9.1 revolutionary war_i
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9.1 revolutionary war_i 9.1 revolutionary war_i Presentation Transcript

  • Notes on the Revolution Lexington & Concord, April 1775 - First Shots
  • The 2 nd Continental Congress - Began meeting in May 1775 in Philadelphia, PA - Became the government of the colonies during the Revolutionary War
  • Second Continental Congress (cont’d) - Recognized George Washington as commander of the Continental Army - the Colonial militia that surrounded Boston - Authorized paper money - Established a committee for foreign relations
  • Battle of Bunker Hill - June 17, 1775 British General Gage attacked colonial militia on Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, with 2,400 redcoats - Colonists had limited ammunition and waited to fire: American officer William Prescott commanded, “ Do not fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” - The militia mowed down the British, until the colonists ran out of ammunition and retreated - The British had over 1,000 casualties to 311 for the Americans - It was the bloodiest battle of the War The casualties embarrassed & outraged the British government
  • Olive Branch Petition – July of 1775 – Colonists offered to make peace with King George III and return to “the former harmony” between Britain & America Loyalists & Patriots – early in the war there was fighting (civil war) throughout the colonies between supporters of the King (loyalists) and supporters of the Revolution (patriots). Summer/Fall of 1775 - The colonists fought British troops in upstate New York and Montreal – the colonists hoped Quebec would join the Revolution – they did not. George III , in August 1775, declared that the colonists were in rebellion and issued a proclamation to suppress it
  • Common Sense – Thomas Paine wrote this 43-page pamphlet, published in January of 1776. He argued that America should become independent and form a republic – with social equality and equal economic opportunity for all citizens. By spring 100’s of thousands of Americans had been influenced by Common Sense and had begun to favor American Independence.
  • Colonial Siege of Boston - April 1775 ‘til March of 1776 - The militia under Washington surrounded Boston - Henry Knox brought cannons from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston, which were used to threaten the British Army & fleet - in March ‘76 the British army finally withdrew from Boston to Canada
  • The Declaration of Independence - Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed Independence in June of 1776 - The Congress finally agreed and formed a committee to write a formal declaration - The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. - Jefferson was appointed to write the document
  • The Declaration of Independence - Jefferson based his argument for Independence on John Locke’s political philosophy & Enlightenment Ideals - natural rights - Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness - social contract - government formed to protect rights - citizens may abolish a government that does not protect their rights - government draws its authority from the consent of the governed - “ All men are created equal” – equal political rights - The signers were committing Treason against Britain
  • The Northern Campaign - New York, August 1776 – The British forced Washington to retreat from and abandon New York City to the British - Washington’s army reduced from about 20,000 men to as few as 5,000 after the retreat
  • Nathan Hale , a spy for Gen. Washington, was captured during the New York campaign and before he was hanged said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
    • The American Crisis
    • - Winter 1776
    • - Washington’s Army was in retreat from N.Y. and was on the verge of disintegrating.
    • Thomas Paine wrote this pamphlet encouraging Americans to continue to fight
    • - arguing that anything worth having would be difficult to obtain
  • - Trenton, Christmas 1776 - Washington won a surprise victory by crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, and defeating Hessian mercenaries who had been celebrating the holiday - The victory convinced many troops, who could have left the Army, to re-enlist - Princeton, January 1777 – Another Washington victory against a small British force helped encourage the troops and American patriots Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Leutze
  • Philadelphia, Fall 1777 - British moved against the ‘capital’ and Washington delayed the British while the Continental Congress fled. - Washington lost two battles to the British - Brandywine Creek September 1777 - Germantown, October 1777 - The British occupied Philadelphia until mid-1778
    • Saratoga - The Turning Point of the War
    • - British General John Burgoyne moved south down the Hudson River with a mixed force of Redcoats, mercenaries, and Mohawk – Summer/Fall 1777
    • - Burgoyne expected help from Howe in New York
    • - The British were constantly ambushed by American troops as they moved south
    • - October 1777 at Saratoga in upstate New York American Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold defeated Burgoyne & forced a British surrender
    • Three important outcomes
    • Americans believed they could win
    • British realized they could lose, and began to focus on cities
    • 3) France agreed to ally with America, giving America a chance to win
  • Valley Forge - Washington’s Army spent the freezing winter of 1777-78 in terrible conditions in this Pennsylvania village - The Army dwindled from about 12,000 to about 8,000 from death and desertion
  • - Despite the conditions, Washington was joined by two important European officers: - Marquis de Lafayette – young French aristocrat - cared passionately for the American cause and served on Washington’s staff - Baron von Steuben – Prussian (German) officer - helped train the Continental Army to fight like a European Army – to march, maneuver, and fire in an organized way - This training turned the Continental Army into a more effective fighting force