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2.1_Columbus_and_Exploration

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  • 1.
    • European Exploration of the Americas
    • Christopher Columbus – Italian Ship Captain
    • - Believed he could open a trade route to Asia by sailing west
    • - Underestimated the actual distance to Asia (by 5000 miles)
    • Convinced Isabella and Ferdinand, the Spanish monarchs, to support his voyage in 1492 – three ships Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria
  • 2.
    • Columbus (cont’d)
    • After 10 weeks (Aug. 3 – Oct. 11) the expedition reached the islands of the Caribbean Sea
    • Columbus claimed the region for Spain and began the Spanish conquest of the New World
    • Columbus completed four voyages in all, never accepting that he had reached a new land mass, not Asia.
    • Christopher Columbus never acquired the fortune or fame for which he had hoped and only became celebrated long after his death.
    • - Columbus opened the Americas to European exploration and colonization
  • 3. Columbian Exchange – a transfer of living things between the New & Old Worlds (East and West Hemispheres)
  • 4. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) - Pope Alexander IV’s effort to keep the peace between Spain and Portugal as they explored new territories - The north-south dividing line gave authority to colonize most of the Americas to Spain (except for Brazil) and gave Portugal authority in Africa.
  • 5.
    • Portuguese Explorers
    • Bartolomeu Dias
    • Nobleman-explorer who was the first European to sail around the southern cape of Africa in 1488
    • Vasco da Gama
    • - Military captain and explorer who was the first European to sail around the southern cape of Africa and reach India (1497-1499)
  • 6.
    • Amerigo Vespucci
    • - Italian explorer who exaggerated his role in discovering and exploring the Americas
    • given credit for the idea of the ‘New World’ – a land mass between Europe and Asia
    • mapmakers appear to have used his name to label the new continents
  • 7. Explorers – bypassing North America John Cabot – (1497 & 1498) – searched for the Northwest Passage, exploring the Atlantic coast of Canada & claimed the coast of North America for England Ferdinand Magellan’s Expedition (1519-1522) – sailed around South America and his expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe (Magellan died en route & only 1 of 3 ships made it)
  • 8. Conquistadors – Spanish Conquerors of the New World Guns, Steel, Horses – material advantages of the Europeans Disease was the leading reason why the American Indians could not resist the Spanish. - European diseases killed as much as 90% of the American Indian population.
  • 9. Spanish Conquistadors Juan Ponce de León (1513 & 1521) – claimed Puerto Rico and explored, claimed, & named Florida Vasco Nuñez Balboa (1513) – crossed Panama, first European to see the Pacific Ocean, & claimed all land touching that sea for Spain Hernándo Cortés (1519-1521) – conquered the Aztecs and Montezuma in Central Mexico, claiming gold and beginning the mining of silver
  • 10. Francisco Pizarro (1532) – conquered the Incan Empire on the west coast of South America, claiming tons of gold & silver Hernándo DeSoto (1539-1542) – explored the American Southeast looking for gold, was the first European to see Alabama and the Mississippi River
  • 11. Francisco Coronado (1540-1542) – explored the American southwest looking for cities of gold, first to see the Grand Canyon and herds of buffalo
  • 12. Encomienda – Spanish system of enslaving the American Indians Mestizos – people of Spanish and American Indian ancestry Gold & Silver enriched Spain & Europe – economic growth, but eventually ruined Spain’s economy with price inflation and debt
  • 13.
    • St. Augustine (1565)
    • Spain founded the first permanent European city in what is now the U.S.
    • (on the Atlantic coast of Florida).
    • It was formed to protect Spanish treasure ships from French Buccaneers and English Seadogs (pirates/privateers).