner identified seveninitial intelligences namely Logico-Mathematical Intelligence, Linguistic Intelligence, SpatialIntelligence, Musical Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligenceand Intrapersonal Intelligence. Lately, two more intelligences were added, the naturalisticand existential intelligences. Existential intelligences is still being subjected to furtherinvestigation. The M I Theory compared with the traditional view of intelligence is reflected inAppendix S. Gardner argues that there is both a biological and cultural basis for the multipleintelligences of man as revealed in his research. Biologically, the findings of his longitudinalresearch suggest that learning is an outcome of the modifications in the synaptic connectionsbetween the brain cells. The primary elements of learning are found in particular areas of thebrain where corresponding transformations occur. Thus, various types of learning result in theintricate synaptic connections. For example, injury to the Broca’s area of the brain will resultin the loss of one’s ability to verbally communicate using proper syntax. Nevertheless, thisinjury will not entirely eliminate the patient’s understanding of correct grammar and wordusage (Publication from Practical Assessment Research and Evaluation, by Brualdi, A., 1996) In addition to the biological context, Gardner states that culture also plays a large rolein the development of the intelligences. All societies value different types of intelligences. Thecultural value placed upon the ability to perform certain tasks provides the motivation for anindividual to become skilled in those areas. Thus, while particular intelligences might behighly valued by people of one culture, same intelligences might not be as highly regarded inanother culture. Conceptually, Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory advances the following ideas: 1. No two people have exactly the same intelligence profile. 2. Intelligence is not fixed. It changes through trainings, the quality and quantity of experience and many other activities. 3. All human beings are born with several intelligences although they differ in intensity, quality and quantity. Furthermore, people do not have the same amalgam of intelligences. There can be many combinations of intelligences. Moreover, Charles Spearman has proposed the theory of two factors (General Ability"g" and Special Ability), which is based on the observation that those people who perform wellon the tests of general intelligence do usually perform well on tests for special abilities (likeverbal or mathematical processing) and vice-versa. Thus, Spearmans main idea was that giftedpeople are gifted in general and dull people are generally dull the same way. This theory waswidely accepted for practical use. The tests, directly measuring Spearmans "g" are in a wide 92
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010practice nowadays. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices, developed by J.C. Raven anddistributed by US Psychological Corporation is a test battery of this kind.It is important therefore, that as administrators or teachers, the individual differences amongour learners must be taken more seriously. A teacher cannot be considered a good or a MasterTeacher if she/he does not know each child very well and try his/her best to design appropriateactivities to provide for these variables.The researcher was inspired to use Gardner’s MI theory in this study because shebelieves that with this theory as reference point for study and learning, each child canbecome a successful learner, considering that there are many possible pathways tolearning.One way to understand the concept of this study is to view it through the “system approach.”We look at the system approach as an activity of transforming the input through the system’sprocess, resulting into an output. The paradigm in Figure 1 illustrates this concept.The system’s process refers to the Appropriate Activities and Relevant LearningExperiences, using Gardner’s Theory as backdrop. The expected outputs are validatedactivities to enhance pupils’ multiple intelligences. The expected outcome will be designedLearning Enhancement Program for the Development of Pupils’ Multiple Intelligences,which is the result of the coordination of the Input, Process, and Output with a feedbackloop mechanism. These variables and their interrelationship are captured in the form of aparadigm shown in Figure 1 displayed in page 9.Statement of the Problem This study determined the MI of the Grade V pupils at David Elementary School and itanswered the following research questions: 1. What are the types of intelligences of the Grade V Pupils of David Elementary Schoolas revealed in the results of the assessment instruments? 2. Are there a significant differences between the perceptions of parents and teachers onthe different areas of the Grade V pupils’ multiple intelligences? 3. Is there a significant difference between the results of the pretest before the designedactivities and posttest after using the designed activities administered to grade V pupils? 4. What activities and instructional materials can be proposed to enhance the multipleintelligences of the grade five pupils in David Elementary School?Hypothesis The study tested the following hypotheses: 1. There are no significant differences between parents’ and teachers’ perception in thedifferent areas of multiple intelligences along: logical-mathematical, verbal, musical, spatial,bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligences. 2. There is no significant difference in the pupils’ pretest and posttest results before andafter the implementation of the multiple intelligence activities. 93
    • ISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010 E-International Scientific Research Journal Input Process Research Output Multiple Multiple Intelligences Intelligences of Pupils Validated • Bodily- Activities to of Pupils Kinesthetic Subject • Interpersonal Enhance Areas • Intrapersonal Multiple English • Logical- Intelligences Science Mathematical Math • Musical Interest • Naturalistic • Verbal- Linguistic • Spatial Outcome Learning Enhancement Program for the Development of Pupils’ Multiple Intelligences Research Paradigm r3 Figure I. Paradigm Showing the I-P-O System Approach Working on the Different Variables to94 Develop Pupils Multiple Intelligences
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Methodology This presents the methodology of this study, which includes the research design, theresearch locale, population and sampling, the research instrumentation, the data gatheringprocedure and the statistical data processing.Research Design The descriptive survey method was used in this study. It identified and described aparticular condition in a given school environment, as a reference point in planning andmaking appropriate educational decisions. In this study, it assessed the multiple intelligences ofa group of elementary pupils as basis for the design and development of program andinstructional materials/ activities. As the descriptive research, it used the pretest-posttesttechnique to determine the present MI of the learners under studyPopulation and Sampling The study was conducted at David Elementary School, Mangaldan, Pangasinan,summer of 2006. Fifteen (15) grade V pupils, their respective (15) parents, and four (4)teachers who were assigned to teach the class served are the respondents of the study whowere selected using purposive sampling. These were the ones (pupils, parents andteachers) who responded to the invitation to attend the MI class set purposively for theexperiment.Validation of the Instruments Different types of questionnaire were used to gather data in identifying the multipleintelligences of the pupil-respondents. The Parent’s Questionnaire for Multiple IntelligencesAssessment was adopted from Nicholson-Nelson and Kristen (1998), in Developing Student’sMultiple Intelligences. The questionnaire was provided to the participants during the 1stPhilippine Multiple Intelligences Convention last February 11-12, 2005, which was attendedby the researcher herself. Since some parents may not be able to understand the Englishquestionnaire, this was translated in Filipino with the help of a Filipino subject teacher. The researcher sought the assistance of the competent educators to design the Teacher’squestionnaire. An observational checklist was used as another instrument to identify themultiple intelligences of the pupils. This was adapted from the different published booksauthored by Thomas Armstrong (1994). The researcher also solicited suggestions andfeedbacks from her adviser and other educators with working knowledge on multipleintelligences. In addition, the instrument was subjected to the scrutiny of the members of the OralExamination Committee of the researcher. Their suggestions and recommendations wereintegrated to improve the tool.Data Gathering Procedures In order to facilitate data gathering, a strategy was employed. Permission to conduct astudy was sought from the office of the Schools Division Superintendent of Pangasinan II.Division, inasmuch as Mangaldan, the research locale, is a part of the division’s jurisdiction.Second, the researcher subsequently presented the division endorsement letter to the Principal 95
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010of David Elementary School, Mangaldan, Pangasinan. After all the necessary legal protocolswere secured, consultation and orientation on the study was conducted with the teachers andthe parents of the grade V pupil respondents. The Parents’ Questionnaire for MultipleIntelligences Assessment was administered to the parents after the orientation. The researcher personally administered the questionnaire to explain the MI concept andto answer the questions and clarification of doubts. The teachers’ orientation was done lastJanuary 31, 2005 while the parents’ orientation was conducted on March 25, 2006.Subsequently, invitation letter was distributed to the parents through the pupils informing theformer of the Multiple Intelligences Summer Advanced Lesson. Attached in each invitationletter was a Consent Notice which was retrieved a week before the start of the activity. Onlyfifteen (15) pupils out of the class of thirty (30) were permitted by their parents to attend theMI Summer Advanced Class. All the fifteen (15) parents of the pupils, the three (3) subjectteachers, and the pupils’ adviser attended the orientation after which the questionnaires weredistributed to them to answer. During the experiment a checklist was used to record the important observations of thepupils. The Multiple Intelligences Survey authored by McKenzie (1999) was administered tothe pupil- respondents after the researcher had designed MI activities. This is to give time forpupils to evaluate themselves fully and to discover their own unique styles which are helpful inanswering the questionnaire properly. For efficiency and reliability, the researcher herselfadministered the test to three (3) groups of pupils composed of five (5) in each group. Thepupils were asked to rate themselves the degree of performing the given activities in thequestionnaire, using the following scale: 5-always, 4-very often, 3-sometimes, 2 seldom and 1-never. The researcher also used some examples to unlock difficulties found in the pupils’questionnaire. The teachers and parents were also asked to rank the degree of the observableintelligences of their pupils/children using the scale of 1-10, 10 as the strongest. This will helpin determining the multiple intelligences of the pupils. The set of questionnaire used for the data gathering were adapted from the materialsdistributed during the 1st Philippine Multiple Intelligences Convention. The researcherbelieves that the set of questionnaire are suited to the purpose of the study. So, she sought thepermission of the authors who also gave their consent for the printing, use, and/or modificationof the instrument as long as the copyright tag remains intact.Validation of the Instrument To ensure that the multiple intelligence module and the pretest/posttest assessmenttools are appropriately designed to serve its purpose, the researcher subjected these for scrutinyand critiquing by experienced and competent teachers. She requested competent educators atthe SPED Center in Baguio City to improve the test materials and the learning modules. Formore expert assistance, she consulted an administrator of the said SPED school to passjudgment on the designed learning materials she designed.Statistical Treatment of Data The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed and managed using frequency counts,after which corresponding percentages were computed. The weighted mean was also computed to determine the teacher’s evaluation of theavailability of instructional materials as well as the effectiveness of teaching strategies. It was 96
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010likewise applied in ascertaining the profile of pupils in the multiple intelligence survey. Theformula for weighted mean taken from Spiegel (1976). X = ΣwX ΣwWhere X= weighted mean w= weighted factor x= observed frequency/ behavior Σ= summation of means The t- Test was used to determine the significance of the difference between theparents’ and the teachers’ perception on the Grade V pupils’ areas of multiple intelligences aswell as on the differences in the pretest and post-test performance of the pupils before andafter the implementation of the intervention, the designed MI activities. The use of the MICROSTAT Software was used to determine the test of differences.All tests were set at .05 level of significance. Scale of Interpretation on the activities and instructional materials designed to enhancethe multiple intelligences of the Grade V pupils: 3.26-4.00= Most Preferred 2.51-3.25= Preferred 1.70-2.59= Less Preferred 1.00-1.75- Not Preferred PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This presents, analyzes, and interprets the data gathered from the respondents. Thisincludes the analyses and interpretation of the pretest/posttest results of the pupils, before andafter the administration of the MI module. To ensure clarity and consistency in the discussion, the presentation of findings followsthe sequence of the research questions in Chapter 1.The Degree of Multiple Intelligences of the Grade V Pupils in David Elementary Schoolas Perceived by the ParentsTable 1 presents the mean scores of the pupils in the different multiple intelligences. It was found, based on the parents’ ratings that the highest mean (8.00) was on the areaof “naturalist intelligence.” This finding suggests that the pupils have very strong interest inactivities that have to do with nature such as planting, collecting specimens from nature, doingexperiments about nature, hiking or going on fieldtrips, concern for natural phenomena andother related activities. Apparently, they have much knowledge of the living world and usethis knowledge productively. 97
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Table 1. Mean Score of Pupils In the Various Areas of Multiple Intelligences as Perceived byParents Area Mean RankNaturalistic 8.13 1Musical 7.60 2Verbal- Linguistic 7.53 3Interpersonal 7.53 4Logical-Mathematical 7.27 5Spatial 7.07 6Intrapersonal 6.73 7Bodily-Kinesthetic 6.67 8 The next area of multiple intelligences which has the second highest rating was“musical” which has a mean of 7.60 which implies that the pupils like to sing, easily remembermelodies and rhythms, enjoy listening to music, and play musical instruments. Ranked number (3) is verbal-linguistic intelligence with a mean of 7.53. This impliesthat the pupils also enjoy listening to lectures, participating in debates, reading, doing wordgames, and other similar activities. On the other hand, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence got the lowest mean (X=6.67).Compared with the other areas of intelligence, parents perceived that their children are notbody smart who uses their body to solve problems, make something, or put on some kind of aproduction.Degree of Multiple Intelligences of the Grade V Pupils in David Elementary School asPerceived by the Teachers The table below presents the teachers’ perception on the degree of multipleintelligences of their pupils. 98
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Table 2. Mean Score of Pupils in the Various Areas of Multiple Intelligences as Perceived byTeachers Area Mean RankNaturalist 7.97 1Intrapersonal 7.83 2Verbal- Linguistic 7.80 3Spatial 7.80 4Logical-Mathematical 7.67 5Interpersonal 7.53 6Bodily-Kinesthetic 7.48 7Musical 7.33 8 Accordingly, the pupils are strong in naturalist intelligence with a mean score of 7.96.This can be interpreted in three ways: firstly, the pupils live in a rural community surroundedby nature’s bounty which gives them more chances to explore the physical world around them;secondly, the researcher also found out that the pupils’ science teacher uses a variety ofstrategies and materials to teach science lessons; and thirdly, their school, David ElementarySchool, garnered the title “Best School in Science.” Enhanced by their natural environmentand by their teacher’s innovativeness, these children, indeed really emerged as nature-smart. Ranked number two (2) is intrapersonal (X=7.83) which means that the pupils have theability to gain access to understand their own inner feelings, dreams, and ideas. The next area of multiple intelligence which had the highest rating was the “verbal-linguistic” which has a mean of 7.80 and spatial intelligence (X= 7.80). In the analyzedteachers’ questionnaire, the responses revealed that verbal-linguistic materials are mostcommonly used by the teacher. This is not surprising since many materials for verbal-linguisticintelligences are available in their school such as books, memory games, television, VHS andVCD tapes, encyclopedia, and many more. This finding implies that the teacher-respondentsvalue the activities that enhance the verbal-linguistic intelligence of their pupils. Aside frompossessing verbal linguistic intelligence, the pupils are also spatial intelligentsia or lovers ofart. The researcher herself observed three of their teachers integrating art activities in theirlessons. Ranked number four (4) is spatial intelligence with a mean of 7.80. This means that thepupils of David Elementary School aside from possessing naturalistic and verbal linguisticintelligence are also lovers of arts. The researcher herself observed three of their teachersintegrating art activities in their lessons. Meanwhile, out of the eight areas of multiple intelligences, music got the lowest mean(X=7.25). This finding is understandable because in the responses given in the questionnaire, 99
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010the teachers claimed that musical materials and instruments are rarely found in their school.The result also disclosed that among the four teachers, only one integrates music in the lesson“always,” another teacher integrates music “sometimes” while the two others did not indicateany answer. This inadequate exposure of the children to different musical activities could bethe reason why the teachers perceived their pupils’ musical intelligence to be the lowest amongall the other intelligences. However, the teachers and parents should understand that musicalinstruments can be found everywhere, using available materials in their surroundings likebamboo sticks, cans, bottles, paper etc. Nevertheless, although this area was ranked the lowest, the computed mean is stillcomparable with other areas; thus, the degree in which the pupils like or dislike music does notdiffer much.Degree of Multiple Intelligences of the Grade V Pupils as Perceived by the Pupils Table 3 shows the pupils’ perception with regard to their inherent intelligences. Using a different instrument, the Grade V pupils were asked to rate themselves on thedifferent areas of multiple intelligences using a scale of 1-5, with 5 as the highest. Of the areasrated, the highest ranked intelligence was “bodily-kinesthetic” (X= 4.17).Table 3. Mean Scores of Pupils in the Various Areas of Multiple Intelligences as Perceived bythe Pupils Area Mean Score RankBodily-Kinesthetic 4.17 1Naturalist 4.07 2Musical 4.05 3Interpersonal 3.94 4.5Logical-Mathematical 3.94 4.5Spatial 3.66 6Intrapersonal 3.63 7Verbal-Linguistic 3.53 8As far as the pupils themselves are concerned, they believe that they excel more in activitieswherein they make use of their body or parts of it. These include creative movements, mime,competitive games, crafts, and the like. This finding is expected of typical pubescent boys andgirls. At this stage of life an individual seems to have inexhaustible physical energy to spendin dancing, sports, game and athletics. Next to bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is naturalist intelligence with a mean of 4.07.The pupils exhibited much liking for activities involving nature aside from those which involve 100
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010their hands and body. It is noted that these two areas satisfy the very nature of growingchildren who love to play, enjoy physical activities, and who are ever curious of theenvironment around them. The next highest area of intelligence is musical intelligence with a mean of 4.05. Thepupils manifest a love of or appreciation for music and sound. Although very few have talentsin music, it is very rare that a child would not move to the beat of music. Instinctively, evenbabies or toddlers move their body to respond to rhythm. This has scientific basis as cited inmedical literature that our body processes are rhythmical like the regular beating of the heart,the regular rhythm of breathing, etc. Thus, automatic response to music and rhythm is innate inevery person. It is worth noting in this finding that the pupils perceived themselves to bemusically-inclined, in contrast to their teachers who perceived them otherwise, that is, rankingthe musical intelligence of the pupils as the least developed among the eight intelligences.With this contradiction, the pupil-respondents seem to imply that, if given the chance, they canperform pretty well with activities related to music. However, it can be seen from the result that the area rated lowest by the pupils was“verbal-linguistic” with a mean of 3.53. It appears that they do not like activities which areconsidered as “serious stuff” and language is one of them. This can be construed as one of thereasons why there are many reading disabled pupils in our schools today. A negative attitudetowards something is indeed a constraint to learning it. Based on the foregoing tabular data, it can be noted that there is incongruity in theperception between the two groups (teacher/parents and pupils) on the different areas ofmultiple intelligence. This could be attributed to the use of different instruments. However, thefollowing explanations are afforded for the observed differences in perceptions: 1. The researcher use of the MI module to the Grade V pupils may have helpedthem discover and recognize that they all have the different intelligences. Since they had afirst-hand experience of the MI as applied in module, the researcher believes that the pupilshave gained enough understanding of their intelligences more than their parents and theirteachers have. 2. Although the parents and the teachers have attended the orientation on Multiple Intelligences, their perceptions can be said to be still influenced very strongly by the traditional view, that is, an intelligent pupil should always be a linguist or a mathematician and would want the children to excel in these areas inasmuch as schools are still operated in this type of paradigm. Awards given at the end of the term still center on these two areas. Fact is, even the society, at large continue to give premium to verbal and logical- mathematical abilities, particularly when seeking employment after college graduation.Test of Difference between the Perceptions of Parents and Teachers on the DifferentAreas of the Grade V Pupils’ Multiple Intelligences 101
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Table 4 is a comparison of the perception of the teachers and the parents on the multipleintelligences of the Grade V pupils of David Elementary School.Table 4. Comparison of the Teachers’ and Parents’ Perceptionsof the Pupils’ Multiple Intelligence Area Mean Score Teacher Parent t-value ProbabilityVerbal-Linguistic 7.8 7.53 0.6954 0.4929Bodily-Kinesthetic 7.48 6.67 2.0071 0.0609Logical-Mathematical 7.67 7.27 0.9250 0.3665Intrapersonal 7.83 6.73 2.4814 0.0205*Spatial 7.80 7.07 1.9965 0.0578Musical 7.33 7.60 0.5546 0.5878Interpersonal 7.53 7.53 0 1.0Naturalist 7.97 8.13 -0.4774 0.6385*significant at 0.5 level A look at the mean scores reveal that generally, the teachers gave a higher rating on thedifferent areas of multiple intelligence than did the parents based on the means ranging from7.33 to 7.97. The mean ratings of the parents, on the other hand, ranged from 6.67 to 8.13. Thehighest mean score given by teachers was on the area of “naturalist intelligence” which wasalso the highest among the parents’ group and actually even higher than the teachers’. The twogroups agree on which area the pupils are strong, and that is on naturalistic intelligence. Thelowest mean score as rated by teachers was on the area of “musical intelligence” which meansthat the teachers perceived the pupils to be least musically-inclined. The parents, however,perceived the pupils to be least inclined on bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. These finding giveus the idea that the teachers and the parents appreciate less the bodily-kinesthetic intelligenceand musical intelligence of the children. They seem to still believe in the original thought thatthese are not to be considered as intelligences. To determine if there is a significant difference in the general perception of the twogroups of respondents, t-test was used. Result shows that of the eight areas of multipleintelligences, it was only on the intrapersonal intelligence that a significant difference wasfound in the perceptions computed (p=0.0205). It should be noted that intrapersonalintelligence is measured through behavior manifestations such as independent study,individualized projects and games, preference for a private space for study, and similarindications. As such, what is manifested by the child in the school which is seen by the teachercould be different by what he/she manifests at home which is observed by the parents. 102
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Observation reveals that some children act differently in school or with peers from how he/shewould in front of the family. Apparently, there is inconsistency in their behavior given thedifference in environment. It is in intrapersonal intelligence that an understanding of thechild’s own self, the recognizing of her/his weaknesses and the setting of his/her goals aremade known to his/her teachers and parents through careful observation of the behaviors. Thisfinding implies that both parents and teachers failed to discern the pupils’ inclination which hassomething to do with intrapersonal intelligence. This could be one reason why the perceptionof the two groups differed significantly along this type of intelligence.Test of Difference between the Pretest and Posttest to Grade V Pupils Before and Afterthe Implementation of the Designed Activities Table 5 presents a tabulated comparison of the pretest and posttest scores of pupilsalong English, Mathematics, and Science subjects.Table 5. Comparison of the Pretest and Posttest Scoresof Pupils in English, Mathematics and Science Mean ScoreSubject Area Pretest Posttest t-value ProbabilityEnglish 9.2 17.47 -10.0483 1.28E-10*Mathematics 4.0 17.33 -24.2791 6.68E-19*Science 0.87 17.47 -26.0207 1.46E-18** Highly-significant at 0.05 level Of the 20-item pretest in the aforementioned subject areas, the pupils’ mean score inEnglish was 9.2. It was even lower in the Mathematics subject which is only 4.0. The Sciencesubject indexed the least mean score with most of the pupils having scored zero (0) in the test. After the administering the especially designed activities, the pupils were given aposttest. As can be seen, there is a marked increase in the score of the pupils in English (17.47)which is almost twice the score they got in the pretest (9.2). In Mathematics, the posttest meanscore was 17.33 which is more than four times higher than their score in the pretest which was4.0. The highest increase in the posttest mean score which is worth noting was in Sciencewhich was 17.47, a too high compared to the very low 0.87 score in the pretest. The pretest and posttest scores were subjected to a t-test to determine if there is asignificant difference between the scores as a result of the implementation of the interventionvia the designed activities. The table reveals that the pretest and posttest scores of the pupils inall the subject areas were highly and significantly different at five (5) percent alpha level. Thisimplies that the designed activities were effective in improving the performance of the pupilsin the test. It is further implied that if only learning activities could be thoroughly planned andimplemented, it can be expected there is good performance among the pupils. 103
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Activities and Instructional Materials Designed to Enhance the Multiple Intelligences ofthe Grade V Pupils of David Elementary SchoolTable 6. Degree of Pupils’ Preference for Selected Activities/Instructional Materials Activity vm DescriptionModeling Clay 3.47 Most PreferredWorking on Kaleidoscope Math 3.47 Most PreferredAdding fraction 3.47 Most PreferredMusic in the bottles 3.27 Most PreferredReporting 3.60 Most PreferredTV Talk Show 4.00 Most PreferredSong Analysis 3.27 Most PreferredMake a Tree-Word Mosaic 4.00 Most PreferredFraction Sundae 4.00 Most PreferredRole Playing 4.00 Most PreferredPowerPoint Presentation 4.00 Most PreferredMake a Heart Dummy 4.00 Most PreferredSkipping a Beat Activity 4.00 Most PreferredWorking on Individual Information Sheet 4.00 Most PreferredOver-all Weighted Mean 3.75 Most PreferredThe pupils were asked to rate their degree of preference for selected activities using a scale of1-4 with four (4) as the highest possible rating for the items (4) which has a description rating a“most preferred.” Even a cursory glance at the table reveals that all the activities were rated as“most preferred” because the highest means fall under the scale of 3.26-4.00. Activities were made available to all the pupils. Everyone had his/her task doneaccording to his/her own choices. Every pupil productively finished the entire task he/she hadchosen. In the MI module, each child and her choice/s, as well as the way she/he will do it, isimportant. 104
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010Table 7. Subject and Activities Liked Best by Pupils Activity F %Science 5 33.3Math 1 6.7English & Math 2 13.3English & Science 2 13.3Science & Math 1 6.7All 4 26.7Total 15 100.00% The pupils were asked of the activities they like best in the areas of Science, Math, andEnglish and in combination of two subjects. As seen from the preceding table, five (5) or33.3% of the pupils liked best the activities in Science; two (2) each liked activities in bothEnglish and Math (13.33%) and English and Science (13.33%); one (1) each liked activities inMath (6.7%) and a combination of Science and Math (6.7%); and four (4) or 26.7% liked theactivities in all areas. The pupils’ liking for science activities reinforce the finding that thepupils are strong in “naturalist” intelligence as they themselves perceived because science isbasically about nature. It is in this light that an understanding of the implementation of the MultipleIntelligences Module is of import and herein described. The researcher made use of theintegration process, where all the subjects in the curriculum could be effectively integrated intothe three (3) subjects namely, Science, Math, and English. Science, however, has the mostnumber of activities where almost all the MI approaches are integrated. Meanwhile, the activities were conducted for (2) days focusing on different topics. Theresearcher integrated more of the bodily-kinesthetic approach which also validates the idea ofthe three (3) SPED Teachers and one SPED administrator in Baguio City that science activitiesuse more bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. This result is also congruent with the result of thePupils’ Questionnaire showing bodily-kinesthetic intelligence as their strongest intelligence(see Table 3). Likewise, Table 4 clearly shows that the pretest/posttest results indicating thatthe highest increase in the overall mean score after utilizing the MI Module in instruction is inthe Science subject. Notwithstanding, the activities in Math and English subjects were more on groupactivities where everybody was given a chance to participate in their chosen activities. The data gathered disclosed information that benefited the researcher in understandingthe pupils’ individual strengths and the multiple ways on how they learn. The informationgiven by the parent, teachers, and pupils were good indications that they are witnesses of their 105
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010pupils’ unique capabilities. The whole process of this study has made them aware that thesecapabilities are now recognized to be “multiple intelligences.” SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONSSummary The study was conducted primarily to identify the multiple intelligences of the Grade Vpupils of David Elementary School through a designed Multiple Intelligence learning package.It aimed at helping the client school develops its own prototype activities inspired by theMultiple Intelligences Theory which was used as the basis for this research. The sets of questionnaire provided during the 1st Multiple Intelligence Convention inManila were adapted and used by the researcher to gather the needed information from therespondents. The content and concurrent validations of the MI Summer Advanced Lessonsand the Pretest/Posttest instruments were done through the help of experts at SPED Center inBaguio City. In addition the tools were also submitted to the researchers OREC members forsuggestions and recommendations. These were used to improve the tools. Relevant information was gathered from the teachers, parents, and children with thehost principal’s approval. Orientation was conducted to educate the parents and the teachers ofthe Multiple Intelligences Theory and its importance to the teaching-learning process. Sets of activities good for a one-week lesson was designed and was conducted to thepupils. Prior to this, a pretest was administered and subsequently, a posttest after theintervention. Data gathered from the study were analyzed and interpreted using the insights andgeneralization from the reviewed related literature and studies as backdrop. They then werestatistically treated using frequency count, percentage, weighted mean rating, and t-test todetermine relationships among the variables.Salient Findings The study came up with the following findings:1. Based on the responses of the learners, all the fifteen (15) grade five pupilspossess the eight multiple intelligences in varying degrees. They always agree that Bodily-Kinesthetic (4.17) was their No.1 intelligence. Using the MI module as teaching approach, onthe subject: Science, Math, and English, it was found out that the pupils projected Scienceintelligence considering their being nature smart. Parents perceive their children to be bodily-kinesthetic (6.67) the least ranked. The teachers perceived the children to be least ranked intheir musical intelligence (7.33). While in the pupils’ perception showed that they were leastranked in verbal-linguistic (3.53).2. Except for the intrapersonal intelligence variable, the null hypothesis that there isno significant difference between the parents’ perception and the teachers’ perception in thedifferent areas of multiple intelligences of the Grade V children is accepted. The teachers andthe parents significantly differed in their perception of the pupils’/children’s intrapersonalintelligence.3. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the pupils’ pretestand posttest results before and after the implementation of the multiple intelligence activities isrejected. Thus, a significant difference in the pretest and posttest scores of the pupils in threesubject areas, namely, English, Science and Math is ascertained. 106
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 20104. Activities that integrate the MI Theory were most preferred by the Grade V pupilsand had been effective in improving the performance of the pupils in the posttest. The designedmultiple intelligences module enhanced the multiple intelligences of the Grade V pupils.Conclusions In light of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are drawn:1. Every child can be considered to possess the eight multiple intelligences in varying degrees.These intelligences can be enhanced through creative strategies, appropriate instructionalmaterials, and a stimulating and nurturing environment. Moreover, while parents and teachersbasically have common perception on the degree of their children’s/ pupils’ intelligences, thereare areas of intelligences where they differed significantly, and thus, worth investigating indetail.3. Pupils’ performance in the different subject areas will remarkably improve if activitiesinspired by the Multiple Intelligences Theory will be integrated in the lessons.4. Using Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory as a basis of preparing MI Module is oneapproach to revolutionalize the traditional and routinary teaching and learning processes in thePhilippine context.5. There is complementation between and among the different multiple intelligences. Strictlyspeaking, each type of intelligences cannot be taken in isolation. Each type of intelligencetends to reinforce the other as shown in the positive results in the combined English (linguisticintelligence) and Science (naturalistic intelligence) instruction.Recommendations: Based on the results of study, the following are recommended:1. It is crucial for teachers to identify their pupils’ intelligences as bases in constructingappropriate activities to enhance whatever intelligences each one possesses. Orientationseminars on the Multiple Intelligences Theory should be organized and conducted foradministrators, teachers, parents, and other stakeholders. 2. A continuing education on MI for teachers and parents may be part of PTCAmeetings and once-a-week Learning Action Cell (LAC) session in elementary schools. 3. The portfolio and rubric forms of assessment are recommended to use, be adapted inevaluating pupil performance in the different subject areas. These two innovative instrumentsare based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory. 4. Along with this perspective, there’s a need for an intensive workshop be conductedto assist teachers to construct instructional materials which are not limited only to linguisticand mathematical intelligences but to other types of intelligences as well. The following aresome guidelines suggested by Gardner which can help the teacher design multiple intelligenceactivities. a) Understand the Multiple Intelligences Theory • Identify your own multiple intelligences profile. • Understand how the Gardners research has identified the intelligences and the criteria upon which the intelligences are validated. • Recognize how others express the multiple intelligences. b) Explore Individual Intelligences 107
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010 • Identify the subcapacities (skill sets) of each of the multiple intelligences. • Understand the full dimension of each of the intelligences by experiencing them through various activities. • Identify instructional strategies that enhance and support the multiple intelligences. c) Incorporate the Intelligences into Your Classroom • Design lessons integrating the multiple intelligences in course content. • Learn how to support the multiple intelligences through aspects of your classroom environment. d) Create Schoolwide Integration Plans • Understand the myths and realities of the application of Multiple Intelligences Theory in the classrooms. • Integrate multiple intelligences with other educational reforms such as putting up holistic centers, as well as the use of portfolios, and thematic instruction. • Integrate multiple intelligences into the school’s existing school reforms. 5. Teachers should shift to more holistic, thematic instruction as teaching methodology.References A. BooksArmstrong, T. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, New York: Plume.Brunetto, C.F. (1997). MathArt. India: Scholastic Professional BooksCalmorin, L. and Calmorin M. (1995). Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.Catane, J. (2000). Conducting Research: A Practical Application. Quezon City: JMC Press Inc.Lazear, D. (1999). Eight Ways of Knowing (Teaching for Multiple Intelligences), Third Edition. Illinois: Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc.Gardner, Howard. (1995). Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory. Basic Books.Kamphaus, Randy. (1993). Clinical Assessment of Children’s Intelligence. Massachusetts: Simon & Schuster, Inc.Mitchell C. and Mitchell J. (2003). Kaleidoscope Math India: Scholastic, Inc.Nolledo, Jose N. (1990). The Education Act of the Philippines Annotated with Related Laws, Issuance and Other Materials. B. PeriodicalsBrualdi, A.C. (1996). Multiple Intelligence: Gardner’s Theory and Practice. Eric / AZE Digest Series EDO-TM-96-01Gardner, H. (1983). Changing Minds (Teaching and Parenting for the 21st Century (2005). Multiple Intelligence International School Journal. Manila 108
    • E-International Scientific Research JournalISSN: 2094-1749 Volume: 2 Issue: 1, 2010 C. Unpublished MaterialApawan, E. L. (2003). The Multiple Intelligences of Intermediate Pupils and Their Relationship to Academic Performance, Master Thesis, Norte Dame University, Cotabato City D. Electronics Sourceshttp: //www. Teachingenglish.org.ukhttp: //www.nationalgeographic.comhttp://www. us@hearthealthykids@hsf.com.cahttp://www. Educationworld.comhttp://www.plsweb.comhttp://www.michildspace.com.phhttp://www.howardgardner.comhttp://www.pzweb.harvard.eduhttp://www.goodworkproject.orghttp://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htmhttp://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/intell.shtmlhttp://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed410226.htmlhttp://www.ascd.org/readingroom/edlead/9911/scherer2.htmlhttp://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm. 109