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Civics chapter 3 power point


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  • 1. Chapter IntroductionSection 1: The Nation’s First GovernmentSection 2: The Road to the ConstitutionSection 3: The Structure of Our ConstitutionSection 4: Principles Underlying the ConstitutionVisual Summary
  • 2. The Constitution outlines theideals of Americangovernment and describeshow they should be achieved.It tells you what your rightsand privileges are. TheConstitution affects you, yourfamily, and your friends asmuch today as it affectedthose who wrote it more than200 years ago.
  • 3. Section 1:The Nation’s FirstGovernmentsPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.Americans faced the task offorming independentgovernments at both the stateand national levels.
  • 4. Section 2:The Road to theConstitutionPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.American leaders decidedthat a new constitution wasneeded.
  • 5. Section 3:The Structure of OurConstitutionA constitution reflects thevalues and goals of thesociety that creates it. TheConstitution is this nation’sfundamental law.
  • 6. Section 4:Principles Underlying theConstitutionA constitution reflects thevalues and goals of thesociety that creates it. TheConstitution sets forth thebasic principles ofgovernment.
  • 7. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
  • 8. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• constitution • confederation• bicameral • ratifyAcademic Vocabulary• convert • impact• area
  • 9. The First State Constitutions Americans faced the task of forming independent governments at both the state and national levels.
  • 10. The First State Constitutions (cont.)• When the colonies organized as states, they wrote constitutions, which were written plans for government.• Most state constitutions: – Specified bicameral legislatures – Provided for an elected governor – Based on the ideas of the Declaration of Independence – Included a bill of rights
  • 11. What do you think is themost important thing that aconstitution provides?A. A way of electing a governorB. A plan for creating a A. Alegislature B. BC. A bill of rights C. 0% C 0% 0% 0%D. A method for setting up a D. D A B C Dcourt system
  • 12. The Articles of Confederation The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation created problems for the new country.
  • 13. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• The Articles of Confederation were the first constitution of the United States.• The Articles: – Established a “league of friendship” among states – Ratified by all thirteen states
  • 14. The Articles of Confederation (cont.) – Set up a one-house legislature called the Confederation Congress – Withheld the powers to enforce laws and to tax from the Confederation Congress• Ordinance of 1785: – System created by the Confederation Congress for surveying and selling land – System still used today
  • 15. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• The Northwest Ordinance: – Provided a way for territories to organize and become new states – Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
  • 16. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation: – Votes from nine states needed to pass a law – Unanimous vote needed to change the Articles – Congress unable to enforce laws Weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation
  • 17. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• National and state debt after the Revolutionary War• Shay’s Rebellion: – Led by Daniel Shays – Sparked by debt due to heavy state taxes – Armed attack on a federal arsenal – Arguments for a stronger national government
  • 18. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
  • 19. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Constitutional • Electoral Convention College• Great • Federalists Compromise • federalism• Three-Fifths Compromise • Anti-FederalistsAcademic Vocabulary• process• despite
  • 20. The Philadelphia Convention American leaders decided to create a new plan of government.
  • 21. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• The Congress asked each state to send delegates to Philadelphia to fix the problems with the Articles of Confederation.• Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall in 1787. Who Were the Delegates?
  • 22. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Delegates: – 55 in all – Benjamin Franklin as the oldest delegate – George Washington and James Madison as future presidents
  • 23. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Leaders not in attendance: – Thomas Jefferson in Paris – John Adams in London – Patrick Henry against the convention
  • 24. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Important decisions made by the delegates: – George Washington presided over convention. – Each state got one vote and a simple majority would decide any issue. – Work was kept secret. – Created a new constitution, thus called the Constitutional Convention.
  • 25. Creating the Constitution Many of the provisions of the Constitution were arrived at through a series of compromises.
  • 26. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution was the result of a series of compromises that combined the best ideas of different plans.• The Virginia Plan: – Called for a government similar to the one we have today – Two-house congress
  • 27. Creating the Constitution (cont.)– Representation in the two houses of congress based on each state’s population– Favored by larger states – Because they had more population, delegates from their states would be able to control the vote
  • 28. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The New Jersey Plan: – One-house congress – Equal representation and equal votes – Favored by smaller states
  • 29. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The Great Compromise settling the structure of Congress • Representation based on population in the House, equal in the Senate (2 for each state)• The Three-Fifths Compromise settling that every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons• Congress able to regulate trade between states and other countries
  • 30. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• Congress unable to tax exports or interfere with the slave trade before 1808.• Electoral College created to select the president and vice president
  • 31. Balancing Viewpoints Writing the new Constitution and getting the American people to approve it was not an easy task.
  • 32. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Signing of the Constitution• Various factions interpreted the new Constitution differently.
  • 33. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Federalists: – Supported dividing power between federal and state governments – Supported the Constitution as it was written in Philadelphia
  • 34. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Anti-Federalists: – Opposed a powerful central or national government – Opposed the Constitution as it was written in Philadelphia
  • 35. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Bill of rights added to the Constitution • Persuaded anti-federalists to ratify the Constitution • They felt Bill of Rights would protect individuals and states• Ratification of the Constitution Ratification of the Constitution
  • 36. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaA constitution reflects the values andgoals of the society that creates it.
  • 37. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Preamble • judicial branch• legislative • amendment branch• executive branchAcademic Vocabulary• consist• assume
  • 38. The Sections of the Constitution The Constitution is a remarkable document that serves as an adaptable blueprint for governing the United States.
  • 39. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution is divided into three sections: the preamble, the articles, and the amendments.• Preamble: – Establishes that power of government comes from the people – States six purposes of government
  • 40. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article I: – Creates a two-house legislative branch – Outlines the duties of the Congress in making laws
  • 41. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article II: – Provides for the executive branch – President carries out and enforces the laws made in Congress – Explains how leaders are elected to office and how they can be removed
  • 42. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article III: – Establishes the judicial branch – Judicial branch interprets laws – Creates a court system and lists its powers
  • 43. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Articles IV-VII: – Explains relationship between state and national government – Tells how the Constitution can be changed – Article VI Declares the Constitution as the “supreme Law of the Land” Comparing Governments
  • 44. Amending the Constitution The Framers wrote the Constitution so that it could be adapted to meet changing needs.
  • 45. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution can be changed or amended to adapt to the country’s changing needs, but amending it is a difficult process.• 27 amendments ratified• Amendments in safeguarding freedoms
  • 46. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• Process for amending the Constitution: – Proposal by congressional action or national convention – Ratification by three-fourths of states Amending the Constitution
  • 47. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• Interpretation: – Necessary and proper clause allows Congress to exercise implied powers – Supreme Court has the final authority to interpret the Constitution – Legislative and Executive actions have caused interpretations – Changes made to the Constitution through customs that develop over years
  • 48. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaA constitution reflects the values andgoals of the society that creates it.
  • 49. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• popular • expressed sovereignty powers• rule of law • reserved powers• separation of • concurrent powers powers• checks and balances
  • 50. Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• ensure• assign
  • 51. Should one branch of governmenthold more power than the others?A. YesB. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
  • 52. Major Principles of Government The Constitution sets forth the basic principles of government.
  • 53. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• The Constitution establishes the basic principles of the government of the United States.• Five fundamental principles of government: – Popular sovereignty – The notion that power lies with the people – The rule of law – Laws apply to everyone, even government
  • 54. Major Principles of Government (cont.) – Separation of powers – Split authority among 3 branches – Checks and balances – Federalism – Power divided between states and federal government• Changes in the meaning of republic Foundations of Rights
  • 55. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Popular sovereignty: – Power lies with the people – Ensured by the Constitution through elections
  • 56. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Rule of law: – Power of the government is limited – Law applies to everyone• Separation of powers: – Branches of government have different functions – Idea influenced by philosopher Montesquieu
  • 57. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Checks and balances: – Prevents one branch from becoming too powerful – Each branch able to limit the power of the others A System of Check and Balances
  • 58. The Principle of Federalism The Constitution created a federal system of government. Under federalism, power is divided between national and state governments.
  • 59. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• The Constitution establishes a system of federalism where power is divided between national and state governments.
  • 60. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• Three types of government power:– Expressed powers granted to the national government– Reserved powers kept by the states– Concurrent powers exercised by both national and state governments Federal and State Powers
  • 61. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• Supremacy clause: – Constitution is the highest law – National government or state governments cannot violate the Constitution – National laws win out• The Constitution is both durable and adaptable.
  • 62. The ConstitutionThe Constitution is thisnation’s fundamental law. Itestablished that our nationis a republic that includes:• an elected president;• a bicameral legislature;• a system of courts.The Constitution is made up of three parts:• the Preamble• the Articles• the Amendments
  • 63. The Constitution (cont.)The Constitution sets forth thefive basic principles upon whichthe American system ofgovernment rests.1. popular sovereignty2. the rule of law3. separation of powers4. checks and balances5. federalism
  • 64. The Constitution (cont.)In setting up a federal system, the writers of theConstitution divided the powers of government intothree types:• Enumerated powers are those powers the Constitution specifically gives to the national government.• Reserved powers are those that the Constitution gives to the states.• Concurrent powers are those that the national and state governments share.
  • 65. The Supremacy ClauseFound in Article VI, thesupremacy clause states thatthe Constitution and the lawsof the national governmentare the “supreme law of theland.” In any conflict betweennational law and state law,the national law has thehigher authority.
  • 66. Amending the ConstitutionAny change in the Constitution is called anamendment. The Constitution has 27 amendments.
  • 67. It set up a two-houselegislature in whichrepresentation in onehouse was the samefor all states andrepresentation in theother house wasbased on population.
  • 68. constitution a detailed, written plan forgovernment
  • 69. bicameral a legislature consisting of two parts,or houses
  • 70. confederation a group of individuals or stategovernments
  • 71. ratify to vote approval of
  • 72. convert to change from one belief, form, oruse to another
  • 73. area a region or section
  • 74. impact to influence or effect
  • 75. Constitutional Convention meeting of state delegates in 1787leading to adoption of newConstitution
  • 76. Great Compromise agreement providing a dual system ofcongressional representation
  • 77. Three-fifths Compromise agreement providing that enslavedpersons would count as three-fifths ofother persons in determiningrepresentation in Congress
  • 78. Electoral College a group of people named by eachstate legislature to select thepresident and vice president
  • 79. Federalists supporters of the Constitution
  • 80. federalism a form of government in which poweris divided between the federal, ornational, government and the states
  • 81. Anti-Federalists those who opposed ratification of theConstitution
  • 82. process an action or a series of actionsdirected toward a result
  • 83. despite in spite of
  • 84. Preamble the opening section of theConstitution
  • 85. legislative branch the lawmaking branch of government
  • 86. executive branch the branch of government that carriesout laws
  • 87. judicial branch the branch of government thatinterprets laws
  • 88. amendment any change in the Constitution
  • 89. consist to be made up of
  • 90. assume to take over a job or responsibility
  • 91. popular sovereignty the notion that power lies with thepeople
  • 92. rule of law principle that the law applies toeveryone, even those who govern
  • 93. separation of powers the split of authority among thelegislative, executive, and judicialbranches
  • 94. checks and balancesa system in which each branch ofgovernment is able to check, orrestrain, the power of the others
  • 95. expressed powers powers that Congress has that arespecifically listed in the Constitution
  • 96. reserved powers powers that the Constitution does notgive to the national government thatare kept by the states
  • 97. concurrent powers powers shared by the state andfederal governments
  • 98. ensure to secure or make sure
  • 99. assign to dole out or give as a task
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  • 101. This slide is intentionally blank.