SOM-109 Structural EvilThis course will develop a theology of structural evil. It will also examine & discuss models of how the church can intervene inredeeming structures that are used for evil in the world.
7 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS1. God is sovereign & He created all things both in heaven & on earth, visible & invisible.2. There are invisible realities & spiritual forces that influence historical events.3. These spiritual forces are either good or bad.4. There were two Falls: the fall of Satan & his demons & the fall of man & woman.
7 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS5. Satan & devils (powers & principalities) are personal evil spirits who attack the Church & hinder the spread of the Gospel.6. There are structures of existence in our world & they are not evil by themselves but can be influenced by Satan to carry out his devious work – hence structural evil.7. The transformation of nations requires that the Church deal with these visible & invisible forces.
Defining STRUCTURAL EVIL Structure – the arrangement or interrelation of all the parts of a whole … forming an organism or organization. Structural evil includes attitudes or beliefs or culture – social; a system that creates lack of economic opportunities or alternatives – economic; unjust laws or law- enforcement system – political. It can also be religious.
Understanding STRUCTURAL EVIL There are structured evils rooted in society’s prevailing religious, social, economic or political systems. The key element of structural evil is that it is organizational, a pattern or network that opposes the Kingdom.
Structural evil is a system or pattern ofbeliefs or activities in an organization orculture that hinders oropposes the advance of God’s kingdom in this world.
Examples of STRUCTURAL EVIL Tax evasion Caste system Dowry Sexual mutilation Slavery Racism – apartheid Colonialism Bribery/governmental corruption
Structuresof sin Cost of extending basic social services to people currently in absolute poverty: US$580 Billion US$9.3
KEY ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURAL EVIL • Existence of wicked power or spirit. • Corporate: Organizational or Institutional. • Systemic, patterns, networks of activities or parts. • Multiple nature: laws, law enforcements, culture, taboos, attitudes, b eliefs, lack of alternatives, repressive rule. • Can be social, political, economic, religious. • Aims to create chaos, division, injustice, human suffering or natural damage.
POWERS & PRINCIPALITIES Eph 1:21 “All rule, authority, power, dominion.” Eph 2:2 “Prince of the power of the air.” Eph 6:11 “Scheme of the devil.” Eph 6:12 “Not against flesh & blood, against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of darkness, spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places.”
WORKS OF SATAN & HIS MINIONS Sin & Temptation. Demonization. Division. Illnesses (Lk 13:16), Mt 9:32, Convulsions (Lk 9:42), Muteness, Blindness (Mk 9:25), Fever (Lk 4:39). Disruption Of Nature - Mk 4:39 (Storm), 2 Kgs. 3:27. Disorder In Society & The State – World (Kosmos), Age (Aion) – Structural Evil. Occult & Astrology (Humans Think They Can Manipulate Powers Of Darkness To Their Advantage). Non-Christian Religions & Cults. Opposition To God’s Work Of Salvation & The Missions Of The Church.
THE MISSIONARY TASKS …. EVANGELISM & CHURCH PLANTING
PENAL SUBSTITUTION JUSTIFIED BY FAITH All have sinned & have come short of the glory of God (Ro 3:23). The wages of sin is death (Ro 6:23; Eze 3:16FF, 18:4, 14:13ff). Christ died for the sins of sinners & paid the penalty. He substituted for sinners (atonement) – Ro 5:8; Jo 3:16. Faith in Christ brings forgiveness of sin (Eph 2:8), eternal life (Jo 1:12, 3:16), & freedom (Eph 2:1ff) & power over Satan. Justified by faith (Ro 5:1).
SATURATION CHURCH PLANTING Core group of national leaders agree to do a national SCP. Do research: unreached people groups, unchurched villages, analysis of existing church health, etc. Call a national SCP congress (regional congresses) to share & discuss the research. Each participating group makes a time-bound Church Growth goal. Combine the individual goals – as the national goal. Organize a movement or structure to coordinate the SCP. Create Sub-Committees to provide support on key areas of ministry (Coordination, Finance, Research, Strategy, Policy, Church Relations, etc.). Promote the new Movement & invite others to join. Monitor & evaluate progress through periodic consultations. Update research & hold a National Congress every five years.
THE MISSIONARY TASKS …. EVANGELISM & CHURCH PLANTING SOCIAL CONCERN
Social ConcernSocial Service + Social Action Relieving human needRemoving the causes of human need Philanthropic activityPolitical & economic activity Seeking to minister to Seeking to transform the individuals,individuals & familiesfamilies&structures of society Works of mercyThe quest for justice John Stott, 1985: 31.
THE MISSIONARY TASKS …. EVANGELISM & CHURCH PLANTING SOCIAL CONCERN PRAYER & FASTING
CRISTUS VICTOR At the cross Christ defeated sin, death, & Satan (Jo 16:11; Mt 12:28). These now have no hold on believers. All authority is given to Christ … He is far above all & every other name (Mt 28:18). The Church as His Body shares this authority over Satan & evil spirits (Eph 1:22-23; Col 2:9- 10). In Christ the believer is given the authority to disciple nations (Mt 28:19, 10:1ff; Lk 9:1ff; Eph 6:11,13). References: Mt 4:8ff; 2Co 4:4; Jo 12:31, 16:11,33; Col 2:15; He 2:14; 1Jo 3:8; Re 5:5; Eph 6:10-18; Ja 4:7).
TWO REALMS LIFE IN RELATION TO THE POWERS (Eph 2:2-6)REALM OF DEATH REALM OF LIFECONTROLLED BY Col. 1:13 CONTROLLED BYANGELIC PRINCE Rom. 3:24-25 JESUS CHRIST SPIRITUALLY DEAD MADE ALIVEBONDAGE TO SATAN & SIN FREE & EMPOWERED WRATH OF GOD GLORY FAR FROM GOD NEAR TO GOD NOT PART OF ISRAEL NEW ISRAEL DIVIDED PEOPLE ONE PEOPLE NO ACCESS TO GOD ACCESS TO GOD (C) 2003 Dr. Jun Vencer all rights reserved
WORK OF CHRIST ON THE CROSS SINNERS SATAN Cancelled debts (Col. 2:14) Disarmed the rulers & authorities (Col. 2:15)Made alive with Him (Col. 2:13; Jo 3:16; Eph Ruler already judged (Jo 12:31) 2:5) Victory – Satan fell (Lk. 10:18) Forgiven us all our transgressions Christ is given all authority – over Satan, powers & New creatures (2 Cor. 5:17) Christ gave principalitiesHis Church (Lk. 10:19) authority to (Mt 28:18) Powers & authority over all the demons, heal Called to freedom (Gal. 5:1,13) diseases, proclaim the Kingdom (Lk. 9:1,2) Abundant life (Jo 10:10) Authority over unclean spirits, cast them out, heal Instruments of righteousness (Rom. 6:13) disease & sickness (Mt 10:1) Holy nations (1 Pet. 2:9) The Nations will be discipled (Mt 28:19) They will declare My glory among the nations (Isa. 66:19) The nations shall walk by its light (Re 21:24) All the nations will serve Him (Ps. 72:11,17) The kingdoms of the world become the kingdoms of the Lord (Re 11:15) The earth will be filled…. (Hab. 2:14)
VICTORY OVER POWERS & PRINCIPALITIES Mt 28:18ff - … All authority has been given to me in Heaven & on earth. Go therefore & make disciples… Mt 10:1 cf Lk 9:1 – He gave (12 disciples) authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, & to heal every kind of disease & every kind of sickness. 1Jo 3:8 – Christ came to destroy the devil’s work.
VICTORY OVER POWERS & PRINCIPALITIES Col 2:15 – Powers & authorities disarmed, made a public spectacle, Christ triumphing over them by the cross. He 2:14 – The devil who holds the power of death is destroyed & freedom from fear of death is given to believers. Jo 14:12-14 – Greater things than this you will do…You may ask Me for anything in my name & I will do it.
You were once dead because of your failures & your uncircumcised corrupt nature. But God made you alive withChrist when he forgave all our failures.He did this by erasing the charges thatwere brought against us by the writtenlaws God had established. He took the charges away by nailing them to the cross. He stripped the rulers & authorities of their power & made a public spectacle of them as he celebrated his victory in Christ.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 1Evangelical reaction to some contemporary psychological thought which reduces human individual responsibility for sin.
TWO-TIER WORLDVIEW• BASIS: LOGIC, REASON, SCIENCE.• NO SPIRIT WORLD OR CONCEPT OF POWERS & PRINCIPALITIES.• PRIMARILY A WESTERN WORLDVIEW.• GROUNDED ON A DEISTIC BELIEF SYSTEM.
THREE-TIER WORLDVIEW• BASIS: REVELATION, EXPERIENCE, REASON.• RECOGNIZES THE REALITY & INFLUENCE OF SPIRIT WORLD.• DEVELOPING WORLD WORLDVIEW.
TWO-TIER WORLDVIEW (PAUL HIEBERT)• Presents Difficulty In Developing A Holistic & Transformational Ministry (Kingdom Of God & Discipling Nations: Mt. 10:1 cf28:18ff).• The Included Middle Does Not Reject The Value Of General Revelation Such As Science & Medicine In Dealing With Powers & Principalities.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 2DENIAL OF EVIL• Sin is the result of socio-political categories.• Fallacy of false dilemma, i.e., either personal sin or structural evil.• Poem:But I am happy for the lesson it (crimes) had taught, that everything I do that’s wrong, is someone else’s fault.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 3DISTANCE• The further from the sin, the less responsible (e.g. stockholder of Tobacco Company).• The fault lies with the person who chose to pay for his own death & funeral.• BUT Human depravity.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 4DESIRE FOR NEUTRALITY.• Don’t rock the boat.• The primacy argument & the danger of disjunction.• Non-involvement.• BUT With evil, there is no neutrality.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 5DICHOTOMOUS VIEW OF MAN.• Man is made up of body (material) & soul (spiritual).• Matter is evil, soul (mind) is good (cf. Gnosticism &Nestorianism).• Deal only with the soul (cf. Primacy Argument).• BUT Christians’ high view of the body (resurrection & blessed hope).• BUT Model of Jesus (valued both body & soul in His ministry).
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 6ADMISSION OF HELPLESSNESS• Church is powerless to deal with the overwhelming problem of structural evil or “I am alone” or Elijah syndrome.• Not trained politically to manage power.• BUT Profiles of Courage: Moses, Elijah, Jesus. William Wilberforce, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Cory Aquino. Nisha Sharma on dowry system.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 7GROUP CONDITIONING• Group culture.• Seduction of the culture of corruption upon individuals.• Members have strong inertia to go against their own structure.• Frog in the kettle – good simply dies.• Anatomy of corruption: Hab. 2:18-19, 15-16, 6-12.
Christian Apathy Towards STRUCTURAL EVIL – 8ACQUIESCENCE TO AUTHORITY• We didn’t do the act or approve of the gov’t policy (cf. Rom. 13:1-7; Trial at Nuremberg).• Human authority is derived from God & is subject to accountability.• We have a choice: Christ or Caesar; good or evil.• There is no moral hiding place.• The Christian task is to make what is moral legal & to declare illegal what is immoral.
An Evangelical View STRUCTURES ARE NOT EVIL. (Ge 1:31) STRUCTURES CAN BE INFLUENCED BY EVIL: All have sinned (Ro 3:23). Walked according to prince of the air (Eph 2:2ff.). Satan influences evil men&women to carry out his purposes of resisting the will of God through structures&systems (laws, culture). Influenced by evil (from Ro 13 to Re 13).
SPHERES OF ACTIVITY OF THE TRIUNE GOD TRINITY FATHER SON HOLY SPIRIT BIBLICAL CREATION CALVARY PENTECOSTPARADIGMKEY TERM WORK WORD WONDERPRIMARY WORLD CHRIST CHURCH FOCUSRECEPTIVE LIBERALS EVANGELICALS CHARISMATICS GROUP
What Evangelicals Can Do Intensify evangelism&church planting. Participate in Biblical social concern, e.g. concern for the poor. Engage in prayer&fasting. Model the Kingdom life in our local churches – peace, justice&righteousness. Have faith for change.
“Ang “Sapagkat ang kalabannati’y “Sa abaninyo, pananalig sa “Pagaralinninyonggumawa “Mga kapatid, kanyang “Dahil“Tayo’y ano ang “Kamuhian mo sa mga eskriba Matthew 23:23 mapapalanilalang,kundi kung Diyos, tumalimaang mabuti, masama, ibiginPariseo! mga hindi at ng tao,si nilikha sa ng mabuti; Pairalin Mga mga isang Abraham mga tao angtatlongito’ynanana pamamagitanItigil ang pang- katarungan; ni pinuno,Jesus at pairalin man niyangsiya’y sabihin sa mga hukuman nangsiya’ypapuntahin ng mapagpaimbabaw! Cristo mgatili: ang 1:17 Isaiah 1 Corinthians maykapangyarihan, atikapu Diyos upang iukolnatinmga Ibinibigayninyo ang ang aapi; Tulungan ang may pananampalataya, sa lupangipinangako ang katarungan. ulila; Ipagtanggol ang mga atingbuhay At humayosiya, Bakasakalingkahabaganng sa kanya.gulaying walang ngunit tagapamahala ni nghindi paggawa sa naman niyapananampalataya, James 2:14-26 halagangunitkinaliligtaannin kadilimangnamamayani ng mabuti, na hindi niyabalo.” bagamat itinalagagawa? pinatutunayan sa na sa Yahweh ang alampag-asa, at 11:8 Hebrews pag- 13:13 matitirangbuhay sa ang mga sanlibutang ito – bansang Diyospara sa atin noon ng kung saanparoroon.” Maliligtasbasiya pa yongisagawa ang gayongpananampalataya?ng lalongmahahalagangaral sa hukbongespiritual … manguna.” ito.”ibig; ngunit ang Patay ang katawanghiwalay Kautusan: ang katurungan, kasamaan sa himpapawid.” Amos 5:15pinakadakila sa ang pgakahabag, at ang sa espiritu; gayon din naman, patay ang katapatan.”mga ito ay ang Eph 2:10 pananampalatayanghiwalaypag-ibig.” sa mga gawa.” Eph 6:12
Spiritual Warfare - 1 Identificational Repentance* Identify National sin (Lev. 18; Num. 35:33-34; Deut. 21:22-23; Hosea 4:2-3). * Corporate Confession of sin (Dan. 9:20; Neh. 1:5-6; 9:2; Deut. 9:18-20; Ezek. 22:31-32). * Apply Christ’s blood * Restitution as able. Reconciliation Walk * Tracking path of crusade (Lyn Green – YWAM)
Spiritual Warfare - 2 Levels of Spiritual Warfare • Ground-level SP – casting out demons • Occult-level SP – dealing with astral powers & world of darkness • Strategic-level SP – confronting high- ranking territorial spirits assigned by Satan Prayer Journeys • Field trips to practice prayer walking • Aid to spiritual mapping
Spiritual Warfare - 3 Spiritual Mappings • Identify the strong man: Revelation of territorial prince or power. Natural person whom Satan is using. Identify corrupt social structures. • Bind him. • Divide his spoils. Method • Historical or religious research (cf. Acts 16:18 – no name). • Prayer (Wagner: Seek God’s gifted intercessor; redemptive gift of the City, Territorial spirits assigned to the City, Corporate sin, God’s plan of attack & timing)
MORE THAN CONQUERORS LIFE IN RELATION TO THE POWERS (COL. 1:13) REALM OF DEATH REALM OF LIFE CONTROLLED BY CONTROLLED BY JESUS ANGELIC PRINCE CHRIST KINGDOM OF DARKNESS KINGDOM OF LIGHT SATAN IS DEFEATED EPH. 2:8 JESUS IS LORD ROM. 3:24-25 IRREVOCABLE TRANSFER OF REALMS (COL. 1:13,14,27; EPH. 3:17) JUSTIFIED BY FAITH + HOLINESS + VICTORY IN CHRIST(PENAL SUBSTITUTION) (SANCTIFICATION) (CRISTUS VICTOR) POWER OVER SIN, DEATH, SATAN, LAW
GENERAL: Recognition of sover- GENERAL: Recognition that cul-eignty of God in creation – visible & ture, ideology, laws & policies caninvisible – & the presence of wicked legitimize & empower people &forces (Satan, powers & structures to carry out &principalities) influencing humanity, perpetuate evil in the world.systems & structures to defeat the RESPONSES: Research, valueChurch & hinder the advance of the transformation, policy advocacy,Kingdom of God. just legislation.Responses:Personal level – e.g. inner healing,deliverance, holiness of life orrighteous living.Corporate level – e.g. spiritualwarfare, prayer & fasting.GENERAL: Recognition thatall have sinned & in GENERAL: Recognition that cultural, corporate &bondage to Satan & governmental structures can be influenced by evil orsin, therefore alienated demonized (Rom. 13 cf. Rev. 13) to oppress humanity,from God & powerless to suppress the Church, & hinder God’s redemptive agenda.overcome the forces of evilin the world. RESPONSES: Research, public advocacy, promotion of freedom, engagement in the public square, involvementRESPONSES: Evangelism, in the market place, influencing public opinion throughchurch planting, media & education, impartial justice system & lawdiscipleship, develop a enforcement.biblical worldview, calling. TOWARDS A CHRISTIAN RESPONSE TO STRUCTURAL EVIL
Revelation 11:15: Then the seventh angelsounded: And there were loudvoices in heaven, saying, "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of ourLord & of His Christ, & He shall reign forever & ever!"