2. linear/ quadratic equations, Pythagorean theorem a 2 + b 2 = c 2.
3. Counting was based on 60 units rather than 10.
I. Borrowed form Sumerian literature hero's tales etc. Comparable to Homer
J. Epic of Gilgamesh hero that lived around 2700 BCE, central theme is the search for everlasting live
K. Religion: not well developed, ethically. More than 30 different types of priests.
I. Hammurabi dies in 1595 BCE, Hitites an Indo-European people in control of Asia Minor, launched a raid down the Euphrates destroying the Babylinian Dynasty.
II. Hittie success.
A. new way of waging war (chariots draw by horses)
B. 5 centuries in Mesopotamia were years of discord of which little is known
Objective: How did geography influence the Egyptian's view of themselves, the world and the afterlife?
Objective: How & Why did the role and status of the pharaoh changed during the course of Egyptian History?
Civilization developed similarly in Egypt as in Mesopotamia, A bit more detail
Three Key Periods in Egyptian History
Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
Old Kingdom: Pharaoh had absolute authority, only Pharaoh were believed to have afterlife
Built the pyramids
Middle Kingdom: Pharaoh less authority
The Nile; the Gift that keeps giving
Similar to Mesopotamia: fertile valley, extensive exploitation of agriculture
Nile flooding was predictable, still is, irrigation ditches used for control
Calendar based on moon cycle, 12 months, 30 days each. Five feasts added to the end of the 365 day cycle. (basis of our own calendar)
Geographically, Egypt was isolated, Nile valley thin strip 600 miles long (4-24 miles wide), surrounded on east and west by desert
Egyptians divided the Nile valley into 2 sections: Lower Egypt (Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt (rest of the river south to Nubia)
These distictions are important due to the fact that water flowed from south to north and into the Mediterranean.
After 3000 BCE Upper and Lower were united around a capital at Memphis.
Optimistic nature of Egyptians due to regular cycle of the Nile and unity of upper and lower Egypt.
Unity of Upper and Lower Egypt
1st Dynasties of Pharaoh 3000-2700 BCE full fundamental aspects of Egyptian religion and government evolved.
Hieroglyphics developed (700 symbols that represented the other world
Egypt was divided into 42 small territories called Nomes, administerred from a city center of administration, (administered food supplies, etc.)
Cities had their own Gods, cities not large pop. centers, people lived in countryside.
Egyptian Gods (depicted as animals)
Anubis, the Jackel
Ra, the Sun God
Pharaohs were considered Gods
Goddess Ma'at: order and stability, justice
Pharaoh expected to rule according to Ma'at.
Government & Society
Pharaoh at the peak of Egyptian government/society. Assisted by Vizier, and large bureaucracy.
Upper/Lower Egypt had governors > nomarchs > nomes
Government: tax collection, admin. justice,
All free persons equal before the law: Criminal law: based on extracting a confession
Society was hierarchical: Pharaoh, Pharaoh family (chief wife, often sister, additional wives/concubines, and children)
Government & Society
Pharoah's successor usually was son, sometimes daughter (but unusual)
Pharoah's divine status advertised with large sculptures.
Nobility/Priests: below Pharoah's family, held state offices and owned large amounts of land. Priests administered lands belonging to temples
Next rank: specialized workers> scribes, acrobats, singers, dancers, musicians, artists, stonemasons, perfume makers, professional mourners at funerals.
Lower down: the rest of the population that laboured in farming or on public works projects, (digging ditches, building tombs)
Slaves, lowest, natives Egyptians sold for debt or captive acquired by raids into Nubia or south Asia.
Government & Society
Families centerpiece of society: Marriages usually arranged. Marriage contracts usually stipulated the rights of men/women to their own possessions, allowances the husband would provide to wife, and how the property wold be divided in case of divorce (Pre-nuptial)
Marriage ceremony simple: bride moved possessions into her husbands' house. (divorce could be initiated by either side, wives entitled to continued support from husbands
Male and Female children inherited equally.
In general, women had parity with men when it came to haveing careers, owning property, and pursuing cases in court.
Hyksos driven out of Egypt by Ahmose (by mid-1500 BCE), who unified and established the New Kingdom.
New Kingdom born of military insurrection and warlike and expansionist. They had learned from the Hyksos.
Established Egyptian Empire stretching from Nubia to Syria in the North.
2 new Egyptian classes: Professional Soldiers, Slaves.
Hatshepsut: regent to 6 year old step son Thutmosis III, around 1479 BCE. Later she had the priests proclaim her king
Often depicted wearing male attire on monuments, even with a beard
Thutmosis III, emerged as one of Egypt's greatest leaders extending his dominion north to the upper Euphrates, vanquishing several West Asian realms, and conquering the Nubians.
Thutmosis III, first ruler to use the title Pharaoh (formerly used as a king's palace), recognized potential of sea power.
By 1300 BCE, Egyptian power began to wane
Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti attempted a religious revolution. Promoted universal diety called Aton
Amenhotep changed name to Akhenaton meaning "Aton is pleased"
First attempt at monotheism
Akhenaton refused to proted Egypt from Hittites in the West. Loss of territory, also tribute, revolts occurred
Akhenaton dies so does religious revolution, Nefertiti seemed to rule jointly and later disappears from public life.
. Tutankhamon succeeds Akhenaton, restored old religion, (known for discovery by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922)
By 1200 BCE, Rameses II reign for 60 years.
Would recapture lands lost to Akhenaton from the Hittites in a battle at Kadesh in Syria.
Rameses would later declare victory, though he never won a victory over the Hittites or banished them
Used Diplomacy formed alliances with former foes and married a Hittie.
Sea people, Bridge to Iron Age
After Kadesh Hittites appeared eager for peace with Egypt due to threats others were placing on their territories.
Indo- European and others would disrupt the Eastern Mediterranean once again.
Survivors of these upheavals fled to the sea to seek new lands to plunder of settle. Fall of Troy occurred at this point around 1150 BCE
Collectively known as Sea peoples they included: Philistines, Sicilians, Sardinians, Etruscans, pre Mycenaean Greek.
Dispute over the fall Hittites; some cite the changes in warfare - especially on mobile infantry, javelins, chariots; these account for the destruction of governments and the displacement of peoples.
Most of these complex civilizations occurred under similar conditions (agriculture, fertile rivers)
Complexity of these civilizations are found in their social structures, laws, etc.
Each made unique contributions and built upon the discoveries of others.