The Discovery of Cells
Before microscopes were invented, people
believed that diseases were caused by curses
and supernatu...
Light microscopes
• In the 1600’s Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a
simple light microscope because it contained
one lens and u...
The Cell Theory
• Robert Hooke used a compound light
microscope to study cork, the dead cells of
oak bark. Hooke observed ...
The Cell Theory
Cell theory made up of three ideas
1. All organisms are composed of one or more
cells.
2. The cell is the ...
Electron Microscopes
• The electron microscopes was developed in the
1930’s and 1940’s.
• This microscope uses a beam of e...
Two Basic cell types
• Prokaryotes- most unicellular organisms, such
as bacteria, do not have membrane bound
organelles.

...
The Plasma membrane
• All cells must maintain a balance regardless of
internal and external conditions.
• Survival depends...
Plasma Membrane
• The excess of nutrients, waste and other
substances leave the cell through the plasma
membrane.
• The pr...
• Some molecules, such as water, freely enter
the cell through the plasma membrane.
• Other particles, such as sodium and ...
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
• Recall that lipids are composed of glycerol and
three fatty acid chains.
• Replace one ...
The phospholipid bilayer
• The two fatty acid tails of the phospholipids
are nonpolar, whereas the head of the
phospholipi...
The Phospholipid Bilayer
• The model of the plasma membrane is called
the fluid mosaic model.
• Fluid because phospholipid...
Other components of the plasma
membrane
• Cholesterol is also found in the plasma
membrane where it helps to stabilize the...
The Eukaryotic Cell Structure
• Cellular Boundaries
• Plant cells, fungi, bacteria and some protists
have an additional bo...
The Cell Wall
• The cell wall forms an inflexible barrier that
protects the cell and gives it support.
• In plants the cel...
The Nucleus and cell control
• The nucleus contains the directions to make
proteins. Every part of the cell depends on
pro...
The Nucleus
• Within the Nucleus is a prominent organelle
called the nucleolus, which makes ribosomes.
• Ribosomes are the...
The Nucleus
• Cytoplasm is the clear, gelatinous fluid inside a
cell. Ribosomes and translated RNA are
transported to the ...
The Nucleus
• Ribosomes and translated RNA pass into the
cytoplasm through these pores on the nuclear
envelope.
Assembly and transport of proteins
• The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of
cellular chemical reactions.
• The ER i...
Assembly and transport of proteins
• Ribosomes in the cytoplasm are attached to
the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum,
...
Assembly and transport of proteins
Function of proteins made from ribosomes on
rough ER may become:
1. a protein may becom...
• The area of the ER that are not studded with
ribosomes are known as the smooth
endoplasmic reticulum. The Smooth ER is
i...
Assembly and transport of proteins
• After proteins are made, they are transferred to
another organelle called the Golgi a...
Assembly and transport of Proteins
• The Golgi apparatus sorts proteins into
packages and packs them into membranebound st...
Vacuoles and Storage
• Cells have membrane-bound compartments
called vacuoles, for temporary storage of
materials. A vacuo...
Lysosomes and Recycling
• The trash guys “lysosomes” are organelles
that contain digestive enzymes. They digest
excess or ...
Energy transformers
• Protein production, modification,
transportation, digestion- all require energy.
Two organelles, chl...
Chloroplasts and energy
• Chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture
light energy and convert it to chemical energy.
• ...
• Chloroplasts contain the green pigment
chlorophyll. Chlorophyll traps light energy and
gives leaves and stems their gree...
Chloroplasts and energy
• The chloroplasts belongs to a group of plant
organelles called plastids, which are used for
stor...
Mitochondria and energy
(The Power house of the Cell)
• Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles
in plant and animal cel...
Mitochondria and energy
• A mitochondrion has an outer membrane and
inner membrane. Energy-storing molecules
are produced ...
Cytoskeleton
• Cells have a support structure called the
cytoskeleton within the cytoplasm. It is like
the skeleton of the...
Cytoskeleton
• Microtubules are thin, hollow cylinders made
of protein and microfilaments are smaller,
solid protein fiber...
Centrioles are organelles found in the cells of
animals and most protists. Centrioles play and
important role in cell divi...
• Flagella are longer projections that move with
a whip like motion. A cell usually has only one
or two flagella.
The discovery of cells
The discovery of cells
The discovery of cells
The discovery of cells
The discovery of cells
The discovery of cells
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The discovery of cells

  1. 1. The Discovery of Cells Before microscopes were invented, people believed that diseases were caused by curses and supernatural spirits. They had no idea that organisms such as bacteria existed. Then scientists began using microscopes when enabled them to view and study cells.
  2. 2. Light microscopes • In the 1600’s Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a simple light microscope because it contained one lens and used light to view objects. • Over the next 200 years microscopes improved greatly developing the compound light microscope which uses a series of lenses to magnify objects in steps. • These microscopes can magnify objects up to about 1500 times
  3. 3. The Cell Theory • Robert Hooke used a compound light microscope to study cork, the dead cells of oak bark. Hooke observed small geometric shapes and he gave these box shaped structures the name cells. • German scientist Matthias Schleiden observed plant and concluded that all plants are composed of cells. • Theodor Schwann observations in animals.
  4. 4. The Cell Theory Cell theory made up of three ideas 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization of organism. 3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
  5. 5. Electron Microscopes • The electron microscopes was developed in the 1930’s and 1940’s. • This microscope uses a beam of electrons instead of light to magnify structures up to 500,000 times their actual size, allowing scientists to see structures within a cell. • Two basic types of EM. Scanning EM, scans the surfaces of cells to learn their 3D shape. Transmission EM allows scientists to study the structures contained within the cell.
  6. 6. Two Basic cell types • Prokaryotes- most unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, do not have membrane bound organelles. • Eukaryotes- those containing membranebound organelles.
  7. 7. The Plasma membrane • All cells must maintain a balance regardless of internal and external conditions. • Survival depends on the cell’s ability to maintain the proper conditions within itself. • The job of the plasma membrane is to allow a steady supply of nutrients to come into the cell such as glucose, amino acids, lipids. • To much of these nutrients or other substances can be harmful to the cell.
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane • The excess of nutrients, waste and other substances leave the cell through the plasma membrane. • The process of maintaining balance in the cell’s environment is called homeostasis. • One mechanism the plasma membrane maintains homeostasis is selective permeability, a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out.
  9. 9. • Some molecules, such as water, freely enter the cell through the plasma membrane. • Other particles, such as sodium and calcium ions, must be allowed in to the cells at certain times, in certain amounts, and through certain channels.
  10. 10. Structure of the Plasma Membrane • Recall that lipids are composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains. • Replace one fatty chain with a phosphate group and then a phospholipid is formed. • The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which has two layers of phospholipid back to back.
  11. 11. The phospholipid bilayer • The two fatty acid tails of the phospholipids are nonpolar, whereas the head of the phospholipid molecule containing the phosphate group is polar. • The polar phosphate group allows the cell membrane to interact with its watery environment because water is polar. • The fatty acid tails avoid water.
  12. 12. The Phospholipid Bilayer • The model of the plasma membrane is called the fluid mosaic model. • Fluid because phospholipids move like water molecules move with currents in a lake. • Mosaic, or pattern because the proteins in the membrane also move among the phospholipids like boats with their decks above water and hulls below water.
  13. 13. Other components of the plasma membrane • Cholesterol is also found in the plasma membrane where it helps to stabilize the phospholipid by preventing their fatty acid tails from sticking together. • Transport protein move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane. They help form the selectively permeable membrane that regulates which molecules enter and which molecules leave the cell.
  14. 14. The Eukaryotic Cell Structure • Cellular Boundaries • Plant cells, fungi, bacteria and some protists have an additional boundary, the cell wall • The cell wall is a fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection.
  15. 15. The Cell Wall • The cell wall forms an inflexible barrier that protects the cell and gives it support. • In plants the cell wall is composed of a carbohydrate called cellulose. The cellulose forms a thick, tough mesh of fibers. • The cell wall allows molecules to enter. Unlike the plasma membrane it does not select which molecules can enter into the cell.
  16. 16. The Nucleus and cell control • The nucleus contains the directions to make proteins. Every part of the cell depends on proteins, so by containing the blueprint to make proteins, the nucleus controls the activity of the organelles. • The master set of directions for making proteins is contained in the chromatin, which are strands of the genetic material, DNA.
  17. 17. The Nucleus • Within the Nucleus is a prominent organelle called the nucleolus, which makes ribosomes. • Ribosomes are the sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of DNA. • For proteins to be made, ribosomes must leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm and the blueprints contained in DNA must be translated into RNA and sent to the cytoplasm.
  18. 18. The Nucleus • Cytoplasm is the clear, gelatinous fluid inside a cell. Ribosomes and translated RNA are transported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear envelope- a structure that separates the nucleus. • The nuclear envelope is composed of two phospholipid bilayers containing small nuclear pores.
  19. 19. The Nucleus • Ribosomes and translated RNA pass into the cytoplasm through these pores on the nuclear envelope.
  20. 20. Assembly and transport of proteins • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of cellular chemical reactions. • The ER is arranged in a series of highly folded membranes in the cytoplasm. Folds are like an accordion. • Reason for the folds of the ER. To have a large surface area in a small space.
  21. 21. Assembly and transport of proteins • Ribosomes in the cytoplasm are attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, called rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they carry out the function of protein synthesis. • The ribosome’s job is to make proteins. Each protein made in the rough ER has a particular function.
  22. 22. Assembly and transport of proteins Function of proteins made from ribosomes on rough ER may become: 1. a protein may become part of plasma membrane. 2. a protein that is released from the cell. 3. A protein transported to other organelles Ribosomes floating freely in the cytoplasm make proteins that perform tasks within the cytoplasm itself.
  23. 23. • The area of the ER that are not studded with ribosomes are known as the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The Smooth ER is involved in numerous biochemical activities, including the production and storage of Lipids.
  24. 24. Assembly and transport of proteins • After proteins are made, they are transferred to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus. • The Golgi apparatus is a flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies the proteins.
  25. 25. Assembly and transport of Proteins • The Golgi apparatus sorts proteins into packages and packs them into membranebound structures, called vesicles, to be sent to the appropriate destination, like mail being sorted at the post office.
  26. 26. Vacuoles and Storage • Cells have membrane-bound compartments called vacuoles, for temporary storage of materials. A vacuole is a sac used to store food, enzymes, and other materials needed by the cell. Some vacuoles store waste products. • Animal cells do not usually have a vacuoles but if they do they are much smaller than a plants cells.
  27. 27. Lysosomes and Recycling • The trash guys “lysosomes” are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. • Lysosomes can fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuole, digesting its contents.
  28. 28. Energy transformers • Protein production, modification, transportation, digestion- all require energy. Two organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria provide that energy. Chloroplasts and energy Chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy.
  29. 29. Chloroplasts and energy • Chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy. • Structure of Chloroplasts- Has two membranes. Thylakoid membranes are stacked on top of one another (stack of coins) making a membranous sacs called grana. The stroma is the fluid that surrounds that grana.
  30. 30. • Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll traps light energy and gives leaves and stems their green color.
  31. 31. Chloroplasts and energy • The chloroplasts belongs to a group of plant organelles called plastids, which are used for storage. Some plastids store starches or lipids, whereas others contain pigments, molecules that give color.
  32. 32. Mitochondria and energy (The Power house of the Cell) • Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for cells. The energy is then stored in the bonds of other molecules that cell organelles can access easily and quickly when energy is needed. • The chemical energy generated by the chloroplasts is stored in the bonds of sugar molecules until they are broken down by mitochondria.
  33. 33. Mitochondria and energy • A mitochondrion has an outer membrane and inner membrane. Energy-storing molecules are produced on the inner membrane. • Mitochondria numbers vary from cell to cell depending on the function of the cell. For example, liver cells may have up to 2000 mitochondria.
  34. 34. Cytoskeleton • Cells have a support structure called the cytoskeleton within the cytoplasm. It is like the skeleton of the human body but the cytoskeleton is constantly changing structure. It can be dismantled in one place and reassembled some where else in the cell, changing the cell’s shape.
  35. 35. Cytoskeleton • Microtubules are thin, hollow cylinders made of protein and microfilaments are smaller, solid protein fibers and they make up the cytoskeleton. Together, they act as a sort of scaffold to maintain the shape of the cell in the same way that poles maintain the shape of a tent.
  36. 36. Centrioles are organelles found in the cells of animals and most protists. Centrioles play and important role in cell division. Cilia and flagella Some cells surfaces have cilia and flagella, which are organelles made of microtubles that aid the cell in locomotion or feeding. Cilia are short, numerous projections that look like hairs. Their motion is similar to that of oars in a rowboat.
  37. 37. • Flagella are longer projections that move with a whip like motion. A cell usually has only one or two flagella.

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