16th Amendment Established a national income tax (1913). Congress has power to tax individual and corporate incomes.
17th Amendment Allowed voters to choose US senators (1913). Before 17th amendment US senators were chosen by state legislatures. Examples of popular sovereignty
Susan B. Anthony Leader of SUFFRAGETTE (womens voting rights) movement in 19th century. 1872: arrested in NY for trying to vote 19th Amendment approved 13 years after her death
Life Changes for Women Women were told to go back home when the men came home to the factories after WWI Many women stayed in the workforce as typists, cleaners, cooks, servants, seamstresses, teachers, secretaries, and store clerks Many women bought ready-made clothing instead of making their own Many women bought appliances to help them with housework after working a full day outside of the home
19th Amendment Equal voting rights for women in federal and state elections (1920) Suffrage amendment
Prosperity "Good times" enjoyed by Americans in 1920s after World War I. Employment and wages were high and workers bought more consumer goods and had more leisure time.
Fundamentalism Fundamentalism-a religious movement where the followers believed every word of the Bible was literally true. This movement led to many social debates in the US. One of the largest was the teaching of evolution in public schools. Evolution-change over time.
The teaching of evolution was banned in 3 states, including Tennessee. 1925 John Scopes, a biology teacher broke the law and taught his students Darwin’s theory of evolution. Scopes trial drew national attention and became known as Scopes Monkey Trial. Scopes was found guilty but TN Supreme Court reversed decision.
Scopes Trial Trial in Tennessee in 1925 involving John Scopes, biology teacher who taught theory of evolution at a time when only creation theory accepted in Tennessee and 12 other states "Monkey trial” Lawyers – Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan
Clarence Darrow Famous defense attorney known for flamboyant courtroom behavior and antics, defended Eugene Debs in 1894 union case Defended John Scopes in 1925 "Monkey Trial"
William Jennings Bryan Nebraska congressman; candidate for president in 1896; Prosecuting attorney in John Scopes 1925 "Monkey Trial“ Bible man Presidential candidate in 1900 and 1908 elections Democrat POPULIST movement, which declared rich should pay more
Prohibition Eighteenth Amendment- Established Prohibition (1919) Prohibition-a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the US
Drys-those who supported Prohibition Wets-those who opposed Prohibition Bootlegging-selling something illegally
Speakeasies-illegal bars and clubs that sold alcohol. Could only be entered by speaking a secret password. Organized Crime-a group of people controlling the illegal actions being done. In the case of bootlegging organized crime controlling the illegal sale of alcohol.
Impact of the Automobile Car sales grew rapidly in the 1920s because Henry Ford’s assembly line made them so cheap General Motors also became a popular seller of cars
Changing Lifestyles Due to the Automobile Millions of jobs were created through factories, oil refineries, roads, highways, truck stops, gas stations, restaurants and tourist stops Many Americans began to move to the suburbs to escape crowded conditions in cities
Mass Culture Radio Movies (Above, lines outside a movie theatre) (Left, family listening to the radio
The Jazz Age Fashion Fads, Marathon Dancing flappers
Fads-interests that many people follow with great excitement for a short amount of time Flappers: Women who wore short skirts (to the knees), bright red lipstick, hair cut short, smoked and drank in public, and drove fast cars
More Fads Flagpole sitting: Where young people would sit for hours and even days on top of a flagpole. (The record: 21 days!)
The Dance Craze The Charleston Has a quick beat Dancers kick out their feet
New MusicJazz: Born in New Orleans, created by African Americans, combination of West African rhythms, African American songs and spirituals, European harmoniesFamous jazz musicians: Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith, “Jelly Roll” Morton
A New Generation of American Writers Depressed about their awful experiences in World War I Criticized Americans for being obsessed with money and fun Many became expatriates (people who leave their own country to live in a foreign land) and moved to Europe
Ernest Hemingway Wrote about experiences of Americans during WWI and in Europe Wrote A Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises, The Old Man in the Sea
F. Scott Fitzgerald Wrote about wealthy young people who go to constant parties but cannot find happiness He wrote The Great Gatsby His characters had flappers, bootleggers, and movie makers
Sinclair Lewis Grew up in a small town in Minnesota and moved to New York City He wrote books about rural people from a city person’s perspective (making them look stupid) Wrote Main Street and Babbitt
The Harlem Renaissance In the 1920s, many African American artists settled in Harlem, New York City Black artists, musicians, and writers celebrated their African and American heritage
Harlem Renaissance PoetsClaude McKay: From Jamaica, wrote the poem, “If We Must Die” that condemned lynchingsCountee Cullen: Taught high school in Harlem, wrote of the experiences of African Americans
Zora Neale Hurston Write novels, short essays, short stories Traveled throughout the South in a battered car collecting folk tales, songs, and prayers of black southerners Published these in her book, “Mules and Men”
Langston Hughes Most well-known of the Harlem Renaissance poets Also wrote plays, short stories, and essays First poem, “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” Encouraged African Americans to be proud of their heritage Protested racism and acts of violence against blacks
“The night is beautiful, So the faces of my people. The stars are beautiful, So the eyes of my people. Beautiful also, is the sun.Beautiful also, are the souls of my people.” -Langston Hughes, “In My
Heroes of the 1920s Athletes: Bobby Jones: Won nearly every golfing championship Jack Dempsey: Heavyweight boxing champion for 7 years Bill Tilden and Helen Willis: Tennis champions Gertrude Ederle: 1st woman to swim the English Channel
Babe Ruth Grew up in an orphanage Often in trouble as a boy Hit 60 homeruns in one season, and 714 overall Called the “Sultan of Swat”
Charles Lindbergh The greatest hero of the 1920s The first person to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean alone Flew from New York to Paris Called “Lucky Lindy” because he had to fly for 33 ½ hours and didn’t carry a parachute, a radio, or a map
Women Gain the Right to Vote 19th Amendment in 1920 gave women the right to vote Carrie Chapman Catt set up the League of Women Voters This group tried to educate voters and ensure the right of women to serve on juries
Vice President Calvin Coolidge Becomes President “Silent Cal” spoke and spent little (Harding loved to throw parties and give long speeches) He forced corrupt officials to resign He was re-elected in 1924 with the slogan “Keep Cool With Coolidge”
From War Goods to Consumer Goods Coolidge cut regulations on businesses Americans’ incomes rose People began to buy refrigerators, radios, vacuums, and other appliances Businesses began to advertise their products
“Coolidge Prosperity” “The business of America is business. The man who builds a factory builds a temple. The man who works there worships there. Calvin Coolidge What does President Calvin Coolidge believe American Prosperity rests on?
Buying on Credit Installment Buying= Buying on Credit (Buy now, pay later) Credit-pay a small amount each month until an item was paid for. Interest-a charge for borrowed money Demands for goods jumped, but so did Americans’ debt“If we want anything, all we have to do is go and buy it on credit. So that leaves us without any economic problems whatsoever, except that perhaps some day to have to pay for them.” –Comedian Will Rogers
Soaring Stock Market By the late 1920s, more people were investing in the stock market People became rich overnight Bull Market: Period of rapidly increasing stock prices Prices of stocks rose more quickly than the value of the companies themselves