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Interactions for Learning as Expressed in an IMS LD Runtime Environment
 

Interactions for Learning as Expressed in an IMS LD Runtime Environment

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Presented at IEEE ICALT 2012, July 4-6, 2012, Rome, Italy

Presented at IEEE ICALT 2012, July 4-6, 2012, Rome, Italy

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    Interactions for Learning as Expressed in an IMS LD Runtime Environment Interactions for Learning as Expressed in an IMS LD Runtime Environment Presentation Transcript

    • Interactions for Learning as Expressed in an IMS LD Runtime Environment Michael Derntl1 Susanne Neumann2 Petra Oberhuemer3 1 RWTH Aachen University, Advanced Community Information Systems 2 University of Vienna, Center for Teaching and Learning 3 University of Vienna, Educational Affairs derntl@dbis.rwth-aachen.deLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 1 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
    • Advanced Community Information Systems (ACIS) Responsive Web Engineering Community Web Analytics Open Visualization Community and Information Simulation Systems Community Community Support AnalyticsLehrstuhl Informatik 5 Requirements(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 2 Engineering
    • Motivation  IMS Learning Design (LD) was developed as a specification supporting any pedagogical approach [1]  Separation of environments for designing units of learning (i.e. the authoring environment) and running units of learning (i.e. the runtime environment)  Challenge: unclear how a deployed package will appear in a VLE  Much previous research (and tools) about conceptual and authoring issues; little research about expression of pedagogical aspects at runtimeLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 3 [1] IMS Global: IMS Learning Design Information Model, Version 1.0. http://is.gd/imsldv1 (2003)
    • IMS LD Structure in a Nutshell Components are weaved into a method following a stage-play metaphor Act 1 Act 2 Act n Role-Part 1 Role-Part 2 Role-Part n Method Components Role Activity Environment Activity Structure Tasks LOs ToolsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 4
    • Objectives  Analyzing the expression of pedagogical aspects in IMS LD runtime with focus on multi-role settings (interaction) – Visual presentation – Interaction metaphors  Identifying shortcomings and recommendations for IMS LD runtime developersLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 5
    • Methodology (1)  Player selection – Several players are available, e.g. GRAIL, SLeD, CLIX, Astro Player, … – Original plan: SLeD and AstroPlayer – But: AstroPlayer lacked support of some features (e.g. display multiple activity descriptions) – So: SLeD!Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 6
    • The SLeD Player Navigation Content AreaLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 7
    • Methodology (2)  Selection of framework for pedagogical aspects – Several candidates like Reeves‟ pedagogical dimensions [2] or Reigluth/Moore framework for comparing instructional strategies [3] – Reigeluth/Moore allow precise and multi-faceted analysis of learning interactions [2] Reeves, T.: Evaluating What Really Matters in Computer-Based Education. (1997) – Types of interactions: [3] Reigeluth, C.M., Moore, J.: Cognitive Education and the Cognitive Domain. In: Reigeluth, C.M. (ed.), Instructional- Design Theories and Models, pp. 51-68. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ (1999) Human Non-human Student Student Student Student Student – – Other – – – OtherLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Teacher Student Tools Information Environment Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 8
    • Methodology (3)  Selection of IMS LD Units of Learning (UoLs) – Solicited real-world UoLs from ICOPER consortium members – Selection based on diversity and feature coverage UoL Features Deconstructivism Learner & teacher roles; Support activities, Project exploration Modern architecture Learner & teacher roles; Brainstorming, reading, preparation of presentation; Resource and tool usage; Support activities Skyscrapers & Homes A Two learner & one teacher role; Reuse of learning objects and activities; Two plays Skyscrapers & Homes B Only learner role; Path selection; Interaction with content; Reflection and summarizing Shared outcome Five roles: teacher, two teams (members + coordinators); Split paths; Role selection; Conditional activity completion; Support activitiesLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Blog collaboration Learner & teacher roles; Content selection; Blogs; Discussion; Final Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 9 reports
    • Methodology (4)  UoL analysis – Play all paths through each UoL with all roles – Record support and obstacles for any interaction typeLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 10
    • Student – Student  Awareness of interaction only when – explicit instructions (e.g. in the activity description) – use of services like chat or forum  Forum – Missing instructions – Unclear which roles are assigned  When individuals assigned to multiple team roles – Unclear when to act in what role – Roles and UoL selection meshed single drop-down listLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 11
    • Student – Teacher  Key interaction; typically teacher in a support role  Problems during runtime – Separate views on the UoL – Unclear when to support which role – Unclear status of supported roles (if known) – e.g. support required, learners„ status of completion …Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 Student (l) vs. teacher (r) view in SLeD(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 12
    • Student – Teacher  UoL portion in Astro Player – more structure but no better  Phases (IMS LD act) provide a hint but: – Matching e.g. in Phase II (1 vs 4 activities)? – Requires guessing, but:Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 – No way to see the other role„s view – Guessing impossible Supported roles have no idea that there is any support(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 13 
    • Student – Teacher  IMS LD mechanism: learning vs support activity – Support activity optionally (!) has supported role(s) – From the IMS LD spec: “When the optional role-ref element is set, […] the same support activity is repeated for every user in the role(s). When the role-ref is not available, the support activity is a single activity (like the learning-activity)” [1]  Problems – Activity distinction known to be difficult to understand [4] – Same display as learning activities – If role-ref not set the only instruction can come from the description – Strict separation of role views hampers understanding of supporting and supported roleLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke [4] Neumann, S., Oberhuemer, P.: User Evaluation of a Graphical Modeling Tool for IMS Learning Design. Advances in Web Based 14 Learning – ICWL 2009, pp. 287-296 (2009)
    • Student – Tool / Environment  Difficult distinction tool – environment/manipulatives – In a VLE context, the tool is and provides the “environment”  In some UoLs there will be VLE external tools  Common practice: show the hierarchical structure in the XML package in the UI – Problematic with Activity Structures (selection, sequence) – Note: “SEQUENCE” / “SELECTION” are part of the titles (by designers)!Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke – Where does what end? 15
    • Student – Tool / Environment  Even more problematic with Role-Part (within Act) Activity Structure multiple activity descriptions Learning Activity and environments Activity Description Item  Beware of conditions! Item Activity Structure – Unexpected appearance / Learning Activity disappearance of activities Activity Description Item – Hard to discern these activities Item (only the icon distinguishes) Environment Learning Object – Impossible to anticipate the Item upcoming path Item Learning Activity – No qualitative info presented on Activity DescriptionLehrstuhl Informatik 5 UoL design Item(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke Item 16
    • Student – Information  Here: interactions with activities and learning objects  Difficult to understand difference between activity descriptions (AD) and learning objects (LO) – AD attached to activity – LO attached to environments linked to activity – LOs mentioned in the ADs need manual lookup in the navigation tree; activity as referencing element only – In SLeD multiple ADs appear awkwardly  Solutions? – Integrate LOs more tightly with the activity GUI – SLD 2.0 does not consider environments at all [5]Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 17 [5] Durand, G., Belliveau, L., Craig, B.: SLD 2.0 XML Binding. http://tinyurl.com/sld2-0-xml (2010)
    • Wrap Up  No explicit linkage between activity description (main area) and environment objects (navigation) – Requires LD authors to provide this info  contradicts the design/runtime split Provide in-place access to information within an activity  Roles and their interaction poorly represented – Unclear “impersonation” status – Missing info on currently collaborating and supported/supporting roles Explicitly display this info (USP of IMS LD?!)  Tree based navigation – Little process-related hints in a tree Depict the process, the current status, and the changesLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke 18