What is the problem? How did we get here? What can we do about it? Global Climate Change Michael Dunn, USEPA Overview and Perspectives March 26, 2009 Industrial Revolution Reduce emissions Energy-use in buildings, transportation, & industry
Perspectives on Climate Change
What is the science and data behind our concern with Climate Change
What might the impacts be of a warmer atmosphere?
Where are the emissions sources?
Here are some EPA programs designed to reduce emissions (+Biz case)
What do we know about Climate Change Consensus & Challenges Scientific Consensus: Climate change is a serious and urgent issue Human activities have a powerful role in climate change and its associated risks and impacts Climate change results from GHGs associated with economic activities including energy, industry, transport, and land use
Now and later
Requires action now for future risk
Here and there
Global risk, local impact, local action, environmental justice
GHG Emissions Reduction - Cap & Trade Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)
Cap and Trade program for electricity sector
States involved: Connecticut, Delaware,
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Rhode Island and Vermont
The program will apply to fossil fuel-fired electric
generators 25 megawatts (MW) and larger
The first compliance period began on January 1, 2009.
Regional emissions would be capped at 121.3 million short tons of CO2 through 2014, and reduced to 10% below this level in 2018.
The initial cap is approximately equivalent to 1990 emissions.
States Release Results of Auction 3 2009 Allowances Clear at $3.51 2012 Allowances Clear at $3.05
Will these pricing policies be:
Strong enough… ?
Wide enough… ?
Fast enough… ?
At what price would a gas tax spur desired changes in consumption levels?
Did the recent increase in oil prices affected the price of products made with petroleum (i.e., plastics)?
Will all important sectors be covered?
Exploring all possible cost-effective reductions?
How long for legislative and regulatory action?
… to adequately address climate change?
GHG Emissions Reductions Questions for Cap & Trade
Energy Policy is key, but should be complemented by targeted programs to address gaps
Bottom-up approach complements top-down approach of proposed policies
Fills proposed policies’ gaps related to their strength, breadth, and speed
Encourage development and use voluntary programs and offsets
Reduce GHG emissions using creative, low-cost approaches
Increase business efficiency
Reduce use of materials, energy, water
Minimize waste, transportation
GHG Emissions Reductions Filling the gap
Conventional Sector-based View of U.S. GHG Emissions By Source
2005 U.S. Emissions: 7,260 MMTCO2E
Automobiles and transportation
U.S. Mobile Source GHG Emissions By Sector (2006) U.S. Greenhouse Gases and Sinks
Systems-based View of U.S. GHG Emissions By Type and Category
View of U.S. GHG Emissions
First step to reducing emissions Efficiency is a “cheap” and effective place to start.
Another step to reducing emissions Indirect Lifecycle Emissions EPA Waste/GhG Calculators http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/calculators/ WARM calculates and totals GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices—source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting, and landfilling. RECON estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy impacts from purchasing and/or manufacturing materials with varying degrees of post-consumer recycled content.
WARM calculates and totals GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices—source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting, and landfilling. RECON estimates life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy impacts from purchasing and/or manufacturing materials with varying degrees of post-consumer recycled content.
EPA Tools and Resources
Assess your current condition
Develop a Plan for improvements
Implement changes & upgrades
Measure and track
Highlighted EPA Program Fuel Efficiency MPG Is 60 MPG high or low for an automobile? Statement of Energy Performance EPA Rating Is 80 kBtu/SF/YR high or low for a building? Rating systems for Buildings
Highlighted EPA Program
EPA Programs EPA’s Climate and Energy State and Local Program assists state and local governments in their clean energy efforts by providing technical assistance, analytical tools, and outreach support. Specific assistance includes: Identifying and documenting cost-effective policies and initiatives that promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, and related clean technologies. Measuring and evaluating the environmental, economic, and public health benefits of clean energy initiatives. Fostering peer exchange opportunities for state and local officials to share information on best practices and innovative policies. Offering a suite of national voluntary programs that provide partners with assistance and recognition for their clean energy actions. www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-programs/state-and-local/