Chester Barnard Mary Parker FollettCommunication inAdministration.
Luther H. Gulick ( Not this Luther H. Gulick )Communication inAdministration.
Malden, Mass.,November 1886Attended Harvard butdid not graduate.Worked for the BellTelephone System &RockefellerFoundation.Died June 7, 1961.Chester Barnard
• The Functions of the Executive• Humans are physically and biologically limited, social, active and purposeful and possess limited free will.• Society is a “complex of informal organizations”• Argues that “Group Identity and Social Recognition are more important organizational forces than power or money.”• Sees organizations as a chance to either limit or expand choices for an individual.• Organizations either manipulate or persuade the individual to choose among several options. In turn the individual is then responsible for that choice.Chester Barnard
Three Basic Organizational Activities:• Induce a willingness to participate• Establish the organizations purpose• CommunicationChester Barnard
Quincy, Mass., September1868.Studied at Cambridge.Pioneered the acceptanceof “evening programs.”In 1925 she shifted fromsocial work to studyingindustrialization inEngland.Died 1933.Mary Parker Follett
• The New State & Creative Experience• Argued that individuals are social beings who find identity and and fulfillment in a group experience.• “The individual makes society and society makes the individual.”• Organizations are defined by their ability to navigate conflicts and its resolutions.• “Conflict should be used as a violin uses friction to make music.”• Types of solutions to Conflict: Domination, Compromise, Integration.Mary Parker Follett
• “Real Democracy” — Leadership does not control, rather it facilitates and anticipates.• Coordination and communication is key to authority.• Communication and coordination leadership should be horizontal and cumulative.• Authority is constantly in motion and there is no “Final Authority.”Mary Parker Follett
From leadership From participantsWhere does communication originate?
Osaka, Japan,January 1892Intending to be a missionary like hisparents, he instead went intogovernment and social work.Appointed to the Institute of PublicAdministration.Took a special interest in budgetingand taxation (his doctoral field ofstudy).Served presidents, mayors, governorsand foreign governments throughouthis career.Died January 1993.Luther Gulick
• Government = “the means by which willful, strong, and selfish human beings can live together cooperatively.”• Public and private should form partnerships for the benefits of citizens.• Administrative Branch plans and implements democratic policies• Favored consolidation, integration and streamlining of government agencies and lower levels of administration.• “Experts” should plan and execute agendas.• Performance evaluation at all levels (Science of Administration).Luther Gulick
• Communication comes during the critique of Gulick• Ideas tend to almost skew totalitarian or authoritative.Luther Gulick