evangelion “The term has recently been translated as ‘good news.’ That sounds attractive, but it falls far short of the order of magnitude of what is actually meant by the word evangelion. This term figures in the vocabulary of the Roman emperors, who understood themselves as lords,saviors,&redeemers of the world…. The idea was that whatcomes from the emperor is a saving message, that it is not just a piece of news, but a changing of the world for the better.
evangelion “When the Evangelists adopt this word,&it thereby becomes the generic name for their writings, what theymean to tell us is this: What the emperors, who pretend to be gods, illegitimately claim, really occurs here – a message endowed with plenary authority, a message that is not just talk but reality…. the Gospel is not justinformative speech, but performative speech – not just the imparting of information, but action, efficacious powerthat enters into the world to save&transform. Mark speaks of the ‘Gospel of God,’ the point being that it is not the emperors who can save the world, but God. And it is here that God’s word, which is at once word&deed, appears; it is here that what the emperors merely assert, but cannot actually perform, truly takes place. For here it is the real Lord of the world – the Living God – who goes into action. “The core of the Gospel is this: The Kingdom of God is at hand.”
evangelionItongsalita ay inilipatsa “MagandangBalita.” Pero, kahitmagandaang dating ngsalitangito, kulangitosatotoongibigsabihinngsalitang “evangelion.” GinamititongsalitangmgaEmperadorng Roma, naakalanilanasilaangpanginoon, mgatagapagligtas, at mgataga-tubosngmundo … angkonseptonitonaanggalingsaemperador ay angmensahenamakakapagligtas,hindilangisangpirasongbalitakundiangisangpagba bagongmundo.
evangelion Noongginamitngmga may-akdaangsalitangito, at naging common naitoparasakanilangmgapagsulat, angibignilangsabihin ay: Kung anoangsinasabingmgaEmperador, nahinditotoongdiyos, nasila’ymgapanginoon, tagaligtas, at taga-tubosngmundo, ay nangyaridito – isangmensahena may buongkapangyarihan, isangmensahenahindisalitalamangkundikatotohanan … ang Gospel ay hindilangpagsalitananagbibigaykaaalaman, hindilangnagbibigayimpormasyonkundi may gawa,kapangyarihannapumapasoksamundoparailigtas at baguhin. Angpuntoni Marcos patungkolsaMabutingBalita, AngsalitangDiyosnaminsa’ynagingsalita at gawa, at nakita, NahindiangmgaEmperoangmakakapagligtaskundiangDiyoslam angangmakakagawa. Ito angsinasabingmgaEmperona may paninindiganngunithindinilatalagakayanggawin. SapagkatnanditoangtunaynaPanginoonngmundo – AngDiyosnabuhay –naSyangkumikilos. Ito angcentrongMabutingBalia: DitonaangKaharianngDiyos! - Pope Benedict XVI, from Jesus of Nazareth, pgs. 46-47.
Definition: The Synoptic GospelsThe Gospels of Matthew, Mark, & Luke. TheseGospels are called synoptic (from the Greek syn-together &opsis appearance) because they can becompared column by column with each other. The 3Synoptic Gospels have many parables & accounts incommon, as well as a general consensus on theorder of events, suggesting a common source for all3. -About.com
Interpreting the Gospels Salaysay/ Narrative Talinghaga/ Parable
Interpreting the GospelsThere are a few things to consider when interpreting parables.1. Jesus did not write them. They are stories written about Jesus that contain his teachings but he himself did not write them.2. There are 4 gospels. Each written to meet the needs of a different community. – Each shows a historical concern for who Jesus was – Each is a retelling of Jesus’ story for a new community.
Tanong• How can we retell Jesus’ story in our communities? Anoba’ngkuwento mo tungkolkay Jesus?
Interpreting the GospelsMay dalawangklasengkasulatan sa mga Gospels.1. Una ay salaysayo narrative. Itongklasengkasulatan ay mga kuwento kung anongnangyarikay Jesus at sa kanyang mga alagad.2. Pangalawa ay talinghaga. Itongklasengkasulatan ay isang simplengkuwento na ginamitparailarawan ang isang a simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson.
Nature of Narrative / Uri ng Salaysay1. A narrative usually does not directly teach a doctrine.2. A narrative usually illustrates a doctrine taught explicitly elsewhere. Nilalarawan ng salaysayangisangkatotohanannatinuro ng malinwanagsaibangbahagi ng kasulatan.3. Narratives record what happened—not necessarily what should/ought to have happened. Therefore, not every narrative has an individual, identifiable moral of the story.4. What people do in narratives is not necessarily a good example for us. Many times, it is just the opposite. Angginagawa ng mgataosasalaysay ay hindipalangingmagingmagandanghalimbawasaatin.5. Most characters (& their actions) in narratives are not perfect. Hindi perfect angkaramihan ng mgataosasalaysay.6. We are not always told at the end of a narrative whether what happened was good or bad. We judge that on the basis of what God has taught us directly elsewhere in Scripture.
Nature of Narrative / Uri ng Salaysay(contd) 7. All narratives are selective & incomplete (cf. John 21:25). What does appear in the narrative is everything that the inspired author thought important for us to know. Walangkumpletongsalaysay. Angnakalagaysasalyasayin ay kung anong gusto ng may- akdanamalamannatin. 8. Narratives are not written to answer all our theological questions. They have particular specific limited purposes & deal with certain issues, leaving others to be dealt with elsewhere. Hindi isinulatangmgasalaysayparasagutinanglahat ng mgatanongnatin. Ginamitlangsilaparasaspecific situation lamang. 9. Narratives may teach either explicitly (by clearly stating something) or implicitly (by clearly implying something w/out actually stating it). 10.In the final analysis, God is the hero of all biblical narratives. Isa langangbidasabawatsalaysaysaBiblia: AngDiyos!Adapted from Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth: A Guide to Understanding the Bible, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993), 83-84.
Mga Prinsipyo Sa Mga TalinghagaA parable is a story that compares one or more characters in order to better illustrate its point.Themes of the Parables. / AngMgaSuliranin Sa MgaTalinghaga1. Jesus clearly has 3 main topics of interest: The graciousness of God, the demands of discipleship,& the dangers of disobedience.2. The central theme of the parables is the Kingdom of God. The Kingdom of God is the active power of God’s personal revelation of himself in creating a human community of those who serve Jesus in every area of their lives.The following principles should help you to avoid obvious errors in interpretation whenever you seek to exegete parables. •Adapted from Craig L. Blomberg, Interpreting the Parables, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1990), 165-167, 325-327.
Parable Principles (contd)1. Every parable of Jesus contains certain parts which point to a 2nd level of meaning& other parts which do not. • Not all the details of a story need to have a hidden meaning. In Jesus’ parables, only the major points have a hidden meaning, but that hidden meaning is not hard to find.Hindi lahat ng details ay may pangalawangibig-sabihin. May pangalawangibigsabihinangmgatalinghagani Jesus samga main points lamang. Hindi mahiraphanapinitongpangalawangibig-sabihin. •Adapted from Craig L. Blomberg, Interpreting the Parables, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1990), 165-167, 325-327.
Parable Principles (contd)2. The meanings we give to the details must relate to,& be understandable by, the original audience. • One early interpretation of the Good Samaritan had the innkeeper standing for the Apostle Paul. However, Paul was at that time unknown, and therefore would not have been understood by the original audience. •Adapted from Craig L. Blomberg, Interpreting the Parables, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1990), 165-167, 325-327.
Parable Principles (contd)3.While the parables do present a largely lifelike portrayal of first-century Palestinian Judaism, key details in them are surprisingly unrealistic& serve to point out an allegorical level of meaning. 1. In the parable of the Great Supper (Lu 14:15-24) is a good illustration of this point. There are many elements which are unbelievable: • All of the wedding guests refuse to come –& use excuses that aren’t really excuses. • The host invites the poor& handicapped to his wedding as replacements. •Adapted from Craig L. Blomberg, Interpreting the Parables, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1990), 165-167, 325-327.
Parable Principles (contd)4. The main characters of a parable will probably be the most common candidates for allegorical interpretation,& the main points of the parable will most likely be linked w/ these characters.5. Jesus’ narrative parablesw/ 3 main characters make 3 points, those w/ 2 main characters make 2 points,& those w/ 1 character make 1 point. •Adapted from Craig L. Blomberg, Interpreting the Parables, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1990), 165-167, 325-327.
Feeding 5000 Summary1. Total Number of words used to tell story – Matthew 157 – Mark 194 – Luke 153 – John 1992. Number of words common to all synoptics: 533. Number of words John has in common with synoptics: 8
Groupwork1. Interpret the Parable of the Mustard Seed – Mt 13:31-31; Mk 4:30-32; Lk 13:18-192. Interpret the Parable of the Tenants – Mt 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-12; Lk 20:9-193. Interpret the Parable of the Fig Tree – Mt 24:32-35; Mk 13:28-29; Lk 21:29-31
HomeworkRead Acts, Peter, Hebrews, Jude,& James for next class