Persuasive Design
Tapping the Main Line
trampoline systems mike stenhouse donotremove.co.uk
locate and visualise expertise...
Be attractive
1974 Canadian federal elections - more attractive cands got 2.5x more votes!
When questioned, only 14% thoug...
piclens.com
So, you can make a beautiful product
monocle.com
Dan Hill City of Sound writeup
Tailored, custom feel
Hand-chosen and appropriately designed adverts (animated ...
Be delightful
Giving mints with the bill increases tips 2%/12%/25%
special, surprise mint for 25%!
“Delighters” Matt Biddu...
Sofitel, Sharm el-Sheikh
underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/004262.html
“
overheardinnewyork.com/archives/015249.html
Account executive: So, who'd you vote for?
Creative director: Obama, he's go...
dopplr.com
BBC iPlayer goes up to 11 - Spinal Tap reference
eBay gives you a special phone number
trampolinesystems.com
Swoosh!
delicious-monster.com
Beautiful, clever
When a Star Wars is added says 'I am your father’
When Rock Band is added sings a ...
Be likeable
“Greatest Car Salesman” Guinness Book of World Records
when questioned: liking was his key to selling 5 cars p...
virb.com
Obvious flattery - implied compliment + commitment
This is how clothes salespeople work
iwantsandy.com
Be familiar
flickr.com
flickr touches make me love them just a little bit more each time
“
overheardintheoffice.com/archives/007194.html
Angry sales rep: I hate how Amazon thinks it
knows me.
But beware over-fami...
Be appropriate
not just about posing
“hippie” vs “straight” asking for a dime (70s!) 2/3rd if dressed same, less than 1/2 ...
Similarity of the application to the audience’s self-image
Beloved of the geek set
Viral, invite-only (social proof) growth attracted the technorati and suggested both exclusivity
(...
“
alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/projects/themail/study/index.htm
The more Themail confirmed their expectations—
that is, th...
myspace.com/smatka
Neither usable nor attractive
Almost impossible to make a really nice page.
Tone: Apparently amongst ki...
monocle.com
google.com
Use your users’ language
Resonance
Card sorting
Double grouping exercises from Sense Making
Mine your search bo...
wordtracker.com
holidays not vacations
car hire not car rental
riding
city breaks
hotel with jacuzzi
babes and glamour mod...
Be recommended
herd instinct - safety in numbers - evolved survival instinct
“Werther effect” (18th C: The Sorrows of Youn...
37signals.com
Proofed by the herd
Pressure of society on you
techcrunch.com
Reader numbers on the right
Credibility
linkedin.com
trig.com
social proof as popularity
myspace.com/lilymusic
Can choose to promote it:
Friends count
Collect friends
MySpace - not social software
As a promotion...
flickr.com
Social proof stats normally hidden
flickr.com
In the context of search where score is important - uses social proof
Decision point
37signals.com
“most people who stayed here” -> 26% increase in towel reuse
You don’t know that 94%
freshbooks.com
Towel - people in same room -> towel reuse up to 33%
happy users like _you_
“
icanhaz.com/twittertao
Here’s the cool thing about Twitter. It’s side
by side communication. Here’s a picture of
Dan & I...
youtube.com
Also the reason that virals and social media are such hot property
facebook.com
Both types of social proof in Facebook’s Social Advertising
My friend Amy + 757 other people
Be generous
Every culture has some concept of it
Christmas (Roman’s Sol Invictus 200BC, Christian 200AD)
Ethnographer Marc...
flickr.com/photos/citnaj/1548695025
Hare Krishna society in the 70s giving “gifts”
Krishnas funded hundreds of temples acro...
Cadbury’s
“A glass and a half full of joy”
Pot Noodle
Pot Noodle spoof
blinksale.com
Freemium model
Friend who paid for last.fm subscription because he felt he owed them
Predictably irrational:...
Based on reciprocity
Give to get
You should start a conversation
You have to earn your potential users’ trust
Don’t ask fo...
See this in action...
Quality content
Valuable content then call to action
Horrid but they’re earning millions!
Permission and reciprocity
songkick.com
Think of the experience path as a permissions system
“Let us find you a concert” -> “Let us give you something...
songkick.com
silverbackapp.com
Interesting flip side to permission
Putting people out - Benjamin Framklin
Chinese tech for turning Ameri...
Be playful
“
encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-egopsychology.html
Hartmann argued that gratification is gained from
the sheer exercise of one'...
flickr.com/photos/alexadan/2127928417
Compulsive play
Schiphol airport urinals
80% increase in accuracy
We are learning machines
“
wired.com/gaming/virtualworlds/magazine/15-09/ff_halo
The ideal in gameplay, the goal every developer
aims for, is an ex...
Be understanding
Understand how people think - where our limits lie
“
sciam.com/article.cfm?id=understanding-how-our-bra
The assistant professor of cognitive science at
Rensselaer Polytechni...
“
musanim.com/miller1956/
There is a span of absolute judgement that can
distinguish about seven categories and that there...
“
ted.org/index.php/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate.html
In poetry all over the world you have lines t...
havenworks.com
“
musanim.com/miller1956/
It seems that by adding more dimensions and
requiring crude, binary, yes-no judgements on
each a...
“
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar's_number
Dunbar’s surveys of village and tribe sizes also
appeared to approximate this pred...
lifewithalacrity.com/2004/03/the_dunbar_numb.html
size ranges of 30-50, 100-200 members each.
Agile starts to break down a...
These limits are why MySpace isn’t social and...
Facebook friends lists is having to provide tools to help us chunk our friends to let us remain
social
Notice the wear...
“
the-deblog.com/2008/04/shafted-41-hour.html
In most elevators, at least in any built or
installed since the early nineti...
Auto-save
Be conventional
Anathema to designers
But conventions are your friend
Here’s why
flickr.com/photos/andrewn/192711044
example pattern from Matt Webb’s Mind Hacks
“light-from-above”
kare.com
Light from above pattern
Cues: Icons, Patterns, Colour, Shape, Gradient, URL
Pattern matching
Mind hacks
Reptilian, pattern matching machines
Our senses fire neurons and if the combination unlocks a m...
icanhaz.com/googleeyes
RPD leads to all sorts of interesting behavioural phenomena
Recog Primed Dec Making on the web: Goo...
People under pressure responding to patterns in their environment
HMS Gloucester 1992 Gulf War. Friendly plane or silkworm...
flickr.com/photos/blueandwhitehoops/2294861912
Cues and experience
Cues, The Golden Retriever - Boxes and Arrows: The desig...
flickr.com/photos/momorgan/1485263389
Ability to associate things together in our minds
Peg system for remembering numbers
...
phonetic but with cues
Loads of cues to jog your memory
netvibes.com
Long and short - this is why we’ve had icons almost as long as we’ve had graphical interfaces
Susan Kare - Ap...
labs.digg.com/arc
Colour is used as an extra dimension in visualisation
garrettdimon.com/archives/2008/1/22/evolution_of_a_header/
Bug status ambient signifier
business.gov.uk
Colour as an ambient signifier
dopplr.com
Be remarkable
Design to be remarked - Seth Godin
Stories
One of the most fundamental mechanisms we have for transmitting i...
flickr.com/photos/niwru/91591044
Dave Snowden - business anthropologist
Plumbers story
Xerox parc engineers manuals - presc...
trampolinesystems.com
There’s occasional talk of UX as story-telling but they can be applied all over
Seth Godin - being r...
Be...
attractive
delightful
likeable
appropriate
recommended
generous
playful
understanding
conventional
remarkable
persua...
The End
Mike Stenhouse
donotremove.co.uk
oo5.whatiminto.com
trampolinesystems.com
contentwithstyle.co.uk
Paper
Influence by Robert Cialdini
Sources of Power by Gary Klein
Permission Marketing by Seth Godin
A Theory of Fun by Rap...
Electronic
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs
underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/004262.html
everyth...
The End
Mike Stenhouse
donotremove.co.uk
oo5.whatiminto.com
trampolinesystems.com
contentwithstyle.co.uk
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Persuasive Design

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We love stories, recognise patterns in fractions of a second and have a set of highly developed social behaviours. In "Persuasive Design" Mike will be running through a collection of these hard-wired influence points and exploring how they can be used in the design of products, interfaces and experiences.

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Persuasive Design

  1. 1. Persuasive Design Tapping the Main Line trampoline systems mike stenhouse donotremove.co.uk locate and visualise expertise in large companies
  2. 2. Be attractive 1974 Canadian federal elections - more attractive cands got 2.5x more votes! When questioned, only 14% thought it possible Better jobs - 12-14% more money Negligence cases staged - good looking defendants paid half the damages - $5000 vs 10000 Cognitive bias - Halo effect, in particular physical attractiveness stereotype
  3. 3. piclens.com So, you can make a beautiful product
  4. 4. monocle.com Dan Hill City of Sound writeup Tailored, custom feel Hand-chosen and appropriately designed adverts (animated Rolex clocks) Highbrow Striking up a rapport with users and matching their self-image
  5. 5. Be delightful Giving mints with the bill increases tips 2%/12%/25% special, surprise mint for 25%! “Delighters” Matt Biddulph of Dopplr
  6. 6. Sofitel, Sharm el-Sheikh
  7. 7. underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/004262.html
  8. 8. “ overheardinnewyork.com/archives/015249.html Account executive: So, who'd you vote for? Creative director: Obama, he's got cool logos.
  9. 9. dopplr.com BBC iPlayer goes up to 11 - Spinal Tap reference eBay gives you a special phone number
  10. 10. trampolinesystems.com Swoosh!
  11. 11. delicious-monster.com Beautiful, clever When a Star Wars is added says 'I am your father’ When Rock Band is added sings a portion of Run to the Hills by Iron Maiden Harry Met Sally Best User Experience award from Apple Don’t underestimate the value of joy and fun
  12. 12. Be likeable “Greatest Car Salesman” Guinness Book of World Records when questioned: liking was his key to selling 5 cars per day “finding the salesman you like, plus the price.” sent card saying “i like you” every month to every one of his 13,000 customers
  13. 13. virb.com Obvious flattery - implied compliment + commitment This is how clothes salespeople work
  14. 14. iwantsandy.com Be familiar
  15. 15. flickr.com flickr touches make me love them just a little bit more each time
  16. 16. “ overheardintheoffice.com/archives/007194.html Angry sales rep: I hate how Amazon thinks it knows me. But beware over-familiarity - Amazon uses my full name, which only gets used when I’ve done something wrong NeurLingProg body language mirroring - simulate rapport Derren Brown - NLP guy mirrored journalist and creeped him out
  17. 17. Be appropriate not just about posing “hippie” vs “straight” asking for a dime (70s!) 2/3rd if dressed same, less than 1/2 if diff Good salesman will take off his tie
  18. 18. Similarity of the application to the audience’s self-image
  19. 19. Beloved of the geek set Viral, invite-only (social proof) growth attracted the technorati and suggested both exclusivity (ego) and bleeding edge Perhaps the slightly unfinished, purely functional design is the most fit for early adopters? Could be a very clever design strategy...
  20. 20. “ alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/projects/themail/study/index.htm The more Themail confirmed their expectations— that is, their mental model of what their relationships were like—the more they enjoyed using the tool. confirmed expectations -> enjoyment
  21. 21. myspace.com/smatka Neither usable nor attractive Almost impossible to make a really nice page. Tone: Apparently amongst kids it’s very, very uncool to have a good looking page Great leveller. I think there’s an argument for bad design! Survival of the most fit or the fit enough NOT the fittest.
  22. 22. monocle.com
  23. 23. google.com Use your users’ language Resonance Card sorting Double grouping exercises from Sense Making Mine your search box Mine the search engines’ search box
  24. 24. wordtracker.com holidays not vacations car hire not car rental riding city breaks hotel with jacuzzi babes and glamour models not porn
  25. 25. Be recommended herd instinct - safety in numbers - evolved survival instinct “Werther effect” (18th C: The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe) Jonestown massacre - 1000 committed suicide In the 2 weeks after Marilyn Monroe's death, the suicide by overdose rate jumped 12 percent. High profile suicide -> suicide, car and plane wrecks
  26. 26. 37signals.com Proofed by the herd Pressure of society on you
  27. 27. techcrunch.com Reader numbers on the right Credibility
  28. 28. linkedin.com
  29. 29. trig.com social proof as popularity
  30. 30. myspace.com/lilymusic Can choose to promote it: Friends count Collect friends MySpace - not social software As a promotional tool for bands, using friends as a score is perfectly valid - social proof But not a realistic aim of a SOCIAL network
  31. 31. flickr.com Social proof stats normally hidden
  32. 32. flickr.com In the context of search where score is important - uses social proof Decision point
  33. 33. 37signals.com “most people who stayed here” -> 26% increase in towel reuse You don’t know that 94%
  34. 34. freshbooks.com Towel - people in same room -> towel reuse up to 33% happy users like _you_
  35. 35. “ icanhaz.com/twittertao Here’s the cool thing about Twitter. It’s side by side communication. Here’s a picture of Dan & I (Ed). Say Dan twitters ‘hey, I’ve found this amazing site, go check it out.’ Do I question it? Do I have defenses up? No. I go straight there. Second type of social proof - proofed by a friend Hate quote but illustrates well
  36. 36. youtube.com Also the reason that virals and social media are such hot property
  37. 37. facebook.com Both types of social proof in Facebook’s Social Advertising My friend Amy + 757 other people
  38. 38. Be generous Every culture has some concept of it Christmas (Roman’s Sol Invictus 200BC, Christian 200AD) Ethnographer Marcel Mauss ‘The Gift’ 1900 Argue that no such thing as a free gift Mauss: “magical”, “total social fact” Baboons display it when distracting alpha male to get quality time with the lady baboons
  39. 39. flickr.com/photos/citnaj/1548695025 Hare Krishna society in the 70s giving “gifts” Krishnas funded hundreds of temples across the US Handing out/collecting/staking out bin/recycling
  40. 40. Cadbury’s “A glass and a half full of joy”
  41. 41. Pot Noodle Pot Noodle spoof
  42. 42. blinksale.com Freemium model Friend who paid for last.fm subscription because he felt he owed them Predictably irrational: people would sell basketball tickets for 14 times more than people were willing to buy them for Because they were considering what they would lose $5 with insurance survey more effective that $50
  43. 43. Based on reciprocity Give to get You should start a conversation You have to earn your potential users’ trust Don’t ask for email address without offering something
  44. 44. See this in action... Quality content
  45. 45. Valuable content then call to action Horrid but they’re earning millions! Permission and reciprocity
  46. 46. songkick.com Think of the experience path as a permissions system “Let us find you a concert” -> “Let us give you something for free”
  47. 47. songkick.com
  48. 48. silverbackapp.com Interesting flip side to permission Putting people out - Benjamin Framklin Chinese tech for turning American collaborators in Korea
  49. 49. Be playful
  50. 50. “ encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-egopsychology.html Hartmann argued that gratification is gained from the sheer exercise of one's functions, as when a child is delighted by learning to walk or to draw, and Rapaport identified novelty-seeking as a self- rewarding activity. Something else interesting about a permission philosophy as an experience - constant learning - small steps Subtle Humans love to learn
  51. 51. flickr.com/photos/alexadan/2127928417 Compulsive play Schiphol airport urinals 80% increase in accuracy
  52. 52. We are learning machines
  53. 53. “ wired.com/gaming/virtualworlds/magazine/15-09/ff_halo The ideal in gameplay, the goal every developer aims for, is an experience that keeps players in a “flow” state — constantly surfing the edges of their abilities without bogging down. [...] The flow comes from constantly discovering innovative ways to solve these open-ended problems. the most compelling games are the most appropriately challenging ones Halo 3 is about learning!
  54. 54. Be understanding Understand how people think - where our limits lie
  55. 55. “ sciam.com/article.cfm?id=understanding-how-our-bra The assistant professor of cognitive science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has demonstrated that the shapes of letters in 100 writing systems reflect common ones seen in nature: Take the letter “A”—it looks like a mountain, he says. And “Y” might remind one of a tree with branches. He also showed that across different languages most characters take three strokes to write out. 3 is the highest quantity a person can perceive without counting Some societies don’t develop numbers above 3
  56. 56. “ musanim.com/miller1956/ There is a span of absolute judgement that can distinguish about seven categories and that there is a span of attention that will encompass about six objects at a glance. George Miller 1956 The Magical Number Seven 7 turnings in a set of directions Tones to numbers Phone number Notes in a scale Number of god (7 clean animals, times around Jericho) Deadly sins Dwarves with snowwhite
  57. 57. “ ted.org/index.php/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate.html In poetry all over the world you have lines that are very close to 3 seconds long separated by pauses. Chinese terse numbering - 10 digits Suggested that 2 second memory
  58. 58. havenworks.com
  59. 59. “ musanim.com/miller1956/ It seems that by adding more dimensions and requiring crude, binary, yes-no judgements on each attribute we can extend the span of absolute judgement from seven to at least 150. Chunking - why learning increases ability to execute complex tasks This is why complex tasks require training Trying to teach a friend to use a computer when she couldn’t use a mouse
  60. 60. “ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar's_number Dunbar’s surveys of village and tribe sizes also appeared to approximate this predicted value, including 150 as the estimated size of a neolithic farming village; 150 as the splitting point of Hutterite settlements; 200 as the upper bound on the number of academics in a discipline’s sub-specialization; 150 as the basic unit size of professional armies in Roman antiquity and in modern times since the 16th century; and notions of appropriate company size. Studying primates - neocortex size correlates with social group size Applied his results to humans, based on relative neocortex size and estimated c.150 for motivated group The grooming required to remain connected is too much
  61. 61. lifewithalacrity.com/2004/03/the_dunbar_numb.html size ranges of 30-50, 100-200 members each. Agile starts to break down at 15
  62. 62. These limits are why MySpace isn’t social and...
  63. 63. Facebook friends lists is having to provide tools to help us chunk our friends to let us remain social
  64. 64. Notice the wear...
  65. 65. “ the-deblog.com/2008/04/shafted-41-hour.html In most elevators, at least in any built or installed since the early nineties, the door-close button doesn’t work. It is there mainly to make you think it works. [...] Elevator design is rooted in deception—to disguise not only the bare fact of the box hanging by ropes but also the tethering of tenants to a system over which they have no command. Sometimes have a hack mode - combination of key presses
  66. 66. Auto-save
  67. 67. Be conventional Anathema to designers But conventions are your friend Here’s why
  68. 68. flickr.com/photos/andrewn/192711044 example pattern from Matt Webb’s Mind Hacks “light-from-above”
  69. 69. kare.com Light from above pattern Cues: Icons, Patterns, Colour, Shape, Gradient, URL
  70. 70. Pattern matching Mind hacks Reptilian, pattern matching machines Our senses fire neurons and if the combination unlocks a memory then it’s brought forward This is also how sleight of hand magic works - give enough cues to trigger movement recognition Nature - attention in stage magic
  71. 71. icanhaz.com/googleeyes RPD leads to all sorts of interesting behavioural phenomena Recog Primed Dec Making on the web: Google Effect Links are coloured Headlines are big If they don’t deliver then switch to evaluative Reptilian, convention response to the cues on the page first time
  72. 72. People under pressure responding to patterns in their environment HMS Gloucester 1992 Gulf War. Friendly plane or silkworm missile? From instrument data - indistinguishable. Officer recognised a pattern in the flight path. Responding to unconscious cues. This is the basis for conventions - they’re patterns
  73. 73. flickr.com/photos/blueandwhitehoops/2294861912 Cues and experience Cues, The Golden Retriever - Boxes and Arrows: The design behind the design Each train station in a large city has a unique audio melody associated with it. Commuters learn their chime and the one for the station before theirs
  74. 74. flickr.com/photos/momorgan/1485263389 Ability to associate things together in our minds Peg system for remembering numbers Go back to 85BC. Mentioned by Cicero (Roman) One blatant example of pattern matching is icons - consistent visual cue
  75. 75. phonetic but with cues
  76. 76. Loads of cues to jog your memory
  77. 77. netvibes.com Long and short - this is why we’ve had icons almost as long as we’ve had graphical interfaces Susan Kare - Apple and Windows
  78. 78. labs.digg.com/arc Colour is used as an extra dimension in visualisation
  79. 79. garrettdimon.com/archives/2008/1/22/evolution_of_a_header/ Bug status ambient signifier
  80. 80. business.gov.uk Colour as an ambient signifier
  81. 81. dopplr.com
  82. 82. Be remarkable Design to be remarked - Seth Godin Stories One of the most fundamental mechanisms we have for transmitting information 32,000 years ago Epic of Gilgamesh, Illiad and the Odyssey - Illiad 15,693 and takes 14 hours to read aloud! Rhyming couplets to aid memory (inbuilt cues!)
  83. 83. flickr.com/photos/niwru/91591044 Dave Snowden - business anthropologist Plumbers story Xerox parc engineers manuals - prescriptive manuals were the least successful ever Nurses specialising in prematurely born babies - training material composed of anecdotes containing the cues
  84. 84. trampolinesystems.com There’s occasional talk of UX as story-telling but they can be applied all over Seth Godin - being remarkable - design to be remarked trying to design for oral transmission Story style to aid memory Pre-constructed anecdote to help spread the word People tend to explain the benefits in raw form but a little wrapping might help...
  85. 85. Be... attractive delightful likeable appropriate recommended generous playful understanding conventional remarkable persuasive design
  86. 86. The End Mike Stenhouse donotremove.co.uk oo5.whatiminto.com trampolinesystems.com contentwithstyle.co.uk
  87. 87. Paper Influence by Robert Cialdini Sources of Power by Gary Klein Permission Marketing by Seth Godin A Theory of Fun by Raph Koster Mind Hacks by Stafford and Webb Blink by Malcolm Gladwell Tricks of the Mind by Derren Brown Yes! by Goldstein, Martin & Cialdini Freakonomics by Levitt & Dubner Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely
  88. 88. Electronic en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/004262.html everything2.com/node/1106547 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copycat_suicide copyblogger.com/social-proof-herd-it-through-the-grapevine en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_human_needs the-deblog.com/2008/04/shafted-41-hour.html webventurer.com/blog/thirty-day-challenge-3/key-concepts/the-tao-of-twitter encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-egopsychology.html ok-cancel.com/archives/article/2006/04/the-usability-of-urinals.html slideshare.net/blackbeltjones/polite-pertinent-and-pretty-designing-for-the-newwave-of-personal- informatics-493301 overheardinnewyork.com/archives/015249.html uie.com/brainsparks/2008/06/08/uietips-article-the-wheres-and-whens-of-users-expectations e-consultancy.com/out.asp?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eenquiro%2Ecom %2FEyetracking2%2DSample%2Epdf boxesandarrows.com/view/cues-the-golden garrettdimon.com/archives/2008/1/22/evolution_of_a_header sciam.com/article.cfm?id=understanding-how-our-bra musanim.com/miller1956 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar's_number lifewithalacrity.com/2004/03/the_dunbar_numb.html
  89. 89. The End Mike Stenhouse donotremove.co.uk oo5.whatiminto.com trampolinesystems.com contentwithstyle.co.uk

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