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The Case For Action
 

The Case For Action

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The Case For Action The Case For Action Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • Case for action
    • The global economy is changing the nature of work and the kinds of jobs young people will enter.
    • Students need higher levels of knowledge and skills than ever before to succeed in today’s workplaces.
    • Few states require high school students to take courses they need to succeed in college and the workplace.
    • What knowledge and skills do students need to succeed after high school graduation?
  • A high school diploma is not the last educational stop required
    • Jobs that require at least some postsecondary education will make up more than two-thirds of new jobs.
    Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003. Share of new jobs, 2000–10
  • In today’s workforce, jobs require more education than ever before -23% -9% +16% +16% Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, ETS, 2003. Change in the distribution of education in jobs 1973 v. 2001
  • American Diploma Project: Identifying knowledge and skills students need to succeed in college and work
    • Achieve, Inc.; The Education Trust; and the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation launched the American Diploma Project to identify knowledge and skills students need in English and math to be college and work ready.
    • Partnered with Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Nevada and Texas.
    • Involved wide variety of K–12, higher education and business representatives.
  • To be college and work ready, students need to complete a rigorous sequence of courses
    • In math:
      • Four courses
      • Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry, and a fourth course such as Statistics or Precalculus
    • In English:
      • Four courses
      • Content equivalent to four years of grade-level English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English)
    To cover the content that American Diploma Project research shows students need to be college and work ready, high school graduates need to complete:
  • Whether graduates are going to college or work, they need the same skills
    • Research by the American Diploma Project and ACT found high degree of convergence.
    • The knowledge and skills that high school graduates will need to be successful in college are the same as those they will need to be successful in a job that :
      • pays enough to support a family well above the poverty level,
      • provides benefits, and
      • offers clear pathways for career advancement through further education and training.
  • Even blue-collar jobs require high-level skills
    • Requirements for iron workers:
      • Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry and Physics.
    • Requirements for electricians:
      • Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Physics.
    • Requirements for sheet metal workers:
      • Four or five years of apprenticeship
      • Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and technical reading
    • Requirements for draftsmen:
      • Recommended high school courses include Geometry and Trigonometry.
      • Draftsmen may wish to seek additional study in mathematics and computer-aided design to keep up with technological progress within the industry.
    Sources: American Diploma Project , 2002; The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) http://www.agc.org/page.ww?section=About+AGC&name=About+AGC .
  • Students who take advanced courses are more likely to earn a college degree Bachelor’s degree attainment by highest level of math reached, high school classes of 1982 and 1992 Source: Adelman, Clifford, The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree Completion from High School through College, Table 5, U.S. Department of Education, 2006.
  • And more education means more earning power Source: College Board, Education Pays, 2004. $2.5 million $50,000 Bachelor’s degree $1.8 million $38,000 Associate degree $1.4 million $31,000 High school diploma $1.1 million $22,000 High school dropout Average Lifetime Earnings Average Annual Earnings Education
  • How prepared are our students?
  • Only about half of African American and Latino students graduate from high school in four years Source: Manhattan Institute , Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002 , February 2005, http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_08.htm. On-time high school graduation, 2002
  • High school graduation rate: United States trails most developed countries Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2004, 2004.
  • Yet only thirteen states require a college- and work-ready diploma … although others plan to Source: Achieve Survey/Research, 2007.
  • Most state testing systems do not assess college and work readiness
    • 26 states require students to pass an exam before they graduate high school.*
    • Yet most states have testing systems that do not measure college and work readiness.**
    *Source: Center on Education Policy, State High School Exit Exams: States Try Harder, But Gaps Persist, August 2005. **Source: Achieve Survey/Research, 2006.
  • Graduation exams in 26 states establish the performance “floor” Figure reads: Alaska has a mandatory exit exam in 2005 and is withholding diplomas from students based on exam performance. Arizona is phasing in a mandatory exit exam and plans to begin withholding diplomas based on this exam in 2006. Connecticut does not have an exit exam, nor is it scheduled to implement one. Source: Center on Education Policy, based on information collected from state departments of education, July 2005.
  • What does it take to pass state tests?
    • Achieve conducted a study of graduation exams in six states to determine how high a bar the tests set for students.
    • The results show that these tests tend to measure only 8th, 9th or 10th grade content, rather than the skills students need to succeed in college and the workplace.
  • The tests Achieve analyzed Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.
  • Students can pass state math tests knowing content typically taught in 7th and 8th grade internationally FL MD MA NJ OH TX Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004. Grade when most international students cover content required to pass state math tests
  • Students can pass state English tests with skills ACT expects of 8th and 9th graders FL MD MA NJ OH TX ACT EXPLORE (8th/9th) ACT PLAN (10th) ACT (11th/12th) Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.
  • Postsecondary remediation offers a second chance, but it comes with a steep price tag
    • States, postsecondary institutions, employers and young people spend more than $17 billion per year on remedial classes so students can gain the knowledge and skills they should have acquired in high school.
  • Too many students need remediation in core subjects
    • Nearly three out of 10 first-year students are placed immediately into a remedial college course.
    Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.
  • Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, 2004. And most U.S. college students who take remedial courses fail to earn degrees Many college students who need remediation, especially in reading and math, do not earn either an associate or a bachelor’s degree. Percentage of college students not earning degree by type of remedial coursework
  • The result: United States also lags behind most developed countries in college graduation rates Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2004, 2004.
    • What do recent high school graduates tell us about the expectations they faced?
  • Most high school graduates were moderately challenged All high school graduates College students Students who did not go to college Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • Many high school graduates cite gaps in preparation High school graduates who went to college 61% 39% 53% 46% High school graduates who did not go to college How well did your high school education prepare you for college or the work/jobs you hope to get in the future?
    • Extremely well: prepared for everything
    • Very well: generally able to do what’s expected
    • Not well: large gaps/struggling
    • Somewhat well: some gaps
    Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • College instructors/employers confirm high school graduates’ lack of preparation Average estimated proportions of recent high school graduates who are not prepared Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • Knowing what they know today, high school graduates would have worked harder Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • If high school had demanded more, graduates would have worked harder 82% 80%
    • Would have worked harder
    • Strongly feel I would have worked harder
    • Wouldn’t have worked harder
    High school graduates who went to college High school graduates who did not go to college Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • Majority of graduates would have taken harder courses Knowing what you know today about the expectations of college/work … Would have taken more challenging courses in: Would have taken more challenging courses in at least one area Math Science English Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
  • Closing the expectations gap requires states to take action
    • Align high school standards and assessments with the knowledge and skills required for success in postsecondary education and work.
    • Administer a college- and work-ready assessment, aligned to state standards, to high school students so they get clear and timely information and are able to address critical skill deficiencies while still in high school.
    • Require all students to take a college- and work-ready curriculum to earn a high school diploma.
    • Hold high schools accountable for graduating students who are college ready, and hold postsecondary institutions accountable for their success once enrolled.