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Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
Education in China
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Education in China

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  • 1. Changllenges and Goals in Chinese Education Dr. Guizhen Jin Associate Professor Center of Educational Research Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT) jgzh6688@bit.edu.cn jgzh1965@sina.com
  • 2. A Brief Introduction to Myself
  • 3. My Work
  • 4. Highlights of This Part  Brief Introductions to China and Its Education  Achievements & Difficulties in Compulsory Education  Reforms in Higher Education  Chanllenges & Education in the Future
  • 5. I. A Brief Introduction to China  Location  History and Culture; Scenes and Sights  Rural Areas and Urban Areas  A Developing Country
  • 6. Location
  • 7. China and USA
  • 8. Hu Huanyong Line East Area 64% of land 34% of Land 4% of Population 96% of People West Area
  • 9. Scenes and Sights
  • 10. Scenes and Sights
  • 11. History and Culture (a long history of Education)
  • 12. Rural Areas in China
  • 13. Population in Rural areas & Urban areas P opulation by Urban & R ural 140000 120000 100000 Total 80000 Populati 60000 on Urban 40000 Populati on 20000 Rural Populati 0 on 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  • 14. 0 100000 120000 140000 20000 40000 60000 80000 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 P 1994 Population by Urban & Rural 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 on on on Rural Urban Total Populati Populati Populati
  • 15. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Education What do you know about Chinese Education? System of Chinese Education Population of Education in Each Level
  • 16. System of Chinese Education Graduate Education 3-8 years Higher Education (2-4 -3-4) Secondary Education (Junior and Senior) ( 3-4-3years) Primary Education (5-6 years)
  • 17. System of Chinese Education Graduate Edu. & Post Gra Edu. Adult and Distant College & Professional Learning university Higher Education Senior Senior Senior Common professional technical Education Junior Education Primary education Preschool education
  • 18. Basic Statistics of Regular Education in China--2007 Institutions Students Teachers (thousand) (million) (million) Total 595 260.96 17.05 Higher Education 3.227 6.063 1.27 Senior secondary 31.26 65.15 5.78 Education Junior Secondary 61.01 57.94 3.48 Education Primary Schools 369.063 107.9 5.65 Work-study 0.0076 9.09 0.0017 Schools Special schools 0.16 4.19 0.035 Kindergardens 129.09 23.49 0.83
  • 19. Basic Statistics of Regular Education in China:1985-2007 School No. Students Staff Year Population of ratos No. No. (Miilli education on) 1985 144 21753 1261 23014 22.0 1990 136 23654 1432 25086 22.2 1996 155 30401 1549 31950 26.2 1997 157 31076 1577 32653 26.7 1998 155 31809 1580 33389 27.0 1999 159 32672 1596 34268 27.5 2000 149 32093 1592 33685 26.8 2001 135 32135 1574 33709 26.6 2002 117 31873 1579 33452 26.2 2003 96 31989 1610 33599 26.2 2004 68 32558 1597 34155 26.4 2005 65 36904 1624 38528 29.6 2006 63 31860 1652 33512 25.6 2007 66 32187 1675 33862 25.8
  • 20.  The largest population in the world  Huge educational population in various stages
  • 21. The most largest educational population in various stages 各级普通学校毕业生升学率 120.0 100.0 80.0 升学率 小学升初中(%) 60.0 初中升高中(%) 40.0 高中升高等教育(%) 20.0 0.0 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1990 1992 2007
  • 22. Achievements of Chinese Compulsory Education Scale of Development of the world Education in Each Level in the last 50 Years (Million) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1997 1997/1950 Total of the 252.5 433.1 608.1 857 980.6 1154.2 4.6 world Higher 6.5 12.1 28.1 51.0 68.6 88.2 13.6 Educatin Secondary 40 79 28.1 51.0 68.6 88.2 13.6 Education Primary 206 342 411 542 597 668 3.2 Education 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2001 2001/1950 Total of 30.6 101.9 137.1 205.8 178.6 228.7 7.5 China Higher 0.14 0.97 0.05 2.7 3.8 12.1 86.4 Educatin Secondary 1.5 7.1(1957) 31.7 56.8 52.4 91.2 60.8 Education Primary 28.9 93.8 105.3 146.3 122.4 125.4 4.3 Education
  • 23. sources from 1.The World Education Report:2000 ( from UNESCO ) 2. Statistics of Chinese Education Ministry: Yearbook of Statistics of Chinese Education: From 1978---2001
  • 24. II. Achievements in Chinese Education  The largest scale of education population in the world:  2.29 billion(2001),it is 7.5 times than that in 1950.  The scale of education increased 3.6 times between 1950-1997.
  • 25. 1950-2001, the scale of higher education Increased 85 times, secondary education increased 60 times, primary education increased 3 times. Complusory education lasts 9 years, 1986-2000, 2 billion people have received 9-year complusory education.
  • 26. Free Complusory Education has come into reality: In 2006, the government funding is 1,840 billion for rural areas. It has benefited 5200 million of students in west or middle-west areas. In 2007, the central government supplied 120.5 billion to Compulsory Education in rural areas for free charging. 1.5 billion of students in rural areas benefit from it. In 2008, students in urban received free schooling.
  • 27. In a word, we spent 2% of education expense and have educated 20% of world population. We have made great achievement in compulsory education. However, Chinese education still has much difficulties and problems.
  • 28. II.Difficulties & Problems in Chinese Compulsory Education 1. Lack of educational expenditure in total amount. From a perspective world-widely, we supply the lowest public education expenditure.
  • 29. Differnces of Budgeted Funding Among 31 Provinces and Districts 2004 primary Regular Regular Vocational HE Junior Middle Senior Middle SMS school school(SMS) Mean 1129 1246 1759 1843 5553 Highest 6680 6831 7156 5191 15810 Lowest 654 764 913 921 1946 H/L 10.2 8.9 7.8 5.6 8.1
  • 30. Comparason of Average Budgeted Funding Ratos by GDP (souce:The Development Report of Chinese People 2007-2008) Year OECD Average in Developing China countries the world countries 2003 5.5% 4.2% 4.7% 2.8%
  • 31.  Compare to students in urban areas, students in rural receive less public funds, not to say compare to other developed countries.  According to US statistics of May 28th 2007, the average funds in common education is 8,701$ per student in 2005, it goes up to 5% compared to the number of 2004.
  • 32. Regional Differences in Budgeted Funding Per Student in 2004(yuan)  Region Total Non-salary Beijing 15809 10216 Shanghai 9116 4490 Tianjin 9022 3886 Guangdong 8581 3573 Hubei 2459 841 Hunan 2581 857 Sichuan 1946 870
  • 33. Some of the School Pictures in Rural Areas
  • 34. Some of the Key Schools in Beijing
  • 35. 2. Qualities in rural areas cannot be guaranteed. Teachers in rural areas have received little education, got little educational training. Qualified teachers are badly in need, however, a great number of under-qualifed teachers are common. According to statistics, there are 37.9 million irregular teachers in all, 81.8 % of them are in rural schools.(2008)
  • 36. 3. Teacher student ratos in rural areas are much lower than that in urban areas: Rural Primary schools: 1:23; Junior schools: 1:18 , However, Teacher student ratos in urban areas are 1 ︰ 19 and 1 ︰ 13.5. 4. There are many schools in danger. In 2007, there are 3.358 m2 million schools in danger , they are 2.48% in tatol , however, 90 % of them are distributed in werstern rural areas.
  • 37.  Till the end of December 31, 2001 ,“ Hope Project” has totally set up 8,890 primary schools and gave financially aid to 2,474,342 students.; subsided 20,543 students of Hope Stars ; and build up 130 distant schools through internet. (souces: China Youth Development Foundation,2002)  Conclusion: the main difficulties and problems in compulsory education today is in rural and western areas.
  • 38. Some Other Crucial problems  Goals of Compulsory Education: ------Qualitive Education  Curriculum reforms: too much subjects to learn  Teaching method: Learning Knowledge or Learning how to learn? Knowledge or method(technics)?  Evaluation of students: What is the function of Evaluation? Multiple perspectively.  The enviorment of Schooling  Schools, families & Communities
  • 39. Discussions How to Assess the Achievement of School Education? More Subjects? D:My DocumentsrecourceComparison of Subjects of S Higher Scores? More Skills? More Activities Moral Education? Process of Learning? More Envolvement? D:My DocumentsComparison of School Time of USA w
  • 40. IV. Chanllenges & Reforms in Higher Education  HE System in China  Chanllenges of Chinese HEs.  Reforms of HEs in late 15 years
  • 41. HE System in China (not including Adult Education HEIs:413) Total: PRC:3,800(2007) vs USA: 3,941 (2000) Regular Univs. Bach, Master & Doctor Degrees 479 Common Regular Colls & Univs740 (4 years, Bachelor) Regular Vcational &Technical Colleges 1168 (2-3yearsCertificate and Diploma)
  • 42. IV.Chanllenges and Reforms in Chinese HEIs Chanllenges: Development: the aims of the country Industrialization: the means of the development Modernization: the main goals of industrialization Education: the fundenmental of all Globolization: the main Chanlleges
  • 43. Reforms in Chinese HEIs From 1990s The Outline of Development & Reforms of Education in China (1993) (A Blueprint in HE) Project 211 (1995) Reforms of NEE & Employment (1998) Project 985 (1998) Expansion & Fee-charging in HEIs (Marketization & Privatization ) Project of Quality in HEs (2006)
  • 44. The Outline of Development & Reforms of Education in China (1993) (A Blueprint in Education in 1990’s) Goals of education in China in 1990s : Get a great inprovement in the level of over-all education Attain great development in pre-vocations and after- vocations in urban, as well in rural areas Meet the needs for experts in various fields in the constructions of socialist & modernization Form the base framwork of education system of socialist characteristic in China Focus on building up a great deal of top universities and key desicplines in HE
  • 45. Project 211 :Establishment of World- class Universities(1995) Strengthen about 100 institutions of higher education and key disciplinary areas during the “Ninth Five-Year Plan” period to meet the challenges of the 21st century Cultivate mainly at home high-level innovative talents to meet the needs of economic construction & social development Projects fall into 3 categories: Development of key academic programs Development of public service systems of higher education Improvement of overall institutional capacity
  • 46. Higher Education Quality Assurance System  Higher Education Evaluation Center under MoE established in 2004  All HEIs have to undergo a five-year cycle of quality evaluation  Re-positioning of HEIs under new quality assurance - from pyramid to network
  • 47. Research Universities PH.D Teaching & Research Universities Master’s Teaching & Research Universities Bachelor’s Advanced Vocational Advanced Vocational Institutions Qualifications
  • 48. Expansion of HEIs & Charging Fees in HEIs  Fee-paying  Dual-track to single-track  Full cost private institutions & “self-financed” programs  Self-financed overseas higher education  Ability to pay & willingness to pay  Major concerns  Equity & regional disparity  Quality assurance & consumer protection  Different modes of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)  Public-funded HEIs (different categories, assessment mechanisms)  Private-funded HEIs (legislation)  Mixed-mode HEIs (independent institutional policy)  Chinese-foreign cooperative institutions (legislation & quality assurance)
  • 49. Reforms of NEEHE & Employment (1998) Reforms of National Entrance Examination of HE: “3 + X”: 3 →Chinese, Mathematics & English X → Comprehensive of physics, chemical & biology for Science/ Comprehensive of history,geography & politics for Social Science
  • 50. Reforms of Employment From free HE system to charging HE System From a-job-giving system to job-finding system
  • 51. Project 985 (1998)  May 4, 1998, President Jiang Zemin declared at the Peking University Centennial Celebrations that: ‘China must have a few world-class & a number of world renowned advanced universities’  Then launched the “Educational Action Plan toward the 21st Century” which explicitly stressed the development of World-Class Universities and Internationally Renowned High-Level Research Universities (MoE 2007).
  • 52. Phase 1 (1999-2002)  Making few top universities by combination/adjustment of academic disciplines & special support for strategic fields  Selected universities to nurture talent & engage in high-level research
  • 53. Phase 2 (2004-2007) Establish modern university system -structure & management Enhance capabilities in cultivating elite professionals & creative academic teams Establish national platforms for scientific innovation & research bases for humanities & social sciences 84 key technology innovation platforms on cross-disciplinary researches & in areas of national development priorities 168 technology innovation platforms Presently 38 universities in ‘985 Project’
  • 54. Project of Quality in HEs (2007)  Project of Quality in Undergraduate Reform and Teaching  Take up 6 Measures: Adjustment of professional framwork and professional certification Shareness of disciplines, textbooks & information
  • 55. Innovation of Practice Teaching & Reform of Model of Cultivating Elites Constructions of Teams of Teaching & Prominent Facultis Annancement of Basic Statistics of Assessment of Teaching & State of Teaching One-to-one Helping of Universities in West Provinces
  • 56. Constructions of 7 Systems  Predict system of setting up college professions  Database of Statistics of Teaching Atomousphere  Test Online System: College English & Education by internet  Management of Online Education & Assessment System of Qualities  Share System of Distinguished Disciplines  Digetal Resource System of Multi-level Textbooks  Service System of Life-long Learning
  • 57. Final ExaminationS D:DCIM参观照片(综合)良乡监考.JPG D:DCIM参观照片(综合)良乡考试.JPG
  • 58. Dicussions: What is Quality? How to evaluate it? From different perspective: (Input & Output) Students Themselves Parents Employment Society
  • 59. How to Improve it?  More Finance?  More Engagement?  More Buildings and Libraries?  More Famous Faculties?  More Strict Examinations?
  • 60.  Thanks!

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