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  1. 1. The Evolution of Evolution The battle of science over emotion:The fear of losing our starring role in the drama called life.
  2. 2. Creation• God said – and then it happened.• In Christianity this is done in seven days.• The Bible contains two versions of creation.• When Cain kills Able, he gets a bride from Nod, another people not part of the Judeo-Christian creation.
  3. 3. The puzzle of the creation stories is religion, not science.• Anyone teaching Historical Geology is faced with students who have already concluded that creationism explains the history of the earth. One of the questions that perplexes me is how such students can conclude that their ethnic or religious group has the complete explanation of the origin of the earth and its life, when so many ethnic or religious groups have so many different accounts of those origins. Bruce Railsback, a geologist at the University of Georgia.
  4. 4. Shinto• Of old, Heaven and Earth were not yet separated, and the In and Yo, not yet divided. They formed a chaotic mass like an egg which was of obscurely defined limits and contained germs. The purer and clearer part was thinly drawn out, and formed Heaven, while the heavier and grosser element settled down and became Earth. The finer element easily became a united body, but the consolidation of the heavy and gross element was accomplished with difficulty. Heaven was therefore formed first, and Earth was established subsequently.
  5. 5. African Creation• Each of the nine animals plays its role by creating more creatures to populate the world.• An African Cosmogony" tells of how the world was created through a powerful being named Bumba, who regurgitates the sun, moon, stars, and the first nine living creatures.• Bumba also makes it clear that those whose behavior is detrimental to the community have no place in the community. For instance, Tsetse, lightning, is chased away for being a trouble-maker.• Bumba sums up this sense of community by saying, "Behold these wonders. They belong to you." The earth is both the property and responsibility of every creature.• Lastly, the respect each person should have for the dead is shown through the ants, created by Nyonye Ngana.
  6. 6. Indigenous Creation Stories• The Navajo creation story involves three underworlds where important events happened to shape the Fourth World where we now live.• The Lakota also has life begin beneath the earth and emerge through the hole we call Wind Cave.
  7. 7. • This is a theory - does that put it on equal status with Creation stories?• A theory links scientific facts.• It tests the facts against a variety of experiments and knowledge• A theory is one of sciences over arching concepts and one of its strongest.
  8. 8. Two views from today’s churches• The geologic column • Today, fresh knowledge has which is cited as physical led to the recognition that evidence of evolution evolution is more than a occurring in the past, is hypothesis. It is indeed better explained as the remarkable that this theory result of a devastating has been progressively global flood which accepted by happened 5,000 years ago. researchers, following a There is no reason not to series of discoveries in believe that god created the various fields of knowledge. universe, earth, plants, ani The convergence, neither mals, and people just as sought nor fabricated… is in described in the book of itself significant argument in Genesis. favor of this theory.• Creation Science Website • Pope John Paul II, 1996
  9. 9. Evolution’s evolution• First we need to see connections between living things.• Next we need to be able to measure change and accept adaptation.• Then we have to accept that there has been extinction from a variety of causes• Finally we have to have an earth old enough to allow for change.
  10. 10. Adaptations• This is the key word in evolution. It implies that organisms change over time in relationship to changes in climate and biological pressures.
  11. 11. Rate of change• Organisms that reproduce rapidly, evolve quicker. Fruit Flies provided the first really concrete measure of evolution because they can have multiple populations in a month.• Insects adapt to insecticides so that populations of survivors produce offspring immune to the chemical and new ones must be produced.• In the south the cotton booweevil was first controlled by DDT, now it is immune, that chemical was replaced and now we have insects immune to both, but we farmers still place both on their crops because they have no other options. This proof of adaptation and evolution has taken place in the strongest regional of anti-evolution sentiments.
  12. 12. Extinction• Since the beginning of life 99% of known species have gone extinct.• In Jefferson’s time, extinction was a concept that was not allowed by the church because it was considered an affront to god and implied that god had erred. They had two answers to the fossils – either they were placed here by the devil – or the animals were still living in some exotic and undiscovered part of South America or Africa – Doyle used this as the basis for his novel the Lost Continent.
  13. 13. Aristotle• Each form had a stet position in a ladder of nature that reflected its degree of perfection.• The bottom of the ladder had the inanimate, progressed to jelly fish and on up to humans.• Nothing could move up the ladder.
  14. 14. ARISTOTLES LADDER• What is higher on the scale of being is of more worth• Species on this scale are eternally fixed in their place, and cannot evolve over time.• Further, the lower items are inorganic and the higher are organic. The principle which gives internal organization to the higher or organic items on the scale of being is life, or what he calls the soul of the organism.• Even the human soul is nothing but the organization of the body.• Plants are the lowest forms of life on the scale, and their souls contain a nutritive element by which it preserves itself.• Animals are above plants on the scale, and their souls contain an appetitive feature which allows them to have sensations, desires, and thus gives them the ability to move.• The scale of being proceeds from animals to humans.• The human soul shares the nutritive element with plants, and the appetitive element with animals, but also has a rational element which is distinctively our own.
  15. 15. Carl Von Linne – Linnaeus 1707-1778• Father of Taxonomy. His system for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is still in wide use today
  16. 16. A synopsis of Linnaeus System.• His religious beliefs led him to natural theology: since God has created the world, it is possible to understand Gods wisdom by studying His creation.• Linnaeuss plant taxonomy was based solely on the number and arrangement of the reproductive organs• The sexual basis of Linnaeuss plant classification was controversial in its day.• Part of Linnaeus innovation was thegrouping of genera into higher taxa thatwere also based on shared similarities.
  17. 17. Linnaeus contribution to evolution• In his early years, Linnaeus believed that the species was not only real, but unchangeable.• He abandoned the concept that species were fixed and invariable, and suggested that some -- perhaps most -- species in a genus might have arisen after the creation of the world, through hybridization.• Linnaeus noticed the struggle for survival -- he once called Nature a "butchers block" and a "war of all against all". However, he considered struggle and competition necessary to maintain the balance of nature, part of the Divine Order.• His book was banned by the church because of its sexually explicit imagery.
  18. 18. George Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon• 1707-1788 • Rejected divine plan • Believed variation could happen within species • Recognized vestigial features that no longer served a purpose. • Defined species – if by means of copulation two animals can perpetuate themselves and their likeness they should be considered one species.
  19. 19. William Paley 1743 - 1805• He rejected the early forms of evolution and proposed Natural Theology.• His idea was that everything was deliberately designed and he used the eye as the center piece of his ideas. He felt that the eye along pointed to an intelligent creator.• Because the design was perfect, Natural Theology rejected the idea that it could change.
  20. 20. Darwin took Paley’s course• In order to pass the B.A. examination, it was, also, necessary to get up Paleys Evidences of Christianity, and his Moral Philosophy. . . The logic of this book and as I may add of his Natural Theology gave me as much delight as did Euclid. The careful study of these works, without attempting to learn any part by rote, was the only part of the Academical Course which, as I then felt and as I still believe, was of the least use to me in the education of my mind. I did not at that time trouble myself about Paleys premises; and taking these on trust I was charmed and convinced of the long line of argumentation. Charles Darwin. Autobiography
  21. 21. Fossils – the challenge to perception
  22. 22. Jefferson, who made wonderful discoveries of fossils wrote: Such is the economy of nature that no instance can be produced of her having permitted any one race of her animals to become extinct.In 1811 – Mary Anning, age 12discovered the firstichthyosaurus. It was such agood fossil, that the argumentagainst them did not stand up.So another idea was put forth –these creatures had lived inearlier creations – which hadbeen wiped out.
  23. 23. The next debate was the age of the earth.
  24. 24. The debate once again was the struggle between science and religion• Bishop Usher went through the Bible and said that Sunday, October 23, 4004 BC at 9 AM was the day of creation.• The law of superposition, Hutton’s basis for Geology, the fossil layers, and finally the radiometric aging allowed us to date the beginning of the earth at 4.6 BY
  25. 25. Ages of the seafloor rocks
  26. 26. Richard C. Owen 1804 – 1892 Comparative Anatomy Owen named “dinosaurs” He compared teeth between dinosaurs and modern reptiles and announced that dinosaurs were more advanced. Because Lamarck held that everything advanced towards perfection, Owen felt this backward movement in reptiles undermined evolution. He tried to create a new theory and failed.
  27. 27. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck 1744 - 1829• He was the first to try and explain evolution.• Simple forms constant arise from the non-living and gradually evolve to become more complex.• He felt that characteristics could be acquired during life and then passed on to the next generation.• He would believe that giraffes, by stretching to reach the leafs would pass this tendency on and the next generation would have a longer neck.
  28. 28. Charles Darwin’s first problem• Charles Darwin came from a church oriented family. He had considered going in to the ministry at one point in his life.• He knew the church would react negatively to his research and ideas and thus he waited 20 years to publish.• The first nagging thought about questioning the concept of God as the complete creator of every detail was brought about by Parasites. He could accept quick, painless death, but he could not picture a benevolent god creating death by parasites.
  29. 29. The Beagle• Darwin signed on to be the Naturalist on the Beagle – an unpaid companion to Captain Fitzroy, because status would not allow Fitzroy to socialize with his crew.
  30. 30. The voyage of discovery 1831- 1836• The explorer Humboldt’s books had inspired Darwin to want to travel to South America.• He read Lyell’s new book on geology on the trip.• The earthquake in Chile showed him the dynamic earth.• The finches in Galapagos provided the biological observation that established the basis for natural selection.
  31. 31. Darwin’s wake up call• In 1858, 22 years after the Beagle, Darwin experimenting with barnacles, studying pigeons.• The Lord Alfred Wallace sent him a publication to review. Working in SE Asia, Wallace had found the same thesis. Two independent researchers came to the same conclusion!!
  32. 32. Lord Alfred Wallace 1823 - 1913• “Truth is born into this world only with pangs and tribulations, and every fresh truth is received unwillingly. To expect the world to receive a new truth, or even an old truth, without challenging it, is to look for one of those miracles which do not occur"
  33. 33. Darwin now had to publish andpresent his paper along withWallace’s with very little publicattention, until the churchresponded. Controversy gets thepublic’s attention.
  34. 34. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or thePreservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Charles Darwin, M.A.,• I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.
  35. 35. That many and grave objections may be advancedagainst the theory of descent with modificationthrough natural selection, I do not deny. I haveendeavoured to give to them their full force.Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believethan that the more complex organs and instinctsshould have been perfected not by means superior to,though analogous with, human reason, but by theaccumulation of innumerable slight variations, eachgood for the individual possessor.
  36. 36. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imaginationinsuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of anyorgan or instinct, which wemay consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of itskind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever soslight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation ofeach profitable deviation of structure orinstinct. The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed.
  37. 37. Did you know? Darwin used descent with modification. The term Evolution was coined by the philosophy Herbert Spencer and used by Thomas Huxley in his defense of Darwin’s theory. It meant:A process of change in a certain direction. Spence is also the man who coined: Survival of the fittest!
  38. 38. Domestication – manipulated evolution• Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by nature, and thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
  39. 39. •Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living specieswill transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.•Of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind toa far distant futurity•The greater number of species of each genus have left no descendants,but have become utterly extinct.•The common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger anddominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new anddominant species.•The living forms of life are the lineal descendants of those which livedlong before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinarysuccession by generation has never once been broken, and that nocataclysm has desolated the whole world.•Natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, allcorporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towardsperfection.
  40. 40. O. C. Marsh work onhorse FossilsThe most complete evolutionaryhistory we have is with the horse.O. C. Marsh, a contemporary ofDarwin working in the US put togetherone of the first great collections offossils in North America.The result was an almost completerecord from the earliest ancestors todays modern horse.
  41. 41. Chemical – Biological evolution
  42. 42. Evolution begins with the Genes• allele = (n) a form of a gene which codes for one possible outcome of a phenotype
  43. 43. Three possible genotypes• GENOTYPES • RESULTING PHENOTYPE Homozygous Dominant Yellow (YY) Yellow Heterozygous (Yy) Green Homozygous Recessive (yy)• where Y = the dominant allele for yellow & y = the recessive allele for green
  44. 44. Incomplete dominance• GENOTYPES • RESULTING PHENOTYPE• BB = Homozygous Black Black Fur BW = Heterozygous Grey Fur WW = Homozygous White White Fur• where B = allele for black & W = allele for white
  45. 45. Co-dominance• GENOTYPES • RESULTING PHENOTYPE• BB = Homozygous Black Black Fur BW = Heterozygous Black & White Fur WW = Homozygous White White Fur where B = allele for black & W = allele for white
  46. 46. How does this work for us? Look at our blood types• ALLELE • CODES FOR IA Type "A" Blood IB Type "B" Blood i Type "O" Blood
  47. 47. Knowing what we do about alleles here are the various combinations with dominate, co-dominant and recessive traits • RESULTING• GENOTYPES PHENOTYPES I(A)I(A) Type A I(A)i Type A• I(B)I(B) • Type B I(B)i Type B• I(A)I(B) • Type AB• ii • Type O
  48. 48. How do we go from genetic variation to shifts in species?• The alleles in the population will not change• They will continue to cycle through the population in different combinations until: – Mutation changes a component.• Mutations happen all the time, we know that there are micro-mutations in all genetics and DNA constantly through radiation, cosmic rays, etc. They do not manifest themselves until factors favor them.
  49. 49. The question is – whereare the missing links?Critics are quick to say that if the species arerelated, there should be intermediate stages in thefossils and species.Of course our hybrids demonstrate this in our petsand our agriculture and our gardens, but naturedoes not need that to demonstrate the process.
  50. 50. The success of transitionand evolution can be seenin many smallerorganisms.