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Objectives: How did the reforms of Solon help or hinder the growth of Athens and its citizens? How did Athens meet the challenges of the Persians? What political struggles enabled the introduction of Democracy?
Reforms after Solon Continued Factional fighting Pisistratus’ factions seizes power in 546 BCE, becomes the first Tyrant Actions of a Tyrant: undermine authority of opponents (increased power to himself, undermined authority of nobles, and countryside) Massive public works program in Athens, Temples, religious centers, increased the public appeal of traditional festivals, Reconstructs the Agora Key: Pisistratus did not change the formal institutional structure of government. Appearance of Constitutional Government
The Birth of Democracy Unintended consequence of Pisistratus’ rule Hippias takes over. Exiled in 514 BCE when Sparta invaded with cooperation of a noble family exiled by Hippias After invasion of Sparta, some faction of the Aristocracy gained a following to restore Athens’ power structure prior to the Reforms of Solon Isagoras, leader of faction, purged citizen lists However, he had a rival faction
Birth of Democracy Clisthenes Makes unusual political step, turns to the people Isagoras’ reaction was to call back the Spartans This time, the Athenians would not be suppressed in their new found political consciousness. In 508, the people refused to tolerate an aristocratic restoration and drove the Spartans and Isagoras with them.
Clisthenes – Founder of Democracy Increased the number of tribes from 4 to 10, increasing devotion to the Polis, decreased power of local authorities Council of 500 established – but with greater powers than Solon’s 400. Assembly established Debate in Assembly Free and open Any Athenian could propose legislation, offer amendments Argue the merits of a question.
Clisthenes – Founder of Democracy Enlarged citizen role – elevated role of assembly By the beginning of the 5th century BCE Athens was on its way to becoming a prosperous democracy. It was much more centralized and united than it had ever been. It would make its place among the major states that would lead the defense of Greece against the dangers ahead.
Persian Wars First Persian War Ionian Rebellion - Ionian cities (western Asia Minor) who had come under Persian control Aristagoras – tyrant of Miletus urged Persian king to send an expedition against the island of Naxos. It failed & Aristagoras feared consequences of Persians and organized a rebellion in 499 BCE. Obtained support of cities by overthrowing tyrants and installing democracies. Then appealed to Sparta and Athens for help Athenians were related to Ionians through ties of religion and tradition, sent 20 ships to help. 498 BCE Athenians and allies captured Sardis the old capital of Lydia and now the seat of Persian Governor, and burned it. Revolt spreads. Athenians withdrew and Persians re-imposed their will. By 495 BCE they defeated the Ionian fleet at Lade, and they wiped out Miletus, killing many of the city’s men and enslaving their women The Ionian Rebellion was over, the war was not
Persian Wars War comes to Magna Gracea (Greece proper) 490 BCE, King Darius sends expedition to punish Athens and restore Hippias Miltiades (489 BCE) would lead the Athenians army to confront the invader at Marathon The Persians landed at Marathon and the Greeks blocked the only 2 exits the Persians had. Pheidippides was sent to get help from Sparta 140 miles away Returns in 2 days, and give Spartan answer, at the end of the 5th day. Sent to Athens to deliver the news. Athenians beat the Persians back to Athens
Persian Wars – Part Deux For Persians Marathon was a temporary defeat Darius dies in 486 BCE Themistocles begins his plan to build fleet, convinced of Persian danger, Themistocles manages to get the Assembly to use the money found from a rich silver mine to build fleet Xerxes gathers an army of 150,000 and a nave of more than 600 ships.
Persian Wars – Part Deux Themistocles Plan under the guise of building a fleet for protection of Ageina – through the interpretation of a prophecy. The oracle of Delphi consulted, but another oracle was consulted Pythia “ safe shall be the wooden wall continue for you and your children . . .Holy Salimis, you shall destroy the offspring of men? Wooden wall was fleet acc to Themistocles, Salamis was the place to go to. The Athenian fleet was over 400 ships, including allies according to Plutarch. We assume around 200
Persian Wars – Part Deux Thermopylae The allies met and gave Sparta the command of the navy and troops. Troops stationed at Thermopylae Beginning in may 480 Xerxes started from Sardis and marched with his 200,000 troops and over 1000 ships to the Hellespont. The Persians crossed the Turkish straits by lashing ships together to make a bridge In June the Persians walked through Thrace, in July and August, they crossed Macedon and Thessaly. Meanwhile, Persian Mercenaries were collecting bowls of earth and water from terrified Greeks to hold a mud wrestling contest. (custom)
Persian Wars – Part Deux Thermopylae The Athenians and Spartans refused the Persian emissaries Mt pass only 50 feet wide, perfect for a small division of men Persians could not use their superior numbers Mere 7000 Greek led by King Leonidas I and his 300 Spartans awaited combat, grooming Xerxes was warned that the Greeks “are free, but not completely free; for law is their master, and they fear it more than your men fear you.” The Greeks 7000 held out for 3 days until they were betrayed, all but the 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians remained refusing to leave The Greeks lost 4000, Persians over 20,000
Persian Wars – Part Deux Artemisium Naval battle lasting 3 days ended in stalemate, both Persians and Greeks lost 100 ships each Persian ships destroyed in storm Athens Persian army marched south to Athens, and found evacuated city, only old and feeble were still there in the Acropolis. The women and children had fled to Troezen, and the men were manning the fleet at Salimis.
Persian Wars – Part Deux Salamis Themistocles after laying plans sends a trusted slave to tell Xerxes that he wished to defect to the Persians The Persians should also encircle Salamis to keep the Greek fleet from escaping The Greeks were outnumbered almost 2 to 1 600 to about 370 ships Advantages Narrow strait prevented Persians from using their superior numbers and maneuverability to surround the Greeks Allowed the Greeks to use their Triremes with great affect Greeks were more highly motivated
Persian Wars – Part Deux Salamis Persians could not retreat, as Greek ships rammed and destroyed the Persian ships Xerxes watched from a golden throne Determined the Outcome of the Persian wars Over 200 Persian Ships sunk Some 40,000 Persian troops killed Greeks lost 40 ships Essential to furnishing the massive army with food and other supplies, the Persian fleet had been muted and routed, Xerxes issues a frantic order to his remaining ships to retreat to Persia Key fate of Western Civilization
Conclusion The Athenians managed to develop and succeed at establishing a democracy The period between 510-475 BCE crucial to Athenian ascendance as a power in Greece, along with Sparta The Persians would not invade again until Alexander the Great much later Greek influence would be able to grow and flourish and have an effect upon the Romans, and other Western European cultures. Clisthenes manages to install Democracy, Themistocles manages to save through politics a young democracy.