World Civilization
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World Civilization



Introduction to World Civilization PPt

Introduction to World Civilization PPt



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World Civilization World Civilization Presentation Transcript

  • World Civilization I Introduction
  • Difficulty Studying History
    • July 2001 discovery of Hominid
    • Early Hominid Society: Prehistoric
      • Oral Culture
      • Nomadic
      • Tools/ language and communication
    • Knowledge of Early Ancestors
      • A. Prior to 5000, archeological and anthropologic (records, fossils, cultural, genetic)
  • Difficulty Studying History
    • Knowledge of early Ancestors
      • Humans descended from Hominids
      • Beginning about 2 million years ago Hominids grew in dexterity, brainpower, tools
      • Cultural Behavior begins with the onset of the of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic period (2 million-10,000 BCE)
    • Achievements of Hominids/cultural behavior
      • Social /communication skills
      • Hunting, Foraging, Family, Gender
      • Migration
  • Social/Cultural Skills
    • What set Hominids apart from other Animals
    • Better ways at adapting to environment
      • Learned which plants were digestible.
      • Power of memory and speech
      • Cultural development unique to humans- languages, arts, rituals, institutions, technologies, - distinguished form others
  • Hunting, Foraging, Family, and Gender
    • Early Hominids scavengers/ nomads
    • Foraging parties were connected by Kinship, small easy to relocate
    • Members of Kinship group – extended family
    • Children of hominids require nurturing longer.
    • Family concerns may explain division of labor between men and women
    • Gender division does not mean women valued less. Adults collaborated in making decisions for all in extended group
  • Migration/Ice Age
    • Paleolithic period corresponds roughly with what geologists called the Pleistocene Epoch aka the Great Ice age – (2,000,000 BCE to roughly 8,000 BCE.
    • Ice age alternates in climate
    • Induced by growing populations or environmental changes, mammals created new habits
    • 1.8 million years ago hominids left Africa and traveled to Asia.
  • Migration/Ice Age
    • 200,000 to 150,000 BCE; Homo Sapiens emerged (modern man)
      • Developed greater linguistic skills, ability to reason, developed sharing of information
      • Innovators: fashioned ropes from fibers, developed spears and harpoons for hunting, warmer clothing, food preservation leading to longer life span
      • By about 50,000 BCE - human societies migrated to Australia via boat
      • 12,000 BCE when huge glaciers absorbed much of the water, sea levels dropped hundreds of feet, exposing a broad land bridge.
  • Migration/Ice Age
    • By the End, Paleolithic period, almost every region of globe was inhabited by human societies.
    • Cultural Diversity
      • Each group adjusted to their climates and conditions differently
    • Paleolithic Cultural/Spiritual perspectives
      • 1. New forms of expression , paintings, writing, burial practices
  • Inter-connections/ Conflict
    • Distinct separate societies/ not in isolation
      • Contact made with neighbors. Divide territory, familial links,
      • Conflict occurs when hunting became depleted
  • Emergence of Agriculture
    • 10,000 BCE, Nomadic life changes
      • West Africa – new techniques for gathering food
    • Neolithic (New Stone Age, 9000-3000 BCE)
      • New tools developed, domesticated plants & animals, established permanent settlements.
    • Farming began in West Africa (archeological evidence)
      • Spread to Fertile Crescent between 9000-8000 BCE, crescent shaped region, Israel, Syria, Iraq
      • It is believed that animal domestication began here
  • Emergence of Agriculture
    • Agricultural Innovation and Expansion
      • West Africa first place, Sudan, Sahara, 8000 BCE
      • China, valleys of the great rivers settlers started to grow crops and cultivated sorghum as early as 8000 BCE
      • By 7000 BCE Ag began in the Indus Valley of India
      • By 6000 BCE AG it started in Europe and Egypt’s Nile Valley
      • In Western Hemisphere: Ag developed differently, w/o contact with Eurasia, 7000 BCE the crop was corn, beans, and squash
      • In all areas the farming was accompanied by population growth and need for more land, land was cleared.
  • Pastoral Nomads
    • Foraging persisted, not all took up ag readily, harder work than hunting
    • Combination of hunting/ag in Northern areas (North America)
    • Americas, some took up farming but not herding, were there were fewer large domesticated animals
    • Central Asia, embraced herding but not farming where arid climate were unsuitable for grazing animals bunt not crops.
    • Mobile herders such as these know as Pastoral Nomads
  • Pastoral Nomads
    • Contact with Ag societies and trade took place also conflict. In long run Ag could support far more people
      • Settled societies developed
  • Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family)
    • Ag societies would develop into settled societies, with many advantages; population, weapons, possessions, and power, enabling them to defeat or displace all nomadic peoples
    • Key Difference 1: permanence of place, the Farming Village, small settlements of homes in a compact cluster, surrounded by lands on which the villagers raised food.
    • Key Difference 2: Ag society communities grew larger than nomadic groups, who were limited by the need for mobility,
  • Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family)
    • Possession of land became a key concern in Ag societies. Where livelihoods depended largely on the land they sought to maintain/expand access to various lands
    • Families were also more structured.
    • Key Difference 3: Gender roles
      • Nomadic societies: women’s role crucial to survival, women supplied the plant food for whole groups survival while men are out hunting
      • AG: women worked in the home and village, men in the fields
  • Agricultural Societies (Village, Land, Family)
    • Key Difference 4: Family size:
      • Nomadic families smaller, women needed to be able to share child rearing
      • Ag societies: many hands were needed in the fields, larger families were desirable
    • Long run: Ag societies had a crucial advantage: the ability to produce a food surplus, in good years, and store for bad years, ensuring survival
  • Complex Societies Emerge
    • End of Neolithic Period. (West Africa, North Africa)
    • Mesopotamia: The First Civilization
      • Civilization is a culture that has attained a degree of complexity, characterized by urban life and the interdependence of its urban residents.
      • Civilization is a culture capable of sustaining a greater number of specialists to furnish the economic, social, political and religious needs of a greater unit
      • Other concerns: writing (need to keep records) architecture that is permanent, combined with a religious background
  • Sumer (Bronze Age)
    • In the area of Mesopotamia. Emerged around 3500-3100 BCE.
      • First complex society, 3500 wheels, and transportation of wood and stone down rivers to urban centers.
      • 3200 BCE Sumer obtains majority of characteristics of civilization.
      • Contact with other civilizations: Egypt
      • By 2800 BCE syllabic writing reduced from 2000 characters to 600, evolved from a pictorial form of writing.
  • Sumer (2800 BCE)
    • Full complex civilization
      • Age of constant warfare, (Old Sumerian Period), each city attempted to protect and enlarge its land and guarantee its access to water and irrigation
      • Each city-state Theocracy, chief local god was believed to be the actual ruler, in Sumer it was Ensi.
      • Gilgamesh the famous Ensi of Urk about 2700 BCE, was strong ruler, Epic poem shows Sumerian rules could be questioned.
  • Sumer (2800 BCE)
    • Full complex civilization
      • Like many religions to follow, priests, administrators, Ensi’s began to confiscate land and assert their authority over other people
      • Slavery: like their other Mesopotamian neighbors/ancestors used Slavery. However had rights, and not based on race.
      • Sumerian women could attain a high prominence on the rank of their own or their husbands.
      • Men had the greatest authority over their wives in economic and legal matters, children were under control of parents until 20 or 21 years of age.
  • Akkadian Period (2300-2150)
    • North of Sumer was Akkad, inhabited by Semites who adopted Sumerian Culture
    • Sargon I was the first Akkadian ruler from 2370-2315 BCE to conquer Sumer and establish Empire from Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean.
    • Sargon I proud of his low status
    • Successors were not as tireless as Sargon and Dynasty collapsed around 2150 BCE
  • Lugals Return (2150-2000)
    • Lugal: those of the political elite in Sumer, often lugal would refer to KING.
    • By 2150 Lugals of Sumer city of UR returned the rule of Sumer to Mesopotamia.
    • New Neo-Sumerian period- introduced centralized administration to Akkad and Sumer
    • The formerly temple dominated cities became provinces administered by closely regulated governments.
  • Lugals Return (2150-2000)
    • Religion became an arm of the state, High priests became state appointees
    • Head of bureaucratic state was a Lugal located in Ur
    • Lugal of Ur called themselves “Vigilant Sheppard” of their people and were celebrated as living Gods.
    • Disaster struck Ur around 2000 BCE when the Elamites from what is now Iran destroyed the city.
    • The Sumerians were never again a dominant political force, but their cultural influence would be powerful throughout all subsequent civilizations in the Tirgis Euphrates valley.
    • Sumerian language continued as a language of scholarship and ritual
  • Summary
    • Agricultural Revolution gave way to the birth of complex civilizations
    • Sumer/Akkad were first great complex civilizations