What is occupational hygiene?

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An introduction to occupational hygiene (also known as industrial hygiene)

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  • No – it isn’t about cleaning the workplace
  • It isn’t anything to do with dental hygiene
  • Also known as industrial hygiene
  • Picture source http://www.hse.gov.uk/guidance/
  • Also known as industrial hygiene
  • Dusts – in this case stone dust contains crystalline silica which causes silicosis, a serious lung disease
  • Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a majpr cause of occupational asthma
  • Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a majpr cause of occupational asthma
  • Noise and vibration
  • Non-ionising radiation like the UV generated by arc welding
  • Thermal environment – hot and cold
  • Tasks involving repetitive actions
  • The use of display screen equipment
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Exposure to flour dust is likely to present a significant risk in commercial and industrial bakeries
  • Exposure to flour dust is likely to present a significant risk in commercial and industrial bakeries
  • Silicosis and coal miner’s pneumoconiosisStill a problem today
  • Exposure modellingA relatively new approachStill being developedA lot of work needed
  • Carry out a walkthrough surveyWe’ll come back to this laterSee Page 26 of book
  • Sometimes air sampling doesn’t provide the answer and biological monitoring may be neededThis may involve taking blood sampleshttp://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/contractors/trials/cepha/cepha3.html
  • But it’s more likely to involve analysing urine sampleshttp://www.fightdrugabuse.com/pros-and-cons-of-urine-drug-testing/
  • What is occupational hygiene?

    1. 1. What is Occupational Hygiene? Mike Slater
    2. 2. OccupationalHygiene?
    3. 3. Occupational NO!Hygiene?
    4. 4. Occupational Hygiene?
    5. 5. Occupational Hygiene? NO!
    6. 6. Hygiene“Conditions or practices conduciveto maintaining health andpreventing disease”http://oxforddictionaries.com
    7. 7. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
    8. 8. According tothe WHO,globally, thereare:
    9. 9. 2,000,000work-relateddeaths peryear
    10. 10. 386,000 deathseach year fromexposure toairborneparticulates
    11. 11. 152,000deaths peryear fromcarcinogens inthe workplace
    12. 12. 37% of LowerBack Pain isattributed tooccupation
    13. 13. Occupational hygiene isabout the prevention ofill health caused by work
    14. 14. We do that by the
    15. 15. We do that by theRecognition
    16. 16. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation
    17. 17. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Control
    18. 18. We do that by theRecognition Evaluation Controlof hazardous agents
    19. 19. Chemical hazards There are many thousands of hazardous chemicals commonly used at work.
    20. 20. Chemical hazards Chemical hazards also include:
    21. 21. Silica released during stone cutting activitiesDusts – in this case stone dust contains crystalline silicawhich causes silicosis, a serious lung disease Source: HSE
    22. 22. Now you see it Mists – in this case paint containing isocyanates, a major cause of occupational asthma
    23. 23. Vapours are given off paints and other solventbased products such as inks and adhesives
    24. 24. Fume – very fine particulate matter
    25. 25. Physical agents Hazardous physical agents include noise,
    26. 26. Vibration (this hand grinder will also produce highnoise levels)
    27. 27. Non-ionising radiation like theultra-violet radiationgenerated by arc welding
    28. 28. The thermal environment – hot and cold
    29. 29. Biological hazardsBiological agents like the micro-organisms that cancause legionnaires’ disease and anthrax
    30. 30. Ergonomic hazards Back and muscular damage caused by poor manual handling practices
    31. 31. Tasks involving repetitive actions
    32. 32. The use of display screen equipment
    33. 33. ChemistryToxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law Biology Engineering
    34. 34. Chemistry Toxicology Physics Occupational Hygiene Law BiologyOccupational hygiene isEngineering a multi-disciplinary science
    35. 35. Recognition Evaluation Control
    36. 36. Recognition Evaluation ControlOccupational hygienists are trained to anticipate andrecognise health hazards at work
    37. 37. Bakers are exposedto flour dust whichcan causeoccupationalasthma
    38. 38. Bakers are about80 times morelikely to developoccupationalasthma than theaverage Britishworker
    39. 39. Coal miners andquarry workers areexposed to dustthat can causesilicosis – a seriousdebilitating lungdisease
    40. 40. Cleaning withsolvents can lead todermatitis andexposure to solventvapours.
    41. 41. And some solventscan be absorbedthrough the skin
    42. 42. This worker isexposed to dust,noise and vibration
    43. 43. Arc welders areexposed to metalfumes which cancause metal fumefever
    44. 44. and, in some cases,asthma and lungcancer
    45. 45. They’re alsoexposed to irritantgases and ultra-violet radiation
    46. 46. Recognition Evaluation Control
    47. 47. RISK =
    48. 48. RISK = Hazard x
    49. 49. RISK = Hazard x Exposure
    50. 50. RISK = Hazard x ExposureExposure assessment is an important part of theoccupational hygienist’s role
    51. 51. RISK = Hazard x ExposureThis can involve:
    52. 52. Personal exposure sampling
    53. 53. Exposure modelling
    54. 54. Observations
    55. 55. BiologicalMonitoringWhich may involve taking blood samples
    56. 56. But taking urine samples is usually preferable as it’seasier and more acceptable to the worker
    57. 57. Recognition Evaluation Control
    58. 58. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
    59. 59. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEThis is the “hierarchy of control”
    60. 60. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
    61. 61. Prevention ProcessElimination Substitution change
    62. 62. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
    63. 63. Containment
    64. 64. A fume cupboard – an example of local exhaustventilayion
    65. 65. Photographcourtesy ofHSE
    66. 66. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPE
    67. 67. Work practices / organisationTime Reduce exposure time Job rotation Work – rest regimes Work schedulingDistance Segregation Restrict access Rest areasOrganisation Reduce numbers exposed Good working practice Written procedures “Permits to work”
    68. 68. Prevention Engineering Work practices PPEPersonal protective equipment – which should bethe last resort
    69. 69. Respiratory protection
    70. 70. Chemical protective clothing, glovesand eye protection
    71. 71. Management measures Maintenance of controls Supervision Exposure monitoring Screening & health surveillance Information, instruction, training Review and audit
    72. 72. www.bohs.org
    73. 73. www.bohs.orgThe organisation for anyone interested inoccupational hygiene in the UK
    74. 74. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermike@diamondenv.co.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter: @diamondenvMike Slater
    75. 75. Picture credits: Stock.XCHNG - www.sxc.hu/ Cirrus Research - www.cirrusresearch.co.uk The Health and Safety Executive – www.hse.gov.uk www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/victorian_britain/children_in_facto ries/ www.beautifulbritain.co.uk
    76. 76. Mike Slater, Diamond Environmental Ltd. (mike@diamondenv.co.uk) This presentation is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike UK:International Licence
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