How the Greeks Destroyed Themselves<br />The Peloponnesian Wars<br />
Objectives <br />Why/How did the Greeks embark on a self-destructive war?<br />Did the Greeks City-States become “Empires”<br />How was Pericles considered a “democrat”?<br />In the end, was there really a victorious power in the Peloponnesian Wars? While one power lost, the “winning” power also failed to fill the power vacuum.<br />
The Delian League vs. the Peloponnesian League<br />The Delian League (Athens)<br />Cimon’s suppression of Thasos (465 BCE)<br />Power struggle at home: Pericles becomes leader of a faction<br />Spartan seeks help of Athens for their rebellion<br />The Spartans reject Cimon’s help and Ephialtes and others in Athens reconfigure power in the Areopagus<br />First Peloponnesian War<br />War begins with a dispute between Megara and Corinth over a boarder dispute. Megara withdrew from the <br />461 BCE, Cimon exiled, new policy, Athens alliance with Argos, <br />
First Peloponnesian War<br />Begins over boarder dispute<br />Early Athenian advantage/ Egyptian campaign<br />Revolt within Delian league, Truce <br />War breaks out in Boetia and Megara opening Athens to Spartan invasion in 446 BCE. <br />Pericles negotiates 30 year peace<br />Divide was now distinct<br />Sparta and its alliance on the mainland<br />Athens and the Athenian Empire in the Aegean<br />
Athens Builds during the truce<br />The Athenian Empire<br />449 BCE/ Athens moves Delian League Treasury to Athens<br />Expanse of Empire <br />Change from Alliance to Empire<br />Change due to pressure of war and rebellion and unwillingness of the allies to see to their own defense. <br />30 year peace is the key to prosperity and security<br />Athenian Democracy<br />Must view democracy in the domestic sense rather than “empire”<br />
Athens Builds during the truce<br />Athenian Democracy<br />Pericles: under leadership Athens becomes freest government<br />Opened the leadership offices: No adult male was barred from Archonship due to property.<br />New Circuit court judges<br />Democracy was the privilege of citizenship. Citizenship was a valuable commodity.<br />Citizenship restricted.<br />
Athens Builds during the truce<br />Athenian Democracy<br />Extent of Democracy<br />All decisions of the state were approved by the popular assembly, not representatives<br />Judicial decisions subject to appeal to a popular court of not fewer than 51 citizens.<br />Main elected officials, generals, imperial treasurers, were nobles. Usually rich, but citizens could choose others<br />Public officials were subject to scrutiny before taking office & could be called to account for actions in office and removed<br />All citizens at the end of terms of office were held to compulsory examination and accounting.<br />No standing army<br />
Athens Builds during the truce<br />Pericles<br />Elected to Generalship for 15 years consecutively, (30 times in all)<br />When he lost the confidence of the people they did not hesitate to removed him form office<br />After Egyptian defeat he became more conservative<br />Sought to retain the Aegean Empire and live at peace with the Spartans<br />The “30 years” peace/2nd Peloponnesian War<br />Peace lasts 445-435 BCE.<br />Spartan Strategy: land strategy<br />Athenian Strategy: Large income, Superior Navy<br />
Athens Builds during the truce<br />The 2nd Peloponnesian War<br />Athenian Strategy: devastation of land, withhold siege<br />Pericles exists the stage 429 BCE<br />Peace of Nicias: 50 year peace<br />Alcibiades: persuaded Athenians to attack Sicily 415-413BCE<br />Power of Athens destroyed? 411 BCE survived an oligarchic coup, fleet caught napping and destroyed at Aegospotami in 405 BCE. <br />Spartans under Lysander cut off their food supply & starved the city into submission, 404 BCE Athens surrenders unconditionally.<br />The Great Peloponnesian War was over<br />
Lessons of the Peloponnesian Wars<br />Utter defeat of Athens<br />Power Vacuum in Greek world<br />Sparta makes mockery of Greek freedom<br />Spartan Hubris<br />Sparta sets up government in Athens<br />Athens will regain some freedom under Pausanias, other than Foreign Policy<br />
The Greeks of Asia Minor<br />405-404 BCE: Greek mercenaries & intervene in Persia on behalf of Cyrus the younger. (Persians were in the middle of a power struggle)<br />Afraid of revenge, they sent to Sparta for help<br />The Persians respond by seeking help from the cities disaffected with Spartan domination.<br />Corinthian War (395-387) Argos, Corinth, Thebes, Athens<br />Athens rebuilt their wall by 394 BCE<br />This sudden reemergence alarmed Persians<br />Spartans turned to their old ways. They disbanded all alliances, except Peloponnesian League, and put friends in power<br />In 382 BCE, they seized Thebes without warning, and in a time of peace. <br />
The Greeks at War with themselves Still<br />Thebes joined forces with those who had rebelled against Sparta, 371 BCE defeated Sparta<br />Thebians encouraged the Arcadian cities of the Peloponnesus to form a federal league and freed the Helots (helping them found their own city)<br />Sparta was no longer able to keep and maintain an army of more than 2000, surrounded by hostile enemies, deprived of farmland and slaves, Sparta ceases to be a first rate power<br />
The Second Athenian Empire<br />Athens in 378 BCE attempt to rebuilt former Delian League<br />Made promises that they would not be as they were before, only to break them when rebellion among allies breaks out.<br />Athens did not have the power to suppress resistance as it had before. <br />By 355 BCE Athens had to abandon most of their empire,<br />After 2 centuries of almost continual warfare the Greeks return to the chaotic, disorganized city-states that hey were before the founding of the Peloponnesian League<br />
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