Human nutrition, gut microbiome and immune system


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Dr Zahida Chaudnary talks with the students about nutrition, gut microbiomes, and nutrition as we look at diseases and how your body reacts to what you eat.

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Human nutrition, gut microbiome and immune system

  1. 1. Human Nutrition, Gut Microbiome And Immune System By Zahida Chaudhary MD
  2. 2. Microbes in the Human Micro biome include species from each major domain “Extremophile” Archaebacteria Bacteria E-coli Virus Fungi
  3. 3. Symbiotic Relationships Between Microbes and Their Hosts • Symbiosis means “to live together” We have symbiotic relationships with countless microorganisms Types of symbiosis 1. Mutualistic Both organisms benefit – “mutually beneficial” Escherichia coli -Synthesizes Vitamin K & B complex Vitamins -In return, we provide a warm, moist nutrient rich environment for E. coli 2. Commensalistic – One organism benefits. The other is neither helped nor harmed 3. Opportunistic – Under normal conditions, microbe does not cause disease, but if conditions become conducive , it can cause disease
  4. 4. Dysbiosis  Dysbiosis is the abnormal microbial colonization of the intestine , where changes in Quantity and Quality of flora become Pathological & Harmful.  When intestinal flora equilibrium is disturbed, the optimum expected health effects are lost  autoimmune conditions result (IBD, rheumatoid).  A common cause of dysbiosis is antibiotic therapy (Iatrogenic).
  5. 5. Initial Colonization of the Newborn -Humans are born without any microorganisms. -Colonization of skin, oral/respiratory tract, genitourinary system and gastrointestinal tract begins immediately at birth with bacteria in the proximity of the birth canal and the anus. -Genetic, Environment and Feeding pattern (fragile micro biota) -Later the micro biota will stabilize Caring Suckling, kissing and caressing (mother’s flora
  6. 6. Intestinal Micro biota: Alterations During Human Life Cycle
  7. 7. The Human Microbial Meta genome Our adult bodies contain 10 times more microbial cells than human cells Human colon contains up to 100 trillion bacteria Numerous studies have suggested that shifts in the populations of microbial communities may be associated with a number of important acute and chronic diseases: Inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cardiovascular disease, eczema and other skin diseases, vaginal infections This presents an opportunity to develop new approaches to therapy as a means of maintaining health (Institute of genomic science)
  8. 8. Intestinal Microbiota:Role in Health and Disease
  9. 9. Intestinal Micro biota: Environmental Influence and Immune Response C. difficile Manifestations • Carrier state • C. difficile - associated diarrhea colitis • Pseudomembranous colitis • Fulminant Colitis / Toxic mega colon • Atypical (e.g., sepsis, ascites) • Recurrent disease Why Do We Get Recurrent CDI ? • Impaired host-response • Altered intestinal microbiome – “Dysbiosis” = decreased micro biota diversity
  10. 10. Link between gut microbial communities and adiposity
  11. 11.  Intestinal Permeability - Pathophysiolog Poor Dietary Choices Food Intolerance Stress & Emotions Infection Chronic Abx/Steroids Systemic Disease Malnutrition Altered Intestinal Permeability Dysbiosis Elevated Total Toxic & Antigenic Burden Low Stomach Acid Toxic Exposure Toxic Overload Systemic Disease
  12. 12. Interplay Between Medicine and Microbes Antibiotics Kills infectious bacteria but also disrupts natural flora. Can result in yeast infections, digestive problems, etc. Chemotherapy drugs Gut flora has been shown to modify some drugs during metabolism. This causes many side effects, including upset stomach.
  13. 13. What can damage Gut Flora Antibiotics Bottle Feeding Steroids, The Pill Old Age Other Drugs Pollution Stress Radiation Poor Diet Alcohol Infections Toxic Chemicals Disease Dental Work
  14. 14. Imbalance of intestinal micro flora results in:   Poor nutritional response Reduced efficacy of medications  Physiological dysfunction  Accelerated aging  Cancer  Deficient immune response  Susceptibility to infection  Physical discomfort
  15. 15. Ask both, what we can do for our microbiome and what our microbiome can do for us The implications of our nutritional choices are more significant than we may realize Nutritional choices could impact our long-term health. If we keep our micro flora happy and thriving in a balanced environment, our health will be on the right track. Symbiotic Relationship