Civics chapter 1


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Civics chapter 1

  3. 3. THE MEANING OF CIVICS• CIVICS – the study of what it means to be a US citizen• Citizen – a leagally recognized member of a country• Government – the organizations, institutions, and individuals who exercise authority as a political unit over a group of people – the US government grant citizens rights and requires responsibilities of them• Americans are also “citizens” of smaller communities, enjoying rights and responsibilities there as well
  4. 4. American Ideals• Freedom and equality – US citizens are all guarenteed by law the same rights and freedoms, as long as you obey the laws of the nation, state, and community – We are also required to “do our share” – Freedom to learn is provided by our state and local government in the form of public schools and libraries – We also have freedom to choose a job, but must receive education to become qualified – We will study many other freedoms in this course as well
  5. 5. Government by the People• In the US, the people rule through the officials they elect – Republic – Officials are responsible to the people who elected them • If not, they can be voted out of office • Voting is one of the most important responsibilities of US citizens • Informing government officials of disagreements or your needs is another important responsibility of the people as “rulers” • Studying civics will help you to fulfill these and other responsibilities
  6. 6. Qualities of a Good Citizen1. Are responsible family members2. Respect and obey the laws of the land3. Respect the rights and property of others4. Are loyal to their country and proud5. Take part in and improve life in their communities6. Take an active part in their government7. Use natural resources wisely8. Are well informed on important issues and are willing to take a stand if needed9. Believe in equality of opportunity for all people10. Respect individual differences, points of view, and ways of life different from their own
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1 SECTION 2Who are US Citizens?
  8. 8. Citizenship and Immigration• Most Americans are native-born citizens• Some citizens are immigrants – People who permanently move here from other nations – Most Americans are descendants of immigrants – Today the government puts quotas on immigration • Set # of immigrants allowed from specific nations• Aliens are citizens of other nations who live in the US – Here for education, jobs, or visiting – Some are legal; others are not – Subject to our laws (could be deported) – Must register with the US government• Refugees flee persecution in other countries – The President and Congress make decisions about accepting them
  9. 9. Naturalization• Naturalization – the legal process by which an alien may become a citizen• Qualifications for naturalization: – 5 year resident of the US (3 if married to a citizen) – 18 years old – Must prove that they can support themselves – Must be able to read, write, and speak English – Must be free from certain illnesses – Must not be a drug addict or criminal
  10. 10. Naturalization Steps• 1. File a Declaration of Intention• 2. Fill out an application• 3. Interview with an Immigration Official – This is where the test would be administered• 4. Background Check• 5. Final Ceremony and Oath of Allegiance to the US – Minors become citizens automatically when their parents are naturalized
  12. 12. US POPULATION• Census – count of US residents that takes place every 10 years – Determines # of Representatives from each state in the US House of Representatives – Gives us information about population growth or decline in various regions of the nation – Helps the gov., businesses, and individuals plan for the future
  13. 13. US POPULATION (cont.)• Population Growth – 1790 – 4 million 2010 – 300 million – How have we gotten to be so big? • Natural increase – Birthrate grater than death rate • Adding new territory – US has gained land through annexation and purchase of new land • Immigration – Since 1820, more than 60 million people from all over the world have come to the US – Today, US population is growing at a much slower rate • Smaller families and limited immigration
  14. 14. Where do Americans Live?• Rural areas – Only 59 million out of 281 million live in areas of farms and small towns (2000 census)• Urban areas – By 1830s more Americans began to move to cities – By 1920, more citizens lived in urban areas – This trend continued until the 1950s• Suburbs – Areas surrounding larger cities – Generally larger homes, more space, and quieter communities – Today, people living in suburbs outnumber those in large cities• Metropolitan areas – City + suburbs – More than 4/5 of Americans today live in metropolitan areas
  15. 15. Where do Americans Live?• Migration – Movement of large # of people from region to region – The Northeast and Midwest have been the traditional population and industrial centers in the US – Many Americans today are moving to the Sunbelt • South and West • Warmer climate and better job opportunities • Six of the nation’s top tem cities are in the Sunbelt CHART
  16. 16. American Diversity1. White Americans are still the largest ethnic group (over 60%)2. Hispanics (12.5%) • The fastest growing population in the US • Because of illegal immigration, this number is not completely accurate3. African Americans (12.3%) • Also increasing4. Asian Americans (3.6%) • Increased by more than 48%, or 10 million between 1990 and 2000.
  17. 17. The American Family• Recent statistics show that the size of US households is decreasing while the # of households is increasing – People having less children (1970 – over 4; 1990 – less than 3)• The number of one-parent households is also increasing – Today less than 25% of all households include a mother, father, and children• Now more families have two parents that work outside the home – Over 60% of married women work outside the home
  18. 18. An Older Population• The largest sector of the population is between the ages of 25 and 64• Because of slowed birth rates and decreasing death rates, the US also has a very large population over age 64 – Average life expectancy is 77 years – Offers a challenge to provide income, health, and recreation services to our nation’s older population, which continues to grow