The english in north america


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The english in north america

  1. 1. The English in North America<br />Michael Fowkes<br />Theme 4 part 2<br />
  2. 2. VirginiaPromoters<br />Obliged to play defense in the nearby Netherlands and English Channel, the English crown lacked the men and ships for risky ventures far from home.<br />Later sixteenth century, the English “lower sort” grew in number and deteriorated in circumstances. <br />English treated the Irish no better than the Spanish treated the Guanche, and they offered no prospect of fairer play for the Indians of Virginia. <br />
  3. 3. Virginia Jamestown<br />In 1604 a peace treaty with Spain reduced the danger of Spanish attack on a new colony.<br />In December 1606, three vessels left England for Virginia, taking the standard circle route southwest via the trade winds to the canaries, westward to the West Indies, and the north with Gulf Stream to Virginia.<br />CaptainJohn Smith commanded the colony and forced the colonists to work six hours a day in the fields.<br />
  4. 4. Virginia Tabbacoo<br />By 1616 the Virginia company had transported more than seventeen hundred people to the Chesapeake and spent well over fifty thousand dollars, yet all it had to show for the investment was unprofitable town of 350 diseased and hungry colonists.<br />Led by John Rolfe, the planters learned how to raise tobacco in 1616.<br />During the 1620s, tobacco sold in England for about five to ten times as much as it cost to produce in Chesapeake.<br />
  5. 5. New EnglandEnglish Puritans<br />Church and state were united in early modern England. Law demanded that everyone support the official Church of England with taxes and regular attendance.<br />The merge of church and state in service to social order gave political significance to every religious issue.<br />Puritans longed to experience the “ New Birth” a transforming infusion of divine grace that liberated people from profound anxiety over their spiritual worthlessness and eternal fate.<br />
  6. 6. New EnglandCommerce<br />During the 1630s, New England thrived primarily from the regular infusion of newcomers, who brought currency and other capital and consumed, at enhanced prices, the crops produced by the first comers.<br />Fishing trade was based in the northeastern coastal towns of Maine, New Hampshire, and Essex County, Massachusetts.<br />By developing the fishing trade, the Puritans rescued the regions economy, but at the cost of accepting the presence, of the sort of rowdy and defiant folk whom they had hoped to leave behind in England. <br />
  7. 7. New EnglandReligion and Profit <br />New England began to exercise a new pull on puritan minds.<br />The Puritans understood in spiritual terms many causes that we might define as economic. They interpreted the wandering beggars, increased crime, cloth trade depression, and famines as divine afflictions meant to punish a guilty land that wallowed in sin.<br />During the seventeenth century, new England received only 21,000 emigrants transported to the Chesapeake area.<br />
  8. 8. CarolinaColonists<br />To secure Carolina from Spanish attak and accelerate its economic development, the Lords proprietor needed to attract more colonists quickly.<br />Carolina promised ambitious and wealthy men the opportunity to get in on the ground floor of a new colony.<br />The Carolinians justified enslavement as beneficial for Indians, sparing captives from execution and exposing them to Christian civilization among their English purchasers.<br />
  9. 9. CarolinaRaiders<br />The Spanish in Florida claimed the Cusabo as vassals, but the Spanish failed to deliver on their promises to protect them against the Westo, for Spanish policy virtually precluded provided firearms to Indians.<br />The expanded trade reached a large but loose confederation of Indians called the Creek by the English.<br />Without the missions, Spanish Florida became a hollow shell, while English Carolina triumphed as the leading regional power.<br />
  10. 10. CarolinaTerror<br />As in the West Indies, the planters also suffered from a haunting fear that their African majority would rise up I n deadly, burning rebellion. <br />In 1724, legislation required the planters to bear firearms to church, to deter the African Americans from rebelling on a Sunday.<br />On Sunday, September 9, 1739, the dread became real in slave rebellion on the Stono River, twenty miles from Charles Town.<br />