Complex Civilizations


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Complex Civilizations

  1. 1. Civilizations and their contributions
  2. 2. <ul><li>Discuss the various contributions of complex civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some of the characteristics of these complex civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Did some civilizations contribute to other civilizations and how </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Name was given to them by the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>they lived along the Mediterranean coast of Syria, (Lebanon) </li></ul><ul><li>Vast trading network, (Spain, Mediterranean) </li></ul><ul><li>Traders, home cities were mostly Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, manufactured goods, export Woolen cloth dyed with their purple dye </li></ul><ul><li>Bibilia (Books) Greeks called the Egyptian papyrus rolls Biblia because Byblos was the shipping point for this material. (Christian)M </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>6. Their greatest contribution was th Alphabet, or the perfection thereof. Direct influence of the development of all later Western European scripts. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Alphabet between 1800-1600 BCE Phoenicians and neighboring Semetic people influenced by Egypts semi-alphabetical writing, developed 22 consonant symbols, Greeks would later ad signs for vowels </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A. In the Areas of War, Diplomacy, Technology, Art, small significance </li></ul><ul><li>B. Religion and Ethics, of great impact, foundation of 3 religions (J, C, I) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Much of the history is in the Hebrew Bible, (Pentateuch, Tora) (1st 5 books) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Abraham who took the clan out of Ur in Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>E. Jacob (later Israel) led migration to Canaan </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>F. Archeological evidence (non for around 1900BCE) But may not mean it did not happen </li></ul><ul><li>G. Joseph (great grandson of Abraham) 1550BCE led people to Egypt. (reasons famine) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Joseph has a good reception (Semetic Hyksos who had conquered Egypt in 1720 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>J. No indications in Egyptian sources of a large number of Hebrews enslaved in Egypt after the Hyksos were expelled. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>K. Moses - Liberator of Hebrews in Egypt, Exodus (road out) around 1300 BCE. No mention of them in Egyptian records. </li></ul><ul><li>L. Bible records 40 year wandering </li></ul><ul><li>M. Joined by other Hebrew tribes in Canaan, the Israelites formed Confederacy of 12 tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>N. Hebrew occupation of Canaan long and slow process, coexistence </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>O. Hebrews created strong centralized monarchy, patriarchal </li></ul><ul><li>II. Israelites contesting Canaanite area for Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>a. Arrival of the Philistines, Sea peoples who had attempted to conquer Egypt, (name Palestine comes from the settlement along the coast of Israel 1175 BCE. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>b. Saul's Reign (1020-1000 BCE) not successful, David arrives. David succeeds Saul (1000-961 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Jerusalem conquered from Canannites, private domain of royal court, sep from 12 tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Solomon, (son of David) 961-922 BCE Israel reached height of power </li></ul><ul><li>e. splendour of Solomon's monarchy came at a price, bureaucracy, building projects, standing army (1400 chariots, 12000 horses), Harem (700 wives 300 concubines) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Semetic Amorites (from Akkadian word Amurru, &quot;west) produced one dynasty with based power in Babylon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Babylonian rulers built their city into a capital that would dominate Mesopotamia for 300 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) one of the most noted rulers </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>I. Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><li>A. Code of Hammurabi (compilation of laws) </li></ul><ul><li>1. property disputes, inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>2. adultery, prostitution, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Slavery, public order </li></ul><ul><li>B. Not exhaustive, guidepost for judges </li></ul><ul><li>C. Compilation (some Sumerian laws) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>D. Based on &quot;eye for eye&quot;, harsh administration </li></ul><ul><li>E. Class conscious, laws applied to different classes, severity. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Laws, despite severity, attempted to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. reduce abusive interest rate practices </li></ul><ul><li>2. limited slavery for debt to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>3. provided care to widows and orphans </li></ul><ul><li>4. established minimum wages </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>G. Laws concerning women </li></ul><ul><li>1. divorce/alimony </li></ul><ul><li>2. women expected to rear children, governed by husband. </li></ul><ul><li>3. women were protected against charges from her husband </li></ul><ul><li>4. Children were property of husband </li></ul><ul><li>5. Fathers could not disinherit sons </li></ul><ul><li>6. State compensated victims for failure of law and order. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>H. Built upon Sumerian advances </li></ul><ul><li>1. Arithmetic, Geometry, Algebra, whole numbers, fractions, compiled multiplication tables/division/square & cube roots </li></ul><ul><li>2. linear/ quadratic equations, Pythagorean theorem a 2 + b 2 = c 2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Counting was based on 60 units rather than 10. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Borrowed form Sumerian literature hero's tales etc. Comparable to Homer </li></ul><ul><li>J. Epic of Gilgamesh hero that lived around 2700 BCE, central theme is the search for everlasting live </li></ul><ul><li>K. Religion: not well developed, ethically. More than 30 different types of priests. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>I. Hammurabi dies in 1595 BCE, Hitites an Indo-European people in control of Asia Minor, launched a raid down the Euphrates destroying the Babylinian Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Hittie success. </li></ul><ul><li>A. new way of waging war (chariots draw by horses) </li></ul><ul><li>B. 5 centuries in Mesopotamia were years of discord of which little is known </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Objective: How did geography influence the Egyptian's view of themselves, the world and the afterlife? </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: How & Why did the role and status of the pharaoh changed during the course of Egyptian History? </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization developed similarly in Egypt as in Mesopotamia, A bit more detail </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Three Key Periods in Egyptian History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Kingdom: Pharaoh had absolute authority, only Pharaoh were believed to have afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built the pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom: Pharaoh less authority </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Nile; the Gift that keeps giving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Mesopotamia: fertile valley, extensive exploitation of agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile flooding was predictable, still is, irrigation ditches used for control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar based on moon cycle, 12 months, 30 days each. Five feasts added to the end of the 365 day cycle. (basis of our own calendar) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Geographically, Egypt was isolated, Nile valley thin strip 600 miles long (4-24 miles wide), surrounded on east and west by desert </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians divided the Nile valley into 2 sections: Lower Egypt (Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt (rest of the river south to Nubia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These distictions are important due to the fact that water flowed from south to north and into the Mediterranean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 3000 BCE Upper and Lower were united around a capital at Memphis. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Optimistic nature of Egyptians due to regular cycle of the Nile and unity of upper and lower Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Dynasties of Pharaoh 3000-2700 BCE full fundamental aspects of Egyptian religion and government evolved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics developed (700 symbols that represented the other world </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Egypt was divided into 42 small territories called Nomes, administerred from a city center of administration, (administered food supplies, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Cities had their own Gods, cities not large pop. centers, people lived in countryside. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Gods (depicted as animals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anubis, the Jackel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ra, the Sun God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaohs were considered Gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goddess Ma'at: order and stability, justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh expected to rule according to Ma'at. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Government & Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh at the peak of Egyptian government/society. Assisted by Vizier, and large bureaucracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper/Lower Egypt had governors > nomarchs > nomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government: tax collection, admin. justice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All free persons equal before the law: Criminal law: based on extracting a confession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society was hierarchical: Pharaoh, Pharaoh family (chief wife, often sister, additional wives/concubines, and children) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Government & Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharoah's successor usually was son, sometimes daughter (but unusual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharoah's divine status advertised with large sculptures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility/Priests: below Pharoah's family, held state offices and owned large amounts of land. Priests administered lands belonging to temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next rank: specialized workers> scribes, acrobats, singers, dancers, musicians, artists, stonemasons, perfume makers, professional mourners at funerals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower down: the rest of the population that laboured in farming or on public works projects, (digging ditches, building tombs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves, lowest, natives Egyptians sold for debt or captive acquired by raids into Nubia or south Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Government & Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Families centerpiece of society: Marriages usually arranged. Marriage contracts usually stipulated the rights of men/women to their own possessions, allowances the husband would provide to wife, and how the property wold be divided in case of divorce (Pre-nuptial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage ceremony simple: bride moved possessions into her husbands' house. (divorce could be initiated by either side, wives entitled to continued support from husbands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male and Female children inherited equally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, women had parity with men when it came to haveing careers, owning property, and pursuing cases in court. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Hyksos driven out of Egypt by Ahmose (by mid-1500 BCE), who unified and established the New Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom born of military insurrection and warlike and expansionist. They had learned from the Hyksos. </li></ul><ul><li>Established Egyptian Empire stretching from Nubia to Syria in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>2 new Egyptian classes: Professional Soldiers, Slaves. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Remarkable Rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut: regent to 6 year old step son Thutmosis III, around 1479 BCE. Later she had the priests proclaim her king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often depicted wearing male attire on monuments, even with a beard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thutmosis III, emerged as one of Egypt's greatest leaders extending his dominion north to the upper Euphrates, vanquishing several West Asian realms, and conquering the Nubians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thutmosis III, first ruler to use the title Pharaoh (formerly used as a king's palace), recognized potential of sea power. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Remarkable Rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1300 BCE, Egyptian power began to wane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti attempted a religious revolution. Promoted universal diety called Aton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amenhotep changed name to Akhenaton meaning &quot;Aton is pleased&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First attempt at monotheism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akhenaton refused to proted Egypt from Hittites in the West. Loss of territory, also tribute, revolts occurred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akhenaton dies so does religious revolution, Nefertiti seemed to rule jointly and later disappears from public life. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Remarkable Rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Tutankhamon succeeds Akhenaton, restored old religion, (known for discovery by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1200 BCE, Rameses II reign for 60 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would recapture lands lost to Akhenaton from the Hittites in a battle at Kadesh in Syria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rameses would later declare victory, though he never won a victory over the Hittites or banished them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used Diplomacy formed alliances with former foes and married a Hittie. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Sea people, Bridge to Iron Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After Kadesh Hittites appeared eager for peace with Egypt due to threats others were placing on their territories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo- European and others would disrupt the Eastern Mediterranean once again. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survivors of these upheavals fled to the sea to seek new lands to plunder of settle. Fall of Troy occurred at this point around 1150 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively known as Sea peoples they included: Philistines, Sicilians, Sardinians, Etruscans, pre Mycenaean Greek. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispute over the fall Hittites; some cite the changes in warfare - especially on mobile infantry, javelins, chariots; these account for the destruction of governments and the displacement of peoples. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Most of these complex civilizations occurred under similar conditions (agriculture, fertile rivers) </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of these civilizations are found in their social structures, laws, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Each made unique contributions and built upon the discoveries of others. </li></ul>
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