4.1 Colonial Expansion1
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4.1 Colonial Expansion1






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4.1 Colonial Expansion1 4.1 Colonial Expansion1 Presentation Transcript

  • English Civil War (1642-1649) - Parliament/Puritans defeated King/Anglicans The Protectorate Puritan General Oliver Cromwell ruled England in a ‘Republic’ that became a theocratic/military dictatorship 1649-60 Restoration – in 1660 the English nobles ‘restored’ the Monarchy, making Charles II King of England - The King and his brother, the Duke of York, rewarded some of their supporters with colonies in America, we call them Restoration Colonies
  • North Carolina - formally separated from the South in 1712 - independent-minded colonists - democratic and anti-aristocratic (like Rhode Island) Carolina - founded in 1663 by supporters of Charles II - A Restoration & Proprietary Colony - South Carolina - initially tried sugar, then settled on rice to feed Caribbean plantations - developed indigo (blue dye) as a cash crop - Rice, an African grain, made the colony profitable - slave population grew, slave codes were brought in as well
  • Plantation System - The large farms that were established in the south to grow cash crops, like tobacco, sugar cane, and rice, still required a large labor force - Fewer people would become indentured servants, as travel to America became less expensive. - Free immigrants from Europe did not want to work for someone else when there was so much available land - So slaves were increasingly imported from the Caribbean onto southern plantations by the early 1700’s
  • Slave Codes - Laws, also brought from the Caribbean, which governed the status of slaves - Slaves were considered property rather than persons. - They had no legal right to testify, or make a contract, or own property. - They could not travel without permission nor meet without a white person present. - They could not be taught to read or write and they were not permitted to marry. - Offenders were subject to severe punishment, including whipping, branding, imprisonment, and death.
  • College of William & Mary -founded in 1693 in Virginia to educate the young, aristocratic men of the southern colonies
  • Middle Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware) - More diverse population than North or South - English, German, Dutch - Religious toleration, cooperation with American Indians - Fur trade, farming, shipping trade
  • New Netherlands - Henry Hudson explored what became the Hudson River in 1609 - The river runs north-south in present-day New York state - claimed the area for the Dutch - The Dutch established a series of fur trade trading posts along the River and the city of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island - Population grew as they invited more people of many countries into the colony - England saw it as a ‘Dutch Wedge’ between its colonies in New England & its Southern Colonies
    • New York
    • Peter Stuyvesant was the last Dutch governor
    • by 1664 had become unpopular
    • - England’s Duke of York (James) took the New Netherlands without a fight in 1664
    • - A Restoration Colony & Proprietary Colony