Complex Civilizations
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Complex Civilizations Complex Civilizations Presentation Transcript

  • Civilizations and their contributions
    • Discuss the various contributions of complex civilizations.
    • Describe some of the characteristics of these complex civilizations
    • Did some civilizations contribute to other civilizations and how
    • Name was given to them by the Greeks
    • they lived along the Mediterranean coast of Syria, (Lebanon)
    • Vast trading network, (Spain, Mediterranean)
    • Traders, home cities were mostly Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, manufactured goods, export Woolen cloth dyed with their purple dye
    • Bibilia (Books) Greeks called the Egyptian papyrus rolls Biblia because Byblos was the shipping point for this material. (Christian)M
    • 6. Their greatest contribution was th Alphabet, or the perfection thereof. Direct influence of the development of all later Western European scripts.
    • 7. Alphabet between 1800-1600 BCE Phoenicians and neighboring Semetic people influenced by Egypts semi-alphabetical writing, developed 22 consonant symbols, Greeks would later ad signs for vowels
    • A. In the Areas of War, Diplomacy, Technology, Art, small significance
    • B. Religion and Ethics, of great impact, foundation of 3 religions (J, C, I)
    • C. Much of the history is in the Hebrew Bible, (Pentateuch, Tora) (1st 5 books)
    • D. Abraham who took the clan out of Ur in Sumer
    • E. Jacob (later Israel) led migration to Canaan
    • F. Archeological evidence (non for around 1900BCE) But may not mean it did not happen
    • G. Joseph (great grandson of Abraham) 1550BCE led people to Egypt. (reasons famine)
    • I. Joseph has a good reception (Semetic Hyksos who had conquered Egypt in 1720 BCE)
    • J. No indications in Egyptian sources of a large number of Hebrews enslaved in Egypt after the Hyksos were expelled.
    • K. Moses - Liberator of Hebrews in Egypt, Exodus (road out) around 1300 BCE. No mention of them in Egyptian records.
    • L. Bible records 40 year wandering
    • M. Joined by other Hebrew tribes in Canaan, the Israelites formed Confederacy of 12 tribes.
    • N. Hebrew occupation of Canaan long and slow process, coexistence
    • O. Hebrews created strong centralized monarchy, patriarchal
    • II. Israelites contesting Canaanite area for Dominance
    • a. Arrival of the Philistines, Sea peoples who had attempted to conquer Egypt, (name Palestine comes from the settlement along the coast of Israel 1175 BCE.
    • b. Saul's Reign (1020-1000 BCE) not successful, David arrives. David succeeds Saul (1000-961 BCE)
    • c. Jerusalem conquered from Canannites, private domain of royal court, sep from 12 tribes.
    • d. Solomon, (son of David) 961-922 BCE Israel reached height of power
    • e. splendour of Solomon's monarchy came at a price, bureaucracy, building projects, standing army (1400 chariots, 12000 horses), Harem (700 wives 300 concubines)
    • Semetic Amorites (from Akkadian word Amurru, "west) produced one dynasty with based power in Babylon.
    • The Babylonian rulers built their city into a capital that would dominate Mesopotamia for 300 years.
    • Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) one of the most noted rulers
    • I. Hammurabi
    • A. Code of Hammurabi (compilation of laws)
    • 1. property disputes, inheritance
    • 2. adultery, prostitution,
    • 3. Slavery, public order
    • B. Not exhaustive, guidepost for judges
    • C. Compilation (some Sumerian laws)
    • D. Based on "eye for eye", harsh administration
    • E. Class conscious, laws applied to different classes, severity.
    • F. Laws, despite severity, attempted to:
    • 1. reduce abusive interest rate practices
    • 2. limited slavery for debt to 3 years
    • 3. provided care to widows and orphans
    • 4. established minimum wages
    • G. Laws concerning women
    • 1. divorce/alimony
    • 2. women expected to rear children, governed by husband.
    • 3. women were protected against charges from her husband
    • 4. Children were property of husband
    • 5. Fathers could not disinherit sons
    • 6. State compensated victims for failure of law and order.
    • H. Built upon Sumerian advances
    • 1. Arithmetic, Geometry, Algebra, whole numbers, fractions, compiled multiplication tables/division/square & cube roots
    • 2. linear/ quadratic equations, Pythagorean theorem a 2 + b 2 = c 2.
    • 3. Counting was based on 60 units rather than 10.
    • I. Borrowed form Sumerian literature hero's tales etc. Comparable to Homer
    • J. Epic of Gilgamesh hero that lived around 2700 BCE, central theme is the search for everlasting live
    • K. Religion: not well developed, ethically. More than 30 different types of priests.
    • I. Hammurabi dies in 1595 BCE, Hitites an Indo-European people in control of Asia Minor, launched a raid down the Euphrates destroying the Babylinian Dynasty.
    • II. Hittie success.
    • A. new way of waging war (chariots draw by horses)
    • B. 5 centuries in Mesopotamia were years of discord of which little is known
    • Objective: How did geography influence the Egyptian's view of themselves, the world and the afterlife?
    • Objective: How & Why did the role and status of the pharaoh changed during the course of Egyptian History?
    • Civilization developed similarly in Egypt as in Mesopotamia, A bit more detail
    • Three Key Periods in Egyptian History
      • Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
      • Old Kingdom: Pharaoh had absolute authority, only Pharaoh were believed to have afterlife
        • Built the pyramids
      • Middle Kingdom: Pharaoh less authority
    • The Nile; the Gift that keeps giving
      • Similar to Mesopotamia: fertile valley, extensive exploitation of agriculture
      • Nile flooding was predictable, still is, irrigation ditches used for control
      • Calendar based on moon cycle, 12 months, 30 days each. Five feasts added to the end of the 365 day cycle. (basis of our own calendar)
    • Geographically, Egypt was isolated, Nile valley thin strip 600 miles long (4-24 miles wide), surrounded on east and west by desert
    • Egyptians divided the Nile valley into 2 sections: Lower Egypt (Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt (rest of the river south to Nubia)
      • These distictions are important due to the fact that water flowed from south to north and into the Mediterranean.
      • After 3000 BCE Upper and Lower were united around a capital at Memphis.
    • Optimistic nature of Egyptians due to regular cycle of the Nile and unity of upper and lower Egypt.
    • Unity of Upper and Lower Egypt
      • 1st Dynasties of Pharaoh 3000-2700 BCE full fundamental aspects of Egyptian religion and government evolved.
      • Hieroglyphics developed (700 symbols that represented the other world
    • Egypt was divided into 42 small territories called Nomes, administerred from a city center of administration, (administered food supplies, etc.)
    • Cities had their own Gods, cities not large pop. centers, people lived in countryside.
    • Egyptian Gods (depicted as animals)
      • Anubis, the Jackel
      • Ra, the Sun God
      • Pharaohs were considered Gods
      • Goddess Ma'at: order and stability, justice
      • Pharaoh expected to rule according to Ma'at.
    • Government & Society
      • Pharaoh at the peak of Egyptian government/society. Assisted by Vizier, and large bureaucracy.
      • Upper/Lower Egypt had governors > nomarchs > nomes
      • Government: tax collection, admin. justice,
      • All free persons equal before the law: Criminal law: based on extracting a confession
      • Society was hierarchical: Pharaoh, Pharaoh family (chief wife, often sister, additional wives/concubines, and children)
    • Government & Society
      • Pharoah's successor usually was son, sometimes daughter (but unusual)
      • Pharoah's divine status advertised with large sculptures.
      • Nobility/Priests: below Pharoah's family, held state offices and owned large amounts of land. Priests administered lands belonging to temples
      • Next rank: specialized workers> scribes, acrobats, singers, dancers, musicians, artists, stonemasons, perfume makers, professional mourners at funerals.
      • Lower down: the rest of the population that laboured in farming or on public works projects, (digging ditches, building tombs)
      • Slaves, lowest, natives Egyptians sold for debt or captive acquired by raids into Nubia or south Asia.
    • Government & Society
      • Families centerpiece of society: Marriages usually arranged. Marriage contracts usually stipulated the rights of men/women to their own possessions, allowances the husband would provide to wife, and how the property wold be divided in case of divorce (Pre-nuptial)
      • Marriage ceremony simple: bride moved possessions into her husbands' house. (divorce could be initiated by either side, wives entitled to continued support from husbands
      • Male and Female children inherited equally.
      • In general, women had parity with men when it came to haveing careers, owning property, and pursuing cases in court.
    • Hyksos driven out of Egypt by Ahmose (by mid-1500 BCE), who unified and established the New Kingdom.
    • New Kingdom born of military insurrection and warlike and expansionist. They had learned from the Hyksos.
    • Established Egyptian Empire stretching from Nubia to Syria in the North.
    • 2 new Egyptian classes: Professional Soldiers, Slaves.
    • Remarkable Rulers
      • Hatshepsut: regent to 6 year old step son Thutmosis III, around 1479 BCE. Later she had the priests proclaim her king
      • Often depicted wearing male attire on monuments, even with a beard
      • Thutmosis III, emerged as one of Egypt's greatest leaders extending his dominion north to the upper Euphrates, vanquishing several West Asian realms, and conquering the Nubians.
      • Thutmosis III, first ruler to use the title Pharaoh (formerly used as a king's palace), recognized potential of sea power.
    • Remarkable Rulers
      • By 1300 BCE, Egyptian power began to wane
      • Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti attempted a religious revolution. Promoted universal diety called Aton
        • Amenhotep changed name to Akhenaton meaning "Aton is pleased"
        • First attempt at monotheism
        • Akhenaton refused to proted Egypt from Hittites in the West. Loss of territory, also tribute, revolts occurred
      • Akhenaton dies so does religious revolution, Nefertiti seemed to rule jointly and later disappears from public life.
    • Remarkable Rulers
      • . Tutankhamon succeeds Akhenaton, restored old religion, (known for discovery by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922)
      • By 1200 BCE, Rameses II reign for 60 years.
        • Would recapture lands lost to Akhenaton from the Hittites in a battle at Kadesh in Syria.
        • Rameses would later declare victory, though he never won a victory over the Hittites or banished them
        • Used Diplomacy formed alliances with former foes and married a Hittie.
    • Sea people, Bridge to Iron Age
      • After Kadesh Hittites appeared eager for peace with Egypt due to threats others were placing on their territories.
      • Indo- European and others would disrupt the Eastern Mediterranean once again.
      • Survivors of these upheavals fled to the sea to seek new lands to plunder of settle. Fall of Troy occurred at this point around 1150 BCE
      • Collectively known as Sea peoples they included: Philistines, Sicilians, Sardinians, Etruscans, pre Mycenaean Greek.
      • Dispute over the fall Hittites; some cite the changes in warfare - especially on mobile infantry, javelins, chariots; these account for the destruction of governments and the displacement of peoples.
    • Most of these complex civilizations occurred under similar conditions (agriculture, fertile rivers)
    • Complexity of these civilizations are found in their social structures, laws, etc.
    • Each made unique contributions and built upon the discoveries of others.