What is occupational hygiene?
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What is occupational hygiene?

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An introduction to occupational hygiene (also known as industrial hygiene)

An introduction to occupational hygiene (also known as industrial hygiene)

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  • No – it isn’t about cleaning the workplace
  • It isn’t anything to do with dental hygiene
  • Also known as industrial hygiene
  • Picture source http://www.hse.gov.uk/guidance/
  • Also known as industrial hygiene
  • Dusts – in this case stone dust contains crystalline silica which causes silicosis, a serious lung disease
  • Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a majpr cause of occupational asthma
  • Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a majpr cause of occupational asthma
  • Noise and vibration
  • Non-ionising radiation like the UV generated by arc welding
  • Thermal environment – hot and cold
  • Tasks involving repetitive actions
  • The use of display screen equipment
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Exposure to flour dust is likely to present a significant risk in commercial and industrial bakeries
  • Exposure to flour dust is likely to present a significant risk in commercial and industrial bakeries
  • Silicosis and coal miner’s pneumoconiosisStill a problem today
  • Exposure modellingA relatively new approachStill being developedA lot of work needed
  • Carry out a walkthrough surveyWe’ll come back to this laterSee Page 26 of book
  • Sometimes air sampling doesn’t provide the answer and biological monitoring may be neededThis may involve taking blood sampleshttp://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/contractors/trials/cepha/cepha3.html
  • But it’s more likely to involve analysing urine sampleshttp://www.fightdrugabuse.com/pros-and-cons-of-urine-drug-testing/

What is occupational hygiene? Presentation Transcript

  • 1. What is Occupational Hygiene? Mike Slater
  • 2. OccupationalHygiene?
  • 3. Occupational NO!Hygiene?
  • 4. Occupational Hygiene?
  • 5. Occupational Hygiene? NO!
  • 6. Hygiene“Conditions or practices conduciveto maintaining health andpreventing disease”http://oxforddictionaries.com
  • 7. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
  • 8. According tothe WHO,globally, thereare:
  • 9. 2,000,000work-relateddeaths peryear
  • 10. 386,000 deathseach year fromexposure toairborneparticulates
  • 11. 152,000deaths peryear fromcarcinogens inthe workplace
  • 12. 37% of LowerBack Pain isattributed tooccupation
  • 13. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
  • 14. We do that by the
  • 15. We do that by theRecognition
  • 16. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation
  • 17. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Control
  • 18. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Controlof hazardous agents
  • 19. Chemical hazards There are many thousands of hazardous chemicals commonly used at work.
  • 20. Chemical hazards Chemical hazards also include:
  • 21. Silica released during stone cutting activitiesDusts – in this case stone dust contains crystalline silicawhich causes silicosis, a serious lung disease Source: HSE
  • 22. Now you see it Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a major cause of occupational asthma
  • 23. Vapours are given off paints and other solventbased products such as inks and adhesives
  • 24. Fume – very fine particulate matter
  • 25. Physical agents Hazardous physical agents include noise,
  • 26. Vibration (this hand grinder will also produce highnoise levels)
  • 27. Non-ionising radiation like theultra-violet radiationgenerated by arc welding
  • 28. The thermal environment – hot and cold
  • 29. Biological hazardsBiological agents like the micro-organisms that cancause legionnaires’ disease and anthrax
  • 30. Ergonomic hazards Back and muscular damage caused by poor manual handling practices
  • 31. Tasks involving repetitive actions
  • 32. The use of display screen equipment
  • 33. ChemistryToxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law Biology Engineering
  • 34. Chemistry Toxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law BiologyOccupational hygiene isEngineering a multi-disciplinary science
  • 35. Recognition Evaluation Control
  • 36. Recognition Evaluation ControlOccupational hygienists are trained to anticipate andrecognise health hazards at work
  • 37. Bakers are exposedto flour dust whichcan causeoccupationalasthma
  • 38. Bakers are about80 times morelikely to developoccupationalasthma than theaverage Britishworker
  • 39. Coal miners andquarry workers areexposed to dustthat can causesilicosis – a seriousdebilitating lungdisease
  • 40. Cleaning withsolvents can lead todermatitis andexposure to solventvapours.
  • 41. And some solventscan be absorbedthrough the skin
  • 42. This worker isexposed to dust,noise and vibration
  • 43. Arc welders areexposed to metalfumes which cancause metal fumefever
  • 44. and, in some cases,asthma and lungcancer
  • 45. They’re alsoexposed to irritantgases and ultra-violet radiation
  • 46. Recognition Evaluation Control
  • 47. RISK =
  • 48. RISK = Hazard x
  • 49. RISK = Hazard x Exposure
  • 50. RISK = Hazard x ExposureExposure assessment is an important part of theoccupational hygienist’s role
  • 51. RISK = Hazard x ExposureThis can involve:
  • 52. Personal exposure sampling
  • 53. Exposure modelling
  • 54. Observations
  • 55. BiologicalMonitoringWhich may involve taking blood samples
  • 56. But taking urine samples is usually preferable as it’seasier and more acceptable to the worker
  • 57. Recognition Evaluation Control
  • 58. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  • 59. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEThis is the “hierarchy of control”
  • 60. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  • 61. Prevention ProcessElimination Substitution change
  • 62. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  • 63. Containment
  • 64. A fume cupboard – an example of local exhaustventilayion
  • 65. Photographcourtesy ofHSE
  • 66. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
  • 67. Work practices / organisationTime Reduce exposure time Job rotation Work – rest regimes Work schedulingDistance Segregation Restrict access Rest areasOrganisation Reduce numbers exposed Good working practice Written procedures “Permits to work”
  • 68. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEPersonal protective equipment – which should bethe last resort
  • 69. Respiratory protection
  • 70. Chemical protective clothing, glovesand eye protection
  • 71. Management measures Maintenance of controls Supervision Exposure monitoring Screening & health surveillance Information, instruction, training Review and audit
  • 72. www.bohs.org
  • 73. www.bohs.orgThe organisation for anyone interested inoccupational hygiene in the UK
  • 74. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermike@diamondenv.co.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter: @diamondenvMike Slater
  • 75. Picture credits: Stock.XCHNG - www.sxc.hu/ Cirrus Research - www.cirrusresearch.co.uk The Health and Safety Executive – www.hse.gov.uk www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/victorian_britain/children_in_facto ries/ www.beautifulbritain.co.uk
  • 76. Mike Slater, Diamond Environmental Ltd. (mike@diamondenv.co.uk) This presentation is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK:International Licence