Ch10 team development interventions


Published on

i do not own the contents. i hope this can help. :)

Published in: Business
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch10 team development interventions

  2. 2. Organizing Around Teams Teams are becoming a way of life in organizations. - A group of individuals with complementary skills who depend upon one another to accomplish a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. - Work done when the members subordinate their personal prominence for the good of the team.
  3. 3. Effective teams has the ff: Open and honest members Support and trust High degree of cooperation and collaboration Decisions are reached by consensus Communication channels are opened and well developed Strong commitment to the team’s goals
  4. 4. The Team Approach Interdependence- Refers to situations where one person’s performance iscontingent upon how someone else performs.
  5. 5. Team Building / Team Development One major OD technique Used for increasing the communication, cooperation and cohesiveness of units to make them more productive and effective. An intervention where the members of a work group examine such things as their goals, structure, procedures, cultures, norms and interpersonal relationships to improve their ability to work together effectively and efficiently. Reasons for using team development to improve organizational effectiveness 1. Work group is the basic unit of organization and thus provides a supportive change factor. 2. Operating problems of work groups are often sources of inefficiency.
  6. 6. The Need for Team Development - People come together because they Natural Work do related jobs or because of the Team structure of the organization’sWork Teams design. - Groups meet for limited periods to Temporary Task work on a specific project or Team problem and disband after they solve it. = Collaboration and coordination of resources
  7. 7. Categories of Team Interaction
  8. 8. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Complex Situations Problem Situations
  9. 9. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations One that can be solved by a single individual. There is no need to involve others except to pass along or obtain information. Complex Situations Good social skills are important, but team development is not needed for work groups involved Problem Situations with simple situations.
  10. 10. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple SituationsTeamwork and employee participation are not needed under the followingconditions (1/2): Complex Situations•The work is structured so that the tasks that make it up are highly independentof other tasks•There is one person who is obviously more of an expert on the subject thananyone else, Situations Problem and those affected by the decision acknowledge and accept thatexpertise.•There is an obvious correct answer.•The task or problem is part of someone’s regular job assignment, and it was nothis or her idea to form the team.
  11. 11. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple SituationsTeamwork and employee participation are not needed under the followingconditions 2/2: Complex Situations•There is little or no interest in the issue.•The involvement of others will not contribute to the issue, nor would theirknowledge and expertise be increased by the tam experience. Problem Situations•The reward or pay is based on individual performance and not on the collectiveperformance of the team.•There is no time.•Employees work more happily and productively alone.
  12. 12. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Complex Situations Problem Situations
  13. 13. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Complex Situations Problem Situations
  14. 14. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Encompass most of group’s Simple Situations work. There is a need to share information at a level that allows work to be accomplished, because the members cannot do the task on their Complex Situations own. However, input is not required from all of the group’s members, and Problem Situations the level of inputs is not deeply personal.
  15. 15. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Complex Situations Problem Situations
  16. 16. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Complex Situations Problem Situations
  17. 17. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Simple Situations Problem situations are Complex Situations atypical, consequential, unprecedented, and have an impact outside n individual’s scope of influence. Problem Situations
  18. 18. Categories of Team Interaction, cont... Team approach is appropriate under the following conditions: 1. When the work is designed to be done by a team. 2. To permit members to gain new expertise and experience and to develop and educate members. 3. To allow those who know something about the subject to become involved. 4. To build and enhance employee commitment, because teams offer increased levels of participation in decisions. 5. To build consensus and commitment on a controversial issue. 6. To work on a problem that does not belong to any one person. 7. When rewards are based on team performance rather than individual performance. 8. To allow more creative discussions by pulling together people of unusual and different backgrounds and interests. 9. To avoid the obvious decision and explore a variety of effects.
  19. 19. Operating Problems of Work Teams
  20. 20. Operating Problems of Work Teams Individuals often have difficulty in defining and clarifying their goals, and in work teams the problem is multiplied.
  21. 21. Operating Problems of Work Teams Teams fill several needs of individuals, and frequently the satisfaction of completing task is overemphasized at the expense of social and personal needs of team members.
  22. 22. Operating Problems of Work Teams Teams must develop norms about its behavioral patterns. In some cases the norms lead to behavior that is antisocial and dysfunctional for the organization.
  23. 23. Operating Problems of Work Teams Groups that are homogeneous tend to produce homogeneous ideas. Creative ideas and projects tend to come from groups that have diverse backgrounds and interests.
  24. 24. Operating Problems of Work Teams Another frequent source of difficulty in teams is the way decisions are made. Decisions may be made by authoritarian decree, by majority rule, or by unanimous rule.
  25. 25. Operating Problems of Work Teams One key issue for teams is the degree of power and control that the members have over themselves and others.
  26. 26. Operating Problems of Work Teams Can consist of as few as two or as many as 25 or 30, but five to seven is generally considered the most effective size. People on a small team behave differently from those on a large team.
  27. 27. Cohesiveness and Groupthink Cohesiveness - Refers to the unity that the members of a group have for one another. Groupthink- Is a theoretical framework posited by Irving Janis to describe the problems ofgroup cohesiveness. It refers to “a mode of thinking that people engage inwhen they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the membersstriving for unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraisealternative courses of action.”
  28. 28. Cohesiveness and Groupthink, cont... Irving Janis identifies eight characteristics of groupthink and the problems tending to result from it.1. Illusion of invulnerability – leads them to take extraordinary risks, and causes them to fail to respond to clear warnings of danger.2. Rationalization – discount warnings or other negative information.3. Illusion of morality – disregard the ethical or moral consequences of their actions.4. Shared stereotypes – views held by opposing group , especially by its leaders are seen as evil or stupid that such group could not possibly understand reasonable negotiations with one’s own group.
  29. 29. Cohesiveness and Groupthink, cont... eight characteristics of groupthink and the problems that result, cont...5. Direct pressure – the group applies direct pressure to any member who expresses doubts about the group’s positions or validity of the arguments supporting a position.6. Self-censorship – members of the group do not express views that differ from what appears to be a group consensus and minimize to themselves the importance of their doubts.7. Illusion of unanimity – illusory belief that all members of the group are all in agreement. Partly based on false assumption that those who remain silent agree with the group.8. Mind guards - self-appointed members protect the leader and other members from adverse information external to the group that might disrupt the group’s cohesiveness.
  30. 30. The Purpose of Team DevelopmentIntensive examination of team operation focusing upon how membersfunction as a team, and how they can overcome operating problems andimprove their efficiency.
  31. 31. Goals of team development: Identify objectives and set priorities. It should not be inferred that conflict within a team leads to ineffectiveness team’s content or task performance. Examine the and, therefore, should be avoided. Analyze the group process; that is, how the group is functioning. CONFLICT is a natural social interaction. Improve communications and relationships among group members. Managers the team’s abilityto solve problems. Improve should be able to recognize its types and channel such to appropriate directions. competition and increase cooperation among team Decrease unhealthy members. OD practitioner’s responsibility to find effective methods to deal with conflicts Work more effectively with other teams in the organization. and resolve any unhealthy conflicts. Increase team members’ respect for one another’s individual differences.
  32. 32. The Team Development ProcessTeam development is an educational process ofcontinually reviewing and evaluating team functioning inorder to identify and establish new and more effectiveways of operating. Two distinct types of activities : 1. Family group 2. Family group team diagnostic meetings building meetings
  33. 33. Team development process, cont... Team development meeting has two objectives: 1. The task or work agenda of the group 2. The processes by which team members work on the task The main purpose is to get team members involved in solving problems and in the decision-making process.
  34. 34. Team development process, cont... 6 Steps: STEP 1: INITIATING THE TEAM DEVELOPMENT MEETING Within an organization, the initiation of a team development meeting may come from several different sources. This may be initiated by a manager within or not the team , and in cases a practitioner. STEP 2: SETTING OBJECTIVES The objectives might consist of evaluating the working process of the team or improving its effectiveness. Some pertinent questions: What is the purpose of the meeting? What do participants want to do? Why this group of people at this time? How will team development be measured or evaluated?
  35. 35. Team development process, cont... 6 Steps: STEP 3: COLLECTING DATA Data collection may be in various ways, but as much information as possible is gathered before the meeting. STEP 4: PLANNING THE MEETING Few attendees and will take place once the data has been analyzed. It is at this point where the goals and objectives are restated as precise as possible. Includes the logistics, such as arranging for time and place. This stage will also ensure that all necessary personnel and resources are available.
  36. 36. Team development process, cont... 6 Steps: STEP 5: CONDUCTING THE MEETING Usually lasts two to three days. It is preferable that the physical setting be on neutral territory and ways from the work area. Major reason is to put everyone on a more equal level. Also lessens the opportunities for interruption. A list of action items should be made, responsible party and time schedule. STEP 6: EVALUATING THE TEAM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Examine the action items, exploring those that have been or are being carried out and those that are not working.
  37. 37. Outdoor Experiential Laboratory Training•sometimes called outdoor labs, wilderness labs, adventure learning,or the corporate boot camp•become a common technique for team development and leadershiptraining•The idea is to take a group of people who normally work with oneanother and put them in an outdoor setting where they participate inexperiential learning activities.•offered by specialized training companies•assessments should be made before and after•Safety should be a major concern
  38. 38. Role Negotiation-Is directed at the work relationships among team members-During negotiations, managers frankly discuss what they want fromeach other and explain why. Steps in role negotiation:1. Contract setting. Each member prepares a list for each of the othermembers with three headings: (a) things to do more, (b) things to do less, and( c) things to do the same.
  39. 39. Role negotiations, cont... Steps in role negotiation, cont: 2. Issue diagnosis. Each member writes out a master list combining the lists written about him or her and posts it on the wall. Members are asked to clarify any items that need explanation. 3. Role negotiation. After the clarification, members decide which items they want most and form onto pairs to negotiate, usually with a third party to help in the process. 4. Written role negotiation agreement. The outcome of the role negotiations is written down and spells out the agreements and concessions that each party finds satisfactory.
  40. 40. Role Analysis-Another team development intervention called role analysistechnique (RAT), designed to clarify role expectations.-Used to clarify role discrepancies Role expectations - Behaviors expected or prescribed for one member of the team (the role incumbent) by the other team members Role conception - Focal person’s own ideas about appropriate role behavior
  41. 41. Role analysis, cont... Role ambiguity Role conflict - Refers to the situation - Occurs when there is a where a role incumbent is discrepancy between the role unaware of or lacks expectations and role sufficient knowledge about conception. the expectations for the role held by other members. This intervention is based on the premise that consensual agreement about team member roles will lead to a more productive and satisfied team.
  42. 42. Role analysis, cont... The steps in the role analysis technique as ff: 1. Role Analysis 2. The role incumbent’s expectations of others 3. Role expectations by others 4. Role profile 5. Repeat process 6. Review
  43. 43. End of Presentation... THANK YOU!!!