Language & Literature SL Part 2: Language in Mass Communication01: SPEECHES
history lesson• Speech-making was the first form of mass media.• The art, or technique of speech-making is known as rhetoric.• Speech-making first rose to prominence and was codified in Ancient Greece & Rome.
MORE Greeks sent their sons to HISTORY• Ancient Romans & tutors to school them in the art of rhetoric.• These sons would serve in the Senate, making speeches that would secure their wealth and power.• Many of these speeches, like those of the great Cicero, were written down for posterity.• Up until the 20th century, they were regularly quoted by politicians.
SO, WHAT IS RHETORIC?OF TOOLS TO HELP YOU COMMUN EFFECTIVELY & MEMORABLY.
LET’S START AT THE BEGINNING.• Great orators & masters of rhetoric begin by asking what they want to achieve, not what they want to say.• They then ensure they have a little each of logos, pathos and ethos.
LOG OS A clear, internally consistent idea or purpose. PUBLIC SPEAKING: THE ARISTOTLE WAYPATHOS ETHOS Evidence to An appeal to the reader’s establish theemotions & experience. speaker as an authoritative source.
A GREAT SPEECH HAS A BEAT. CADENCE REPETITION Alliterationis the rhythmic repetition & Assonance of words is a sounds somewhat or emulation of phrases. basic technique to sexy to attentive It lulls the listener into a establish key ideas. audiences, of course. state of concentration.
A GREAT SPEECH TAKES THE LISTENER ON A METAPHOR JOURNEY. SENTENTIA ‘samples’ another work compares two objects or ALLUSIONconcepts by speaking of one as to gain some of its power. the other. refers to another work in order to create familiarity and imbue the speech with its attributes. HYPERBOLE ANTITHESIS excites the listener through sets up a clear PERSONIFICATION exaggeraton. distinction between two opposing concepts, imbues inanimate objects or ideas. objects or concepts with human attributes. It literally humanizes them.
TIME CAN SET THE WORLD AFLAMEand put it back together.and put it back together.
ONE NATION:E ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEA - P Henry, 1775 “we hereby resolve that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not - A Lincoln, 1863 perish from the earth”.
YOUR TURN! Take a copy of Patrick Henry’s speech or the Gettysburg Address and identify the Logos, Pathos and Ethos.Then see what literary devices you can find in the speech.