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  1. 1. http://www.studymode.comwww.aypf.org/publications/WhateverItTakes/WITfull.pdfwww.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/politics/.../LermanFINALDRAFT2.pdfwww.equip123.net/docs/e3-WFDReport.pdfwww.osisa.orgwww.nabuur.comwww.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_407LHR.pdfwww.fulphilthemind.org/www.studymode.comwww.amalafoundation.org/Young people generally form the future of any nation state and Singapore is no exception, it is,however, especially concerned about the future of itself as a nation. For Singapore the theme ofyouth is doubled, as the newness of the nation is a mirrored reflection of young Singaporeansand for the state. Young people embody the fragility of the nation itself, and government policytowards them has become a site where anxiety about the future of the nation is expressed."Singaporean youths must have wings and yet know where their nest is" interrogates selectedpolicies directed at young people in the city-state of Singapore against the backdrop of theyouth of that nation-state itself. This examination includes: policies towards young offenders(and criminality generally), highlighting the anxiety the state feels about the non-conformity ofyoung law-breakers and about the othering of criminals, about the role of National Service as amechanism for masculinised nation building, and about the definition and discourse aroundpost-independence generations, including the "brain drain" generation, the "GenerationMillennium", and the "quitters and stayers", illustrating Singaporean tension betweennationalism and political apathy. The resulting analysis questions the notion of youth as agentsof change, troubles ideas of technology as a mechanism for liberalisation in Singapore, andchallenges Western assumptions about the liberalising power of affluence and globalisation.Keywords: Singaporean youths, nation, anxiety, consumption, crimeForeign StudiesCollege student retention programsDescriptionCollege student retention programs tend to focus primarily on students in their first and secondyear of college as this is the time when the greatest numberof students withdraws from postsecondary education (ACT 2004). Such programs varysubstantially in design and execution. Examples include: Early alert, assessment, and
  2. 2. monitoring systems to identify students at risk of dropping out for early intervention; FreshmanSeminar; and HORIZONS. Organizational Theory practices, designed to create an institutionalculture conducive to student retention, are another means of encouraging college studentretention.Connection to HealthImproving college retention rates may have broad impacts: students who complete collegedegrees have been found to be less likely to need the support of social services, generatehigher tax returns, put less stress on the criminal justice system, and have better health statusand improved parenting skills.Expected Beneficial OutcomesIncreased college retention ratesincreased graduation ratesEvidence of EffectivenessACT-Student Retention 2004 indicates that emphasis on retention strategies over the pastseveral decades has not had a substantial impact on college retention overall. However, suchprograms have been effective in some venues and for some students: Dale 1995 reports that85% of students participating in HORIZON, a Purdue University based student retentionprogram,Epal lngTHE number of children not attending school is increasing, according to a lawmaker who calledon government to do something to reverse this disturbing trend.At least 1.4 Filipino children have become out of school youth in the last nine years, hiking thenumber of unschooled youth at 6.2 million, a lawmaker said on Saturday.Rep. Theresa Bonoan-David of Manila made the disclosure as she filed House Resolution 2511urging the House committee on basic education and culture to take action to stop the number ofout-of-school- youths from climbing further.David said that in 2011, the National Statistics Office reported that about 6.24 million of theestimated 39 million Filipinos aged six to 24 did not attend school. The 2011 figure is muchhigher than that 4.8 million children reported to have stayed out of schools in the 2002 AnnualPoverty Indicators Survey (APIS).The NSO said that 28.9 percent of the out-of-school youth did not pursue their studies becauseof the high cost of education while 27.5 percent stopped for lack of interest.“The state recognizes the youth as key agents of socio-economic development andtechnological innovation in the country and as such, should provide for mechanisms whichwould make them avail of a decent education, which would eventually make them indispensablecontributors to national growth and progress,” David said.
  3. 3. She said that the government should do more to help children stay in school, especially thosecoming from poor families.Chapter 2Review of Related LiteratureThe use of hydropower throughout the world has been changing since thousands of years. Itsbecause it is an indigenously available, clean, and renewable source of energy. Currently, 15%of the worlds electricity comes from hydroelectric power (Renewable Energy for the 21stCentury, "Renewables 2007: Global Status Report"). While this number is impressive, newtechnologies will help hydroelectric power play a larger role in meeting global energy needs inthe future.New developments are made to achieve best results on harnessing water as anenergy source. All aimed at reducing other energy sources depletion and pollution in order toincrease the efficiency of the power. This has said to have a huge potential, both huge andsmall levels(Dr. Nand Kishor,Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad) .Hydropower plants can be based either as run-off river type or with reservior built. Both levelscan be based by either of the two depending on the capacity of power generation. Small levelsis usually a run-of-river plant that uses fixed speed drive with mechanical regulation of theturbine water flow for controlling the active power generation(J.L. Marquez, M.G. Molina, J.M.Pacas; Instituto de Energía Eléctrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan). Though there arenew technologies upcoming, there are also conflicts which depicts the disadvantages of certainuses or operation. It has been reported that certain problems handling the plant may causedevastation over an area around the built power plant,(Asia News Network, News Desk,Vietnam News; Published 08/11/2010).REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREIn 1922 Walter Lippman , newspaper columnist, first posed the idea that the mass mediashapes public perception with images. Lippmans notion, based on the publics limited first-handknowledge of the real world, created the foundation for what has come to be known as agenda-setting. The agenda-setting theory maintains the media plays an influential part in how issuesgain public attention. Conceptualized over time, agenda-setting is the dynamic process "inwhich changes in media coverage lead to or cause subsequent changes in problem awarenessof issues" (Brosius & Kepplinger, 1990, p. 190; Lang & Lang, 1981). Bernard Cohensstatement in 1963 predicted "the press may not be successful much of the time in telling peoplewhat to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about" (p.13).Whether social or political, local or national, public issues are generated by the media.Consumers not only learn about an issue "but also how much importance is attached to thatissue from the amount of information in a news story and its position" (McCombs & Shaw, 1972,
  4. 4. p. 176). McCombs and Shaws study of mediated affects on the 1968 presidential campaignnullified previous assumptions that information and how it is presented has an attitudinal effectinducing behavior changes. Their groundbreaking efforts focused on issue awareness andrelevance not behavior and attitude, concluding "the mass media exerted a significant influenceon what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign" (Infante, et al., 1997, p.366).Media drives agenda. Funkhouser (1973) focused his attention on the major issues for eachyear in the 1960s and further concluded that media agenda drives public agenda, and real-worldindicators are less strongly associated with issue salience and media attention (Funkhouser,1973; Dearing & Rogers, 1996).Foreign LiteratureJoe N. of gather.com, they attract the buyers by selling what they want, non-stop on a channelthats dedicated for buyers. This is a good technique if you are trying selling something, andgaining a good audience of buyers, because you are putting the product up for advertisement,on a channel those buyers watch. You dont have to completely analyze a commercial to cometo this conclusion, or to categorize a commercial under a specific technique, but just pay someattention to the main details.In Channels of Desire (1982), the Ewens trace the emergence of the consumer society throughthe rise of mass images and new advertising, fashion, and entertainment industries. Theyexplore some of the ways in which desire was channeled into consumption and into desire forever new and ever more consumer goods.local Literature reviewFollow-up or tracer studies have enjoyed popularity in LIS training needs/ assessment analysesover the past 20 years in Africa in studies by scholars such as Anadiran (1988) in Nigeria;Alemna (1991, 1999) and Kisie du (1993) in Ghana; Rosenberg (1989, 1994) in Kenya;Ocholla (2001 and 2005) and Stilwell (2004) in South Africa Rugambwa (1998) and Mammo(2007) in Ethiopia; Aina and Moahi (1999) in Botswana; and Lutwana and Kigongo - Bukenya(2004) in Uganda. Mammo (2007) conducted a study on the status of LIS education in Ethiopiaand the perceptions of graduates on the LIS program me. The study revealed that in oneuniversity ,the LIS program me changed to Information Systems because of university-widechanges ,while in another university, the LIS curriculum remained the same. Graduatesindicated that they were not satisfied with the LIS programme.2Lutwana and Kigongo-Bukenya (2004) conducted a study on the appropriateness of the EASLIS(East Africa School of Library and Information Science) curriculum to professional practice inLibrary and Information Science field in Uganda. The purpose of the study was to establishwhere graduates worked, what they did, and whether their education met employers’expectations. It further identified areas of curriculum revision. The study revealed that mostgraduates were employed in academic institutions, government departments, banks and NGO’slibraries, where they performed various professional activities. The study also revealed that
  5. 5. employers complained about the lack of practical skills among the graduates, citingspecialization through electives as inadequatelocal dreNobody can deny the hard fact that education is an extremely important factor for bringingchange in the lives of individuals. It has universally been re-cognized as the most powerfulinstrument for gearing up the socio-economic development of the nation. Out of school youth means having a vulnerable people who have needs. Infact, it can be said that it is a pre-condition for the overall up-lift and welfare of nation. This iswhy investment in education is considered to be so vital for human resource development andthe enhancement of the quality of manpower. It is clear that the composition and characteristicsof this most crucial part of population goes a long way in the process of national development ofthe policy makers and planners in their planning and decision making for the future. Out of school youth is a vulnerable population with complex needs. Manyface dim employment prospects and uncertain futures. Out of school youth is broadly defined asyouth aged 16 to 24 who are not in school and who is unemployed, underemployed, or lackingbasic skills, while there is no single system that provides services to out of school youth. Public schools offer free tuition for enrollment for elementary but also inHigh school students. This may count for high enrollment in schools, although the enrollmenthas a high result, many poor families is unable to finance the ancillary school needs of theirchildren. The reason why out of school youth happens because of the problems in the familythat forces a teenager to work early that they shouldn’t be.E2 paLocal Literatures A. Intramuros to Adopt New Traffic SchemeAccording to Mayen Jaymalin of the Philippine Star Updated May 24, 2012 the historicIntramuros may soon be closed to vehicular traffic to accommodate the estimated one millionforeign and local visitors to the Walled City. Intramuros Administrator (IA) chief Jose Capistranosaid they intend to adopt a new traffic scheme within the historical site in preparation for theprojected influx of tourists in the area this year.“We are adopting a so-called Integrated Parking and Traffic Management System which entailsclosure to motor vehicles of several streets to give way to increased foot traffic in the WalledCity,” Capistrano said. From half a million a year, Capistrano said the number of visitors inIntramuros is expected to double or even triple with the new tourism package they are offering.Last week, IA launched the “It’s more fun in Intramuros” campaign that aims to restore the oldglory of Intramuros.
  6. 6. Mayen, Jaymalin. “Intramuros to Adopt New Traffic Scheme,” The Philippine Star, May 24,2012, B. Should the Jeepney go the way of the Kalesa?According to Rico Mossesgeld of the Philippine Star updated March 31, 2011 the 1938 shortfilm Manila: Queen of the Pacific showcases a progressive Philippine capital. Periodautomobiles share the road with rail-driven trams and masses of horse-drawn kalesas. Thekalesa itself has been relegated into a tourist attraction, now a colorful curiosity rather than apublic form of transport. Now cars share the roads with jeepneys, the epitome of Philippineingenuity.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYOut of school youth are the helpless people who have needs. Nobody can denythat the facts of education are the most important thing or factor for some people tobring change in their lives. It has been recognized as the most prevailing gearing-up thesocio-economic development of our government or our nation.The percentage of children enrolled in the 2006-2007 school year primary school wasdown to 83% from 90% seven years ago, according to National Coordination on Boardby Agency France Pressed(AFP) And also this 2012 the numbers of out of school forsecondary education getting worse. Education is the great equalizer that will give allFilipinos rich or poor, the chance to uplift their lives and face a secure future. One insix-school-age children in the Philippines are being deprived of education and thenumber is raising steadily a study by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)showed 4 years ago. And also the number of six-year-old children who are not in GradeI reached 1.207 million and have 3.8 million school-aged children who likely have notattended school. The 2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey or(FLEMMS) conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) every 5 years cited 11.6million Filipinos aged 10-24 are not attending school. The NSCB said the number ofFilipino children who did not have access to primary education worsened to 16.8 % ofschool-age population in the school year ending 2007 from 15.6 % the previous yearbecause of the rising cost of living. And the latest number of children who did not haveaccess to elementary education was even worse compared with the 9.7% recorded inschool year 2003.
  7. 7. Out Of School YouthASEM Trust Fund for the Asian Financial Crisis Implementation CompletionMemorandum Philippine Out-of-School Children and Youth Development(POSCYD) Project ASEM Trust FundNo.023514Background and Objectives: In the Philippines, the trend for the past ten yearsshow that for every 10 pupils who enroll in grade school, only 7 graduate. Thesame ratio is experienced among the high school students. Main reasonscited for dropping-out are mostly poverty related. While basic education isfree, many poor families are unable to finance the ancillary school needs oftheir children. Deprived of completing high school education, the out-of-schoolyouth are further marginalized from acquiring technical skills. As mandated bythe law, technical education in the Philippines is a post secondary course. Thecontinuing inability of many poor young people to complete basic educationand/or undertake technical education, consign them to the vicious cycle ofpoverty. Their lack of education constrainsOut of school youth means having a vulnerable people who have needs.Nobody can deny the hard fact that education is an extremely important factorfor bringing change in the lives of individuals. It has universally beenrecognized as the most powerful instrument and pre-requisite for gearing upthe socio-economic development of a nation. In fact, it can be said that it is apre-condition for the overall up-lift and welfare of a nation. This is whyinvestment in education is considered to be so vital for human resourcedevelopment and the enhancement of the quality of manpower. The history ofhumankind, in general, and that of developed nations of the worked, inparticular, is replete with the precedents, which establish the fact that a certainlevel of literacy in population is an essential pre-requisite for precipitating theprocess of development in a country.