Cognitive Usability
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Cognitive Usability

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Cognitive Usability Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cognitive UsabilityMichael CrabbCombining Cognitive Psychology and Web Usabilityto create better insights into User Experience
  • 2. Bit AboutA little Me...
  • 3. Bit AboutA little Today...
  • 4. ProjectThemesAccessibilityConnected Home and CommunityCreative IndustriesTransport
  • 5. ProjectThemesConnected Homeand CommunityCreativeIndustriesTransport
  • 6. Accessibility PerspectiveSocial Networking for OlderAdultsTouch Screen Devices forUsers with Motor IssuesUnderstanding WebsiteUsability through CognitivePsychologyEnabling Users in the BuiltEnvironment
  • 7. User Pool
  • 8. Focus Groups
  • 9. InThe WildTesting
  • 10. UserTesting
  • 11. Bridg· esA structure spanning and providing passage over a gap orbarrier, such as a river or roadway
  • 12. lol!:-(
  • 13. ComputerMousetabletsmartphonePCMACMonitorPrinterCalculatorKeyboardInteractionTypeSwipeBrowseAdjustTouchMovewriteHUMAN????????
  • 14. Fluid IntelligenceAuditoryAbilityCrystallised IntelligenceInternetUsageInternet ConfidenceLong Term MemoryProcessing SpeedReading AbilityWriting AbilityVisualProcessingCognitivePsychologyHUMAN
  • 15. Fluid IntelligenceProcessing SpeedShort Term MemoryLong Term MemoryInternet UsageInternet ConfidenceCrystallisedIntelligence
  • 16. TestxTestyTestzTestaTestbTestcTestjTestkTestlTest1Test2Test3
  • 17. FluidIntelligenceOddOneOutLetter SetsIIIIIIBCDE FGHI JKLM PRST VWXYCERT KMTV FHXZ BODQ HJPRKGDB DFIM KIFB HJMQ LHEC
  • 18. FluidIntelligenceOddOneOutLetter SetsIIIIIIBCDE FGHI JKLM PRST VWXYCERT KMTV FHXZ BODQ HJPRKGDB DFIM KIFB HJMQ LHEC
  • 19. RememberingConnectionsLongTermMemoryMeaningful Memoryhammer excellentrock roughroof flat
  • 20. ProcessingSpeedSpottheDifferenceNumber Comparison11653 1165218824 18824518198045 51816804563216067 6321605718824 18824
  • 21. RememberingConnectionsLongTermMemoryMeaningful Memoryrockrockrockrockrockdirt smooth flat jagged largeroofroofroofroofrooflevel rough sloping leaky sturdyhammerhammerhammerhammerhammerbig rough good small heavy
  • 22. ShortTermMemoryNumberRecallDigit Span Test5 3 7 9 23 2 9 8 6 1 0 4? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 23. InternetConfidenceInternetUsageLikertScoredQuestionnaires“I feel confident using the internet to findinformation about a topic”“I feel confident using the internet to findinformation about a topic”“I feel confident using the internet to findinformation about a topic”“I feel confident using the internet to findinformation about a topic”“I feel confident using the internet to findinformation about a topic”Strongly Agree AgreeNeither Agreenor DisagreeDisagreeStronglyDisagree“I feel confident selecting the right words for anInternet search”“I feel confident selecting the right words for anInternet search”“I feel confident selecting the right words for anInternet search”“I feel confident selecting the right words for anInternet search”“I feel confident selecting the right words for anInternet search”Strongly Agree AgreeNeither Agreenor DisagreeDisagreeStronglyDisagree“I communicate with friends or family online...”“I communicate with friends or family online...”“I communicate with friends or family online...”“I communicate with friends or family online...”“I communicate with friends or family online...”EverydaySeveral Times aWeekSeveral Times aMonthEvery FewMonthsNever
  • 24. participant x participant Y participant zPsGfIUGlrGsmIC PsGfIUGlrGsmIC PsGfIUGlrGsmIC
  • 25. practiceturn theory into
  • 26. Study 2INFORMATION RETRIEVAL TASK.PARTICIPANTS ANSWER QUESTIONSTO FIND INFO ON INDIVIDUAL SITES.METRICS GATHERED RELATED TO‘EASE’ OF USE AND FEEING OF‘LOSTNESS’PROBLEM SOLVEDSystem created and testedwithin second studyMAIN PROBLEMLarge amount of data, verytime consuming to get into aformat that is suitable foranalysisSoftware DevelopmentCREATION OF SOFTWARE TOSTORE INDIVIDUAL STUDYDATA AND PRESENT IN AFORMAT SUITABLE FORSTATISTICAL ANALYSISSOFTWAREStudy 1BASIC SEARCH TASK. PARTICIPANTSASKED TO FIND INFORMATIONRELATED TO BOOKING A HOLIDAYONLINE. METRICS GATHEREDRELATED TO SPEED OF SEARCHINGFINDINGSCognitive factors play a partin the speed of searching,yet speed alone is not agood value for identifyinghow comfortable a person isin using technologyStudy 4INFORMATION RETRIEVAL TASK.PARTICIPANTS ANSWER QUESTIONSTO FIND INFO ON INDIVIDUAL SITES.PARTICIPANTS VISITING SITESREDEVELOPED WITH USABILITYPRINCIPLESFINDINGSThreshold values for varioususability metrics and how theyrelate to different cognitivefactors.USED WITHINANALYSIS OFSoftware DevelopmentWEBSITE REDEVELOPMENTOF SITES TO PASS CREATEDUSABILITY GUIDELINEMETRICSUSED TOIMPROVEUSEDWITHINUSEDTO TESTSoftware DevelopmentCREATION OF SOFTWARE TOHOLD USABILITY METRICSAND ANALYSE INDIVIDUALWEB PAGES TO GENERATEVALUES TO THESE METRICSFINDINGSFailings of metrics and howto taylor metric delivery andinformation to developersStudy 3ANALYSIS OF CREATED USABILITYGUIDELINES AND METADATAAGAINST PREVIOUSLY EXISTINGMETRICS. POTENTIAL TO CONTACTHIGH NAME INDUSTRY PARTNERSFOR INPUTUSEDWITHIN
  • 27. DataGatheringSample AnalysisRigour Confidence Claims“I had a chat with a few people and after thinkingabout it for a bit I recon it’s pretty good”
  • 28. Method Description Qual. Quant.Methods used to collect dataInterviewsFocus GroupsLikert Scored TestButtons PressedThe people that you talked to inorder to collect the datan < 20 n > 20Exploration of the data in orderto look for patternsGrounded Theory ANOVA TestingPreciseness in which the datawas exploredExhaustive Analysis F-TestSureness that what you havedone is correctSaturation Points p < 0.05Conclusions from the collected dataConclusions from the collected dataConclusions from the collected dataDataGatheringSampleAnalysisRigourConfidenceClaims
  • 29. 100110110101001011001010001001100101
  • 30. government banking local attractionsshopping news medical
  • 31. 7 questionsComputingComfort15 QuestionsComputerUsage31 QuestionsInternetComfort16 QuestionsInternet Usage19 QuestionsFluid IntelligenceProcessing SpeedShort Term MemoryLong Term MemoryHuman MetricsTechnology Usage Cognitive Factors DemographicsWebsiteMetricsPage LayoutNavigationText AppearanceHeadingsScrolling and PagingImagesLinksWriting ContentFormsSearching
  • 32. Human MetricsTechnology Usage Cognitive Factors DemographicsWebsiteMetricsPage LayoutNavigationText AppearanceHeadingsScrolling and PagingImagesLinksWriting ContentFormsSearching23 Guidelines7 Guidelines5 Guidelines10 Guidelines44 Guidelines15 Guidelines17 Guidelines10 Guidelines39 Guidelines7 Guidelines
  • 33. Collection of 130 different usabilityguidelines from 16 different governmentbodies across the world
  • 34. Sweden Uruguay United States AustraliaNetherlands CanadaUnited Kingdom Japan ChileMaltaColombiaNorwayCollection of 130 different usabilityguidelines from 16 different governmentbodies across the world
  • 35. 20 Participants6 Cognitive Characteristics per participant17.05 Websites(on average per participant)5.45 WebPages (on average per website)130 Guidelines per webpage~ 6.2 Million Data ComparisonPoints
  • 36. variablesindependentHuman Factors✦Fluid Intelligence✦Processing Speed✦Short Term Memory✦Long Term Memory✦Internet Confidence✦Internet Usage✦Demographicswebsite Factors✦Scrolling and Paging✦Links✦Forms✦Writing Content✦Page Layout✦Searching✦Headings✦Images✦Navigation✦Text AppearancevariablesdependantLikert Questionnaire DataLooks at how lost a person feels when using a website -and also how easy they find a website to use.
  • 37. You can’tsay thatyou’re rightYou can onlysay you’renot wrongnullhypothesisstatisticaltesting
  • 38. LoglinearmodellingTest ofAssociationChi SquaredGoodness offitSimultaneousRegressionStepwiseRegressionFactorialIndependentmeasuresANOVAFactorialRepeatedmeasuresANOVAFactorialMixed DesignANOVAFrequenciesacrossvariablesDifferencesbetween groupsRelationshipsbetween variablesHow many variables1 2 3Enter allpredictorvariablesinto themodelExtractsignificantpredictorsin order ofimportanceControl fora confoundand thenassesspredictorsHow manyIndependentVariablesHow manyconditions?Are Participants repeatedor independent?Are Participants repeatedor independent?RepeatedIndependentIndependentt-testRepeated t-testRepeatedIndependentOne wayindependentmeasuresANOVAOne wayrepeatedmeasuresANOVAFor each IV are the participants repeatedor independentAllIndependentAll Repeated MixtureWhy are you looking for a relationship?To see if twovariables are relatedTo see if an outcome variable can be predictedContinuous OutcomeBinaryOutcomeLogisticRegressionPearson’sCorrelation12 3+2+What are you looking for?HierarchicalRegression
  • 39. hypothesistestingH0 : Cognitive factors have no impact on an individualsability to perform Information Retrieval tasksH0 : Older and Younger adults use the same cognitivefactors when performing Information Retrieval tasksH0 :Cognitive factors have a negative impact on anindividuals ability to perform Information Retrievaltasks
  • 40. YoungerAdultsOlderAdultsIndependentSampled t-testKurtosisTestingMultipleRegressions 1 s2 s3
  • 41. Explaining MultipleRegressionOnline‘Lostness’AgeInternetExperienceCognitiveFactors
  • 42. Explaining MultipleRegressionAgeOnlineLostness
  • 43. Younger and Older AdultsMultiple Regressions 1s 2s 3Age10.4%Tech Usage32.5%Cognitive Factors45.1%s 3s 2s 10.1%Age9.7%Tech Usage31.0%Cognitive FactorsH0 :Cognitive factors have no impact on an individuals abilityto perform Information Retrieval tasks
  • 44. Younger and Older AdultsMultiple RegressionH0 :Older and Younger adults use the same cognitive factorswhen performing Information Retrieval tasksH0 :Cognitive factors have a negative impact on an individualsability to perform Information Retrieval tasksInternet ConfidenceFluid IntelligenceShort TermMemoryShort Term MemoryInternet ConfidenceFluid IntelligenceProcessing SpeedDisorientationDisorientationLong Term MemoryProcessing SpeedInternet Usageolder Adults Younger Adults
  • 45. start of it.That’s only theYou need to know how to write upstatistics as well.• Conference Papers• Journal Articles• Reports• Assignmentshttp://statistics-help-for-students.com
  • 46. start of it.That’s only theEnter Analyse Interpret Report
  • 47. michaelcrabb@computing.dundee.ac.uke-mail me or have a look online forpapers that use any of theconcepts that we have covered.Any Questions?(papers from CHI are normally pretty good forshowing how these methods can be put intoaction)