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An introduction to ionising radiation. What is it?, units, measurement, health effects, control.

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- 1. Ionising Radiation<br />
- 2. Ionising Radiation<br />Particles and electromagnetic radiation <br />released by the decay of unstable atoms<br />
- 3. Ionising Radiation<br />Alpha particles<br />Beta particles<br />Neutrons<br />Gamma rays<br />X rays<br />
- 4. Ionising Radiation<br />Alpha particles<br />Beta particles<br />Neutrons<br />Gamma rays<br />X rays<br />Radionuclides<br />
- 5. Ionising Radiation<br />Alpha particles<br />Beta particles<br />Neutrons<br />Gamma rays<br />X rays<br />Elecromagnetic<br />radiation<br />
- 6.
- 7. Non - Ionisng<br />Ionising<br />
- 8. Half - life<br />The time taken for the activity of a radionuclide to decay by half its value<br />
- 9. Half - life<br />Isotope Half-Life <br />Tritium 12.4 y <br />Carbon 14 5730 y <br />Sulphur 35 87.4 d <br />Phosphorus 33 25.6 d <br />Phosphorus 32 14.3 d <br />Iodine 125 60.1 d<br />
- 10. What is radiation used for?<br />
- 11. Power generation<br />
- 12. Laboratories<br />
- 13. Radioactive tracers<br />
- 14. Medical<br />
- 15. Thickness gauges<br />
- 16. Units<br />
- 17. Activity (Becquerel)<br />1 Becquerel = 1 disintegration per second<br />
- 18. Absorbed Dose (gray)<br />1gray (Gy) = energy absorption of 1 joule/Kg<br />
- 19. Dose Equivalent (sievert)<br />Equivalent dose (Sv) = Absorbed dose (Gy) x Q <br />
- 20. Dose Equivalent (sievert)<br />Equivalent dose (Sv) = Absorbed dose (Gy) x Q <br />Q is "quality factor“, dependent upon radiation type<br />
- 21.
- 22. Effective Dose<br />Effective dose = Equivalent dose (Sv) x N <br />
- 23. Effective Dose<br />Effective dose = Equivalent dose (Sv) x N <br />N is weighting factor dependent upon tissue type<br />
- 24.
- 25. Annual dose limits for employees and members of the public<br />Regulation 11 of Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999<br />
- 26. Geiger Counter<br />
- 27.
- 28. Effects<br />
- 29. Alpha particles<br />Stopped by sheet of paper or skin<br />
- 30. Betaparticles<br />Stopped by few mm of aluminium<br />
- 31. Gamma rays<br />Stopped by several metres of concrete or cms of lead<br />
- 32.
- 33. Short term effects<br />Cellular damage<br />Radiation sickness<br />
- 34. Cancer<br />Genetic damage<br />Reproductive effects<br />Long term effects<br />
- 35. Internal Hazards<br />Exposure to radioactive particles by :<br />inhalation<br />ingestion<br />skin absorption / penetration<br />
- 36. Radiological risk<br />Dose (µSv)<br />Risk of Death<br />Living in Cornwall<br />7800<br />1 in 3,200<br />5000<br />1 in 5,000<br />Brain scan<br />2700<br />1 in 10,000<br />Average annual<br />1000<br />1 in 25,000<br />Radon<br />69<br />1 in 35,000<br />Transatlantic flight<br />46<br />1 in 500,000<br />Chernobyl<br />20<br />1 in 1.25 million<br />Chest X-ray<br />135 g brazil nuts<br />10<br />1 in 2.5 million<br />Source: Health Protection Agency<br />
- 37. Radiological Protection<br />
- 38. Containment<br />
- 39. Shielding<br />
- 40.
- 41. Distance<br />
- 42.
- 43. Restrict exposure duration and frequency<br />
- 44. Photo credits<br />www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_04_img0782.jpg<br />www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/ph_radio10.gif<br />www.flickr.com/photos/redfiremg/3952257530/sizes/z/in/photostream/<br />http://kilby.sac.on.ca/physics/sph3u/1a-Nuclear/NonMedicalUses/nonmedicaluses.htm<br />Stock.XCHNG (www.sxc.hu)<br />www.OHTA.net<br />
- 45. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslater<br />occhygiene@btconnect.com<br />http://diamondenv.wordpress.com<br />Twitter @diamondenv<br />Mike Slater<br />
- 46. Mike Slater, Diamond Environmental Ltd. (occhygiene@btconnect.com)<br />This presentation is distributed under the Creative Commons<br />Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike<br />UK:International Licence<br />

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