Civics chapter 3 power point

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Civics chapter 3 power point

  1. 1. Chapter IntroductionSection 1: The Nation’s First GovernmentSection 2: The Road to the ConstitutionSection 3: The Structure of Our ConstitutionSection 4: Principles Underlying the ConstitutionVisual Summary
  2. 2. The Constitution outlines theideals of Americangovernment and describeshow they should be achieved.It tells you what your rightsand privileges are. TheConstitution affects you, yourfamily, and your friends asmuch today as it affectedthose who wrote it more than200 years ago.
  3. 3. Section 1:The Nation’s FirstGovernmentsPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.Americans faced the task offorming independentgovernments at both the stateand national levels.
  4. 4. Section 2:The Road to theConstitutionPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.American leaders decidedthat a new constitution wasneeded.
  5. 5. Section 3:The Structure of OurConstitutionA constitution reflects thevalues and goals of thesociety that creates it. TheConstitution is this nation’sfundamental law.
  6. 6. Section 4:Principles Underlying theConstitutionA constitution reflects thevalues and goals of thesociety that creates it. TheConstitution sets forth thebasic principles ofgovernment.
  7. 7. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
  8. 8. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• constitution • confederation• bicameral • ratifyAcademic Vocabulary• convert • impact• area
  9. 9. The First State Constitutions Americans faced the task of forming independent governments at both the state and national levels.
  10. 10. The First State Constitutions (cont.)• When the colonies organized as states, they wrote constitutions, which were written plans for government.• Most state constitutions: – Specified bicameral legislatures – Provided for an elected governor – Based on the ideas of the Declaration of Independence – Included a bill of rights
  11. 11. What do you think is themost important thing that aconstitution provides?A. A way of electing a governorB. A plan for creating a A. Alegislature B. BC. A bill of rights C. 0% C 0% 0% 0%D. A method for setting up a D. D A B C Dcourt system
  12. 12. The Articles of Confederation The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation created problems for the new country.
  13. 13. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• The Articles of Confederation were the first constitution of the United States.• The Articles: – Established a “league of friendship” among states – Ratified by all thirteen states
  14. 14. The Articles of Confederation (cont.) – Set up a one-house legislature called the Confederation Congress – Withheld the powers to enforce laws and to tax from the Confederation Congress• Ordinance of 1785: – System created by the Confederation Congress for surveying and selling land – System still used today
  15. 15. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• The Northwest Ordinance: – Provided a way for territories to organize and become new states – Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
  16. 16. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation: – Votes from nine states needed to pass a law – Unanimous vote needed to change the Articles – Congress unable to enforce laws Weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation
  17. 17. The Articles of Confederation (cont.)• National and state debt after the Revolutionary War• Shay’s Rebellion: – Led by Daniel Shays – Sparked by debt due to heavy state taxes – Armed attack on a federal arsenal – Arguments for a stronger national government
  18. 18. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
  19. 19. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Constitutional • Electoral Convention College• Great • Federalists Compromise • federalism• Three-Fifths Compromise • Anti-FederalistsAcademic Vocabulary• process• despite
  20. 20. The Philadelphia Convention American leaders decided to create a new plan of government.
  21. 21. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• The Congress asked each state to send delegates to Philadelphia to fix the problems with the Articles of Confederation.• Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall in 1787. Who Were the Delegates?
  22. 22. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Delegates: – 55 in all – Benjamin Franklin as the oldest delegate – George Washington and James Madison as future presidents
  23. 23. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Leaders not in attendance: – Thomas Jefferson in Paris – John Adams in London – Patrick Henry against the convention
  24. 24. The Philadelphia Convention (cont.)• Important decisions made by the delegates: – George Washington presided over convention. – Each state got one vote and a simple majority would decide any issue. – Work was kept secret. – Created a new constitution, thus called the Constitutional Convention.
  25. 25. Creating the Constitution Many of the provisions of the Constitution were arrived at through a series of compromises.
  26. 26. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution was the result of a series of compromises that combined the best ideas of different plans.• The Virginia Plan: – Called for a government similar to the one we have today – Two-house congress
  27. 27. Creating the Constitution (cont.)– Representation in the two houses of congress based on each state’s population– Favored by larger states – Because they had more population, delegates from their states would be able to control the vote
  28. 28. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The New Jersey Plan: – One-house congress – Equal representation and equal votes – Favored by smaller states
  29. 29. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• The Great Compromise settling the structure of Congress • Representation based on population in the House, equal in the Senate (2 for each state)• The Three-Fifths Compromise settling that every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons• Congress able to regulate trade between states and other countries
  30. 30. Creating the Constitution (cont.)• Congress unable to tax exports or interfere with the slave trade before 1808.• Electoral College created to select the president and vice president
  31. 31. Balancing Viewpoints Writing the new Constitution and getting the American people to approve it was not an easy task.
  32. 32. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Signing of the Constitution• Various factions interpreted the new Constitution differently.
  33. 33. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Federalists: – Supported dividing power between federal and state governments – Supported the Constitution as it was written in Philadelphia
  34. 34. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Anti-Federalists: – Opposed a powerful central or national government – Opposed the Constitution as it was written in Philadelphia
  35. 35. Balancing Viewpoints (cont.)• Bill of rights added to the Constitution • Persuaded anti-federalists to ratify the Constitution • They felt Bill of Rights would protect individuals and states• Ratification of the Constitution Ratification of the Constitution
  36. 36. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaA constitution reflects the values andgoals of the society that creates it.
  37. 37. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Preamble • judicial branch• legislative • amendment branch• executive branchAcademic Vocabulary• consist• assume
  38. 38. The Sections of the Constitution The Constitution is a remarkable document that serves as an adaptable blueprint for governing the United States.
  39. 39. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution is divided into three sections: the preamble, the articles, and the amendments.• Preamble: – Establishes that power of government comes from the people – States six purposes of government
  40. 40. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article I: – Creates a two-house legislative branch – Outlines the duties of the Congress in making laws
  41. 41. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article II: – Provides for the executive branch – President carries out and enforces the laws made in Congress – Explains how leaders are elected to office and how they can be removed
  42. 42. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Article III: – Establishes the judicial branch – Judicial branch interprets laws – Creates a court system and lists its powers
  43. 43. The Sections of the Constitution (cont.)• Articles IV-VII: – Explains relationship between state and national government – Tells how the Constitution can be changed – Article VI Declares the Constitution as the “supreme Law of the Land” Comparing Governments
  44. 44. Amending the Constitution The Framers wrote the Constitution so that it could be adapted to meet changing needs.
  45. 45. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• The Constitution can be changed or amended to adapt to the country’s changing needs, but amending it is a difficult process.• 27 amendments ratified• Amendments in safeguarding freedoms
  46. 46. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• Process for amending the Constitution: – Proposal by congressional action or national convention – Ratification by three-fourths of states Amending the Constitution
  47. 47. Amending the Constitution (cont.)• Interpretation: – Necessary and proper clause allows Congress to exercise implied powers – Supreme Court has the final authority to interpret the Constitution – Legislative and Executive actions have caused interpretations – Changes made to the Constitution through customs that develop over years
  48. 48. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaA constitution reflects the values andgoals of the society that creates it.
  49. 49. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• popular • expressed sovereignty powers• rule of law • reserved powers• separation of • concurrent powers powers• checks and balances
  50. 50. Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• ensure• assign
  51. 51. Should one branch of governmenthold more power than the others?A. YesB. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
  52. 52. Major Principles of Government The Constitution sets forth the basic principles of government.
  53. 53. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• The Constitution establishes the basic principles of the government of the United States.• Five fundamental principles of government: – Popular sovereignty – The notion that power lies with the people – The rule of law – Laws apply to everyone, even government
  54. 54. Major Principles of Government (cont.) – Separation of powers – Split authority among 3 branches – Checks and balances – Federalism – Power divided between states and federal government• Changes in the meaning of republic Foundations of Rights
  55. 55. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Popular sovereignty: – Power lies with the people – Ensured by the Constitution through elections
  56. 56. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Rule of law: – Power of the government is limited – Law applies to everyone• Separation of powers: – Branches of government have different functions – Idea influenced by philosopher Montesquieu
  57. 57. Major Principles of Government (cont.)• Checks and balances: – Prevents one branch from becoming too powerful – Each branch able to limit the power of the others A System of Check and Balances
  58. 58. The Principle of Federalism The Constitution created a federal system of government. Under federalism, power is divided between national and state governments.
  59. 59. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• The Constitution establishes a system of federalism where power is divided between national and state governments.
  60. 60. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• Three types of government power:– Expressed powers granted to the national government– Reserved powers kept by the states– Concurrent powers exercised by both national and state governments Federal and State Powers
  61. 61. The Principle of Federalism (cont.)• Supremacy clause: – Constitution is the highest law – National government or state governments cannot violate the Constitution – National laws win out• The Constitution is both durable and adaptable.
  62. 62. The ConstitutionThe Constitution is thisnation’s fundamental law. Itestablished that our nationis a republic that includes:• an elected president;• a bicameral legislature;• a system of courts.The Constitution is made up of three parts:• the Preamble• the Articles• the Amendments
  63. 63. The Constitution (cont.)The Constitution sets forth thefive basic principles upon whichthe American system ofgovernment rests.1. popular sovereignty2. the rule of law3. separation of powers4. checks and balances5. federalism
  64. 64. The Constitution (cont.)In setting up a federal system, the writers of theConstitution divided the powers of government intothree types:• Enumerated powers are those powers the Constitution specifically gives to the national government.• Reserved powers are those that the Constitution gives to the states.• Concurrent powers are those that the national and state governments share.
  65. 65. The Supremacy ClauseFound in Article VI, thesupremacy clause states thatthe Constitution and the lawsof the national governmentare the “supreme law of theland.” In any conflict betweennational law and state law,the national law has thehigher authority.
  66. 66. Amending the ConstitutionAny change in the Constitution is called anamendment. The Constitution has 27 amendments.
  67. 67. It set up a two-houselegislature in whichrepresentation in onehouse was the samefor all states andrepresentation in theother house wasbased on population.
  68. 68. constitution a detailed, written plan forgovernment
  69. 69. bicameral a legislature consisting of two parts,or houses
  70. 70. confederation a group of individuals or stategovernments
  71. 71. ratify to vote approval of
  72. 72. convert to change from one belief, form, oruse to another
  73. 73. area a region or section
  74. 74. impact to influence or effect
  75. 75. Constitutional Convention meeting of state delegates in 1787leading to adoption of newConstitution
  76. 76. Great Compromise agreement providing a dual system ofcongressional representation
  77. 77. Three-fifths Compromise agreement providing that enslavedpersons would count as three-fifths ofother persons in determiningrepresentation in Congress
  78. 78. Electoral College a group of people named by eachstate legislature to select thepresident and vice president
  79. 79. Federalists supporters of the Constitution
  80. 80. federalism a form of government in which poweris divided between the federal, ornational, government and the states
  81. 81. Anti-Federalists those who opposed ratification of theConstitution
  82. 82. process an action or a series of actionsdirected toward a result
  83. 83. despite in spite of
  84. 84. Preamble the opening section of theConstitution
  85. 85. legislative branch the lawmaking branch of government
  86. 86. executive branch the branch of government that carriesout laws
  87. 87. judicial branch the branch of government thatinterprets laws
  88. 88. amendment any change in the Constitution
  89. 89. consist to be made up of
  90. 90. assume to take over a job or responsibility
  91. 91. popular sovereignty the notion that power lies with thepeople
  92. 92. rule of law principle that the law applies toeveryone, even those who govern
  93. 93. separation of powers the split of authority among thelegislative, executive, and judicialbranches
  94. 94. checks and balancesa system in which each branch ofgovernment is able to check, orrestrain, the power of the others
  95. 95. expressed powers powers that Congress has that arespecifically listed in the Constitution
  96. 96. reserved powers powers that the Constitution does notgive to the national government thatare kept by the states
  97. 97. concurrent powers powers shared by the state andfederal governments
  98. 98. ensure to secure or make sure
  99. 99. assign to dole out or give as a task
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