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  • This series of parent meetings are titled “Demystifying Immersion Education.” Some of you may be wondering how these children, being as young as 5 years old, start developing a second language while we adults struggle to remember only few words in another language? What is really happening in these so-called Spanish/Japanese “immersion” classrooms? Well, today, it is my intention to show you that how your child learns a second language in one of these classrooms is not mystery, but it is the result of a very effective bilingual teaching method called language immersion.
  • This series of parent meetings are titled “Demystifying Immersion Education.” Some of you may be wondering how these children, being as young as 5 years old, start developing a second language while we adults struggle to remember only few words in another language? What is really happening in these so-called Spanish/Japanese “immersion” classrooms? Well, today, it is my intention to show you that how your child learns a second language in one of these classrooms is not mystery, but it is the result of a very effective bilingual teaching method called language immersion.

Session2 myths&reality immersion_for posting Session2 myths&reality immersion_for posting Presentation Transcript

  • “ True benefits of Immersion Education” Immersion Parent Partner Meeting Session 2 Wednesday, October 19 Myths and Realities of Immersion Education
    • If you were to select ONE benefit of language immersion education, what would it be?
    Pair Share!
  • A little about myself
    • Mike Yamakawa
      • Born in Tokyo, Japan
      • Came to the U.S. in 11 th grade
      • Masters in Linguistics with TESOL
      • Taught in immersion classroom for 15 years from 2 nd to 6 th grade
      • Started working at El Marino in 2000
      • FLAP curriculum development support since last year
    22
  • Today’s Overview
    • Session 1 Review
    • Immersion Education: Popular Trend
    • Myths and Realities of Immersion Education
    • Parent Partner Discussion
  • Quick Review: Language Immersion: What is it?
    • Students receive academic instruction (e.g., math, science, social studies) in a second language.
    • English-speaking students develop a second language (Spanish/Japanese) over time. This does not delay future English development.
    • Native-speakers of the minority language (Spanish/Japanese) maintain their first language and also develop English proficiency.
    • 90 :10 model; 70 :30 model; 50 :50 model (target language instruction ratio)
    • One-way immersion vs. two-way immersion (30-50% native Japanese/Spanish speaker population in classroom)
  • Session 1: How does my child learn a second language in the immersion classroom?
  • How does my child learn a second language in the immersion classroom?
    • By “figuring out” (comprehension)
    • By “speaking out” (production)
    • By using language “as a tool”
    • By interacting with peers
    • By transferring concepts across languages
  • How immersion students develop their second language
    • By interacting with peers
      • “ Peer language”: a true advantage in Two-way or dual language immersion model
      • Facilitates “informal” language
      • Prevents “grammatically awkward” speech patterns from becoming a norm
      • Develops a classroom environment in which English-speaking students speak Japanese/Spanish to non-English speakers (and non-English speakers speak English)
  • How immersion students develop their second language
    • By transferring concepts across languages
      • “ Two-Balloon Theory”
      • -Learning in child’s first language limits his/her exposure to the second language and inhibits its acquisition.
      • -Argument against bilingual education
    What I learned in first language What I learned in second language
  • How immersion students develop their second language
    • By transferring concepts across languages
      • “ One-Balloon Theory”
      • -The knowledge of content and some language skills learned in one language can be transferred to a second language.
      • -Bilingual education benefits non-English speakers and enriches English speakers .
    What I learned in first language What I learned in second language
  • How immersion students develop their second language
    • By transferring concepts across languages
      • Immersion teachers intertwine the target language (Spanish/Japanese) and English lessons to facilitate transfer of content knowledge and skills across languages.
      • Strong reason for English learners to extend their education in the minority language
      • Parents can support their children in the home language.
    • Audio-lingual, grammar-based foreign language education in 1960s
    • Shift to communicative approach in 1970s
    • Home-school language switch project in St. Lambert, Canada, in 1965
    • Culver City Bilingual Program: a duplication of the St. Lambert project in Spanish in 1976 (Cohen, 1976)
    • There were immersion programs in at least 30 cities (involving 8000 children) by 1987
    • By 1999, about 46,000 students enrolled in 11 languages in 278 immersion schools (more than half of them in Spanish)
    Trends of foreign language education in the U.S.
    • The current number of total and partial immersion schools grew from 3 (in 1971) to 263 (in 2006) ( Directory of Foreign Language Immersion Programs in U.S. Schools Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006)
    • By 2010, there were 384 two-way immersion programs in 29 states, most of them in Spanish ( Directory of Two-Way Immersion Programs in U.S. Schools Center for Applied Linguistics, 2006)
    • “ Why such popularity?”
    • Parents find real benefits in language immersion schools
      • Native-language maintenance
      • Effective second language acquisition
      • Academic achievement
      • Multiculturalism
    • Immersion education needs no marketing
    Immersion Education: Popular Trends
    • High esteem and confidence ascribed to immersion pedagogy
    • Needed: realistic expectations for Immersion education
    • Still evolving field of study
    Immersion Education: Popular Trends
    • Goal 1: Real benefits of language immersion education
    • Goal 2: Realistic picture of current language immersion education
    Goals for today’s session:
  • Myth or Reality? Question #1
    • “ All students in language immersion program will be fully bilingual and bi-literate by 5 th grade.”
  • Immersion Education and Becoming Bilingual/Bi-literate
        • Immersion programs have generally produced better second-language proficiency results than traditional foreign language teaching.
        • Immersion students approach native-like levels in second-language listening comprehension and reading by the end of elementary school, although they are distinguishable from native speakers in speaking and writing (Johnson & Swain, 1997).
        • It is unlikely that immersion students will approach native-like proficiency level in all areas of language skills by 5 th grade.
        • (Sources: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition; Center for Applied Linguistics)
  • Levels of Bilingual Development
    • Balanced-Bilinguals
    • Age-appropriate competence in both languages
    • positive cognitive advantages
    • Less Balanced-Bilinguals
    • Age-appropriate competence in one but not two languages
    • neither positive or negative consequences
    Additive Bilingualism : The student does not suffer any loss of the native language and its culture while acquiring the second language. Subtractive Bilingualism : The student undergoes a loss of the native language skills and its culture while acquiring the second language. His academic performance may be negatively affected. Additive Neutral Subtractive
    • Limited-Bilinguals
    • low levels of competence in both languages
    • Likely negative cognitive consequences
  • Levels of Bilingual Development
      • Factors affecting
      • second language development
      • Individual student factors
      • Age
      • Personality
      • Student’s positive attitude and motivation contribute to the achievement of additive bilingualism (Gardner & Lambert, 1972, Lambert & Tucker, 1972).
      • Proficiency in the first language
  • Levels of Bilingual Development
      • Factors affecting
      • second language development
      • Family environment factors
      • Monolingual/bilingual parents
      • Length of time the student is exposed to L1 or L2
      • Parental expectations and support for bilingualism
  • Levels of Bilingual Development
      • Factors affecting
      • second language development
      • Instructional factors
      • Program model and quality of instructional environment
      • Studies have shown that Spanish skills of English-speaking students in 90/10 programs are consistently higher than those of students in 50/50 programs at all grade levels (Lindholm-Leary & Howard, in press; Lindholm-Leary, 2001).
  • Levels of Bilingual Development
      • Factors affecting
      • second language development
      • Socio-cultural factors
      • the language of the wider society and the extent to which each of the languages of instruction is valued and used in the community
  • Myth or Reality? Question #2
    • “ Learning in Spanish/Japanese immersion classroom will negatively affect my child’s English development (native English speaker).”
  • Immersion and English Language Development
      • Children who learn through Spanish/Japanese in school usually pick up English with a degree of ease:
        • What a child learns in one language can easily be transferred into a second language (given that child still needs to develop vocabulary in English).
        • A child’s English fluency and competence are often well represented through other experiences in the environment.
        • (Baker, 2000)
  • Immersion and English Language Development
      • Generally, immersion students lag behind in English literacy skills in early grades, but this difference disappears once English literacy is introduced .
      • Research has shown that “the effect of learning a second language on first-language skills has been positive in all studies done.... [and] the loss of instructional time in English has never been shown to have negative effects on the achievement of the first language .” (Bournot-Trites & Tellowitz, 2002)
  • Immersion and English Language Development
      • Immersion students match and often surpass English program students’ performance by Grade 4 or 5 after first-language arts are introduced in the middle elementary years. (Turnbull, Hart & Lapkin, 2000)
  • Myth or Reality? Question #3
    • “ A Spanish/Japanese speaking child will develop English better if he learns only in English.”
  • Academic Instruction in Home Language
      • The Bilingual Education Literature:
      • “ Students who receive considerable native language literacy instruction eventually score much higher on literacy tests in English and their native language than students who have been provided literacy instruction largely or entirely in English (Ramirez et al.,;1991, Willig, 1985; Lindholm-Leary and Borsato, 2006)
  • English Learners Long Term K-12 Achievement on Standardized Tests in English Reading Compared Across Seven Program Models (Thomas & Collier, 2000) The graph shows that two way bilingual immersion programs and late exit bilingual programs with content ESL were the only programs where ELs reached the 50% in English reading and maintained it through 12th grade.
  • Academic Instruction in Home Language
      • Studies have shown that when minority students are provided with native language instruction for at least 50% of the day through grades 5 or 6, they do better academically than those in all-English programs.
      • “ Learning in child’s mother tongue may interfere with learning English and therefore deprive him of academic achievement in school“ is a myth (Cummins, 1981).
  • Academic Instruction in Home Language
      • Research supports the notion that thinking ability and academic skills transfer from one language to another (Hakuta, 1986; Handscomb, 1994).
      • Providing students with substantial amount of instruction in their native language does not interfere or delay their acquisition of English language skills (Ramirez, 1991).
  • Myth or Reality? Question #4
    • “ In an immersion program, a Spanish/Japanese speaking child will be able to learn academic subjects like social studies, science and English reading quickly.”
      • Collier (1989): Research on academic achievement in a second language
      • (the time needed to reach national norms on standardized tests in reading, social studies, and science)
    Immersion Education and Academic Language Development When student is schooled in two languages When student is between 8 to 12 with at least 2 years of schooling in L1 When student is never schooled in L1 4 to 7 years 5 to 7 years 7 to 10 years
  • Immersion Education and Academic Language Development
      • Research finds that English learners need 5-7 years to gain verbal academic skills that are required for successful schooling (Cummins, 2000, Thomas and Collier 1997, 2000)
      • English-speaking children need 4-6 years to show grade-level achievement in Spanish or Japanese (Genesee, 1987)
  • Myth or Reality? Question #5
    • “ Parents should help their immersion students to speak, read and write in the target language even if they don’t speak the language.”
  • Home Language Support
      • Monolingual parents should provide academic support in their home language.
      • Native language offers richer language input (vocabulary, sentence patterns, native expressions)
      • Read to your children in the home language.
      • Encourage writing in the home language.
      • Most skills learned in the first language are transferred to the second.
      • Help make your child’s second-language experience positive and lasting by being supportive and enthusiastic. Offer the language of support and encouragement.
  • Myth or Reality? Question #6
    • “ Immersion education fosters appreciation for people of different ethnicity and culture in students.”
  • Immersion Education and Multiculturalism
      • In early grades, target language (Spanish and Japanese) is the status language for a significant portion of the day.
      • The target language speakers are respected for their knowledge of the TL.
      • During English time, the situation is reversed.
      • The target language culture is respected.
      • Both groups of students are highly valued.
  • Immersion Education and Multiculturalism
    • Survey revealed that two-way immersion students scored very high in:
      • Perceptions and willingness to interact with others who differed in physical characteristics (looks, skin color) or in language background
      • belief that speaking another language could help them understand and get along better with other people and that Spanish is important to talk to others
      • Enjoyment in meeting people who speak another language
      • (Lindholm-Leary, 2000)
  • Parent Partner Group “Find Someone Who”
    • Here is your chance to get to know other immersion parents in the room!
    • As you participate in the activity, “Find Someone Who,” please introduce yourself and the grade level of your child . THANK YOU!
  • Activity: “Find Someone Who” 10/24/11 2-Way CABE Summerl Conference 2009 … M.Y. . A.H. . R.S. Find Someone Who… Name ______________   ___ can name 1 myth of immersion education that he/she thought was true. ___ can share one thing he/she found helpful from today’s session. ___ feels confident now to tell other parents about the benefits of immersion education .
  • Thank you for participating!
    • We look forward to seeing you at the next Immersion Parent Partner session!
    • Session 3: Wednesday, November 16
    • “ Advantages of becoming bilingual, bi-literate, and multi-cultural”
    • Cognitive and social benefits of being bilingual, bi-literate, and multi-cultural
    • How quality immersion education can benefit your child