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Chapter 6 power point Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter IntroductionSection 1: How Congress Is OrganizedSection 2: Powers of CongressSection 3: Representing the PeopleSection 4: How a Bill Becomes a LawVisual Summary
  • 2. Our nation’s Constitutiongives the power to make lawsto the legislative branch.Citizens participate in thelawmaking process byexpressing their views toCongress. Find out whatlegislation is pending inCongress and yourrepresentatives’ positions onthe issues.
  • 3. Section 1: How Congress IsOrganizedThe Constitution gives thelegislative branch—Congress—the power tomake laws. In Congress,members of each party selecttheir own leaders and workmainly in committees to carryout their duties.
  • 4. Section 2:Powers of CongressThe Constitution gives thelegislative branch—Congress—the power tomake laws. While theConstitution limits the powersof Congress, it also givesCongress the powers it needsto conduct its business and toaccomplish its goals.
  • 5. Section 3:Representing the PeopleThe Constitution gives thelegislative branch—Congress—the power tomake laws. Congressemploys many staffers whohelp with the workload.
  • 6. Section 4:How a Bill Becomes a LawThe Constitution gives thelegislative branch—Congress—the power tomake laws. Several complexsteps are involved in takingan idea and turning it intoa law.
  • 7. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution gives the legislativebranch—Congress—the power tomake laws.
  • 8. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• bicameral • majority party• census • minority party• constituent • standing committee• gerrymander • seniorityAcademic Vocabulary• occur • adjust
  • 9. A Bicameral Legislature Congress is the legislative, or lawmaking, branch of government.
  • 10. A Bicameral Legislature (cont.)• Congress is a bicameral legislative body.• Two-year terms for each Congress • 2 sessions in each term • January – November or December
  • 11. A Bicameral Legislature (cont.)• The House of Representatives: – Voting members according to population – Representation based on each 10-year census – At least one congressional district per state – 435 members of the House of Reps – Elected every two years
  • 12. A Bicameral Legislature (cont.) – District size based on number of constituents – Gerrymander shapes districts to help a particular group Congressional Apportionment, Selected Years
  • 13. A Bicameral Legislature (cont.)• The Senate: – Six-year terms – No more than one-third up for re-election at one time – 100 Senators (2 for each state) – Elected every 6 years
  • 14. A Bicameral Legislature (cont.)• Both the House and the Senate have majority and minority parties. – Leader of majority party in the House is the Speaker. – Steer legislation – Leads floor debates – Next in line for President – Leader of the Senate is the vice president of the United States.
  • 15. Committee Work Much of the actual work of legislating is performed by committees and subcommittees within Congress.
  • 16. Committee Work (cont.)• Each house of Congress has a system of committees to handle the bills proposed to become laws.• Standing committees for specific areas – Agriculture – Budget – Veterans’ Affairs Standing Committees
  • 17. Committee Work (cont.)• Temporary committees for special issues• Both House and Senate members on joint committees• Committee assignments based on seniority • Senators and Representatives that have been there the longest get preferred committee spots
  • 18. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution gives the legislativebranch—Congress—the power tomake laws.
  • 19. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• expressed • writ of habeas powers corpus• implied • bill of attainder powers • ex post facto• elastic clause law• impeachAcademic Vocabulary• regulate
  • 20. Legislative Powers The Constitution provides that all powers to make laws for the United States government shall be given to Congress.
  • 21. Legislative Powers (cont.)• Most of Congress’s powers are related to making laws. • Expressed and implied powers
  • 22. Legislative Powers (cont.)• Expressed powers in Constitution – Coin money – Support troops – Regulate commerce – Dealing with foreign countries – Collect taxes Powers of Congress
  • 23. Legislative Powers (cont.)• Implied powers not clearly stated in Constitution – Allow “necessary and proper” actions by Congress – Clause 18 is often called the elastic clause. – Ex. – clause 4 implies that congress can pass bankruptcy laws Powers of Congress
  • 24. Nonlegislative Powers The Constitution gives Congress a number of nonlegislative duties.
  • 25. Nonlegislative Powers (cont.)• Most nonlegislative powers of Congress are used to check the other branches of government.• Sole authority to impeach• Only Congress can declare war
  • 26. Nonlegislative Powers (cont.)• Limits to powers: – Cannot suspend the writ of habeas corpus – Banned from passing bills of attainder – Cannot pass ex post facto laws
  • 27. Nonlegislative Powers (cont.)• Checks and balances from other branches of government: – Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional. – President can veto bills.
  • 28. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution gives the legislativebranch—Congress—the power tomake laws.
  • 29. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• franking • casework privilege • pork-barrel• lobbyist projectAcademic Vocabulary• draft • estimate• complex
  • 30. Qualifications and Privileges The Constitution sets forth the qualifications for election to the House and to the Senate.
  • 31. Qualifications and Privileges (cont.)• The work of Congress requires many people in addition to the representatives and senators.
  • 32. Qualifications and Privileges (cont.)• Different qualifications for serving as congressperson or senator – Senator – 30 years old, live in the State you represent, have been a US citizen for at least 9 years – Representative – 25 years old, live in the District you represent, have been a US citizen for 7 years
  • 33. Qualifications and Privileges (cont.)• Privileges and benefits: – $162,500 annual salary – Franking privilege for sending work- related mail free – Legal protection in certain situations – Low-cost life insurance
  • 34. Qualifications and Privileges (cont.)• Staff to help Congress: – Personal staff to handle press and lobbyists – Committee staff to draft bills and gather information – Three major support services – Library of Congress, General Accounting Office, Congressional Budget Office
  • 35. Congress at Work The 535 members of Congress have several different but closely related roles.
  • 36. Congress at Work (cont.)• While in session, Congress performs three important functions: • Lawmaking • Casework • helping the district or state.
  • 37. Congress at Work (cont.)• Making laws: – Write and introduce bills – Listen to input of people for and against a bill – Vote on the floor of the House or Senate
  • 38. Congress at Work (cont.)• Casework to address requests from constituents• Pork-barrel projects to provide federal funding for home districts and states
  • 39. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution gives the legislativebranch—Congress—the power tomake laws.
  • 40. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• joint • voice vote resolution • standing vote• special- interest group • roll-call vote• filibuster • veto• cloture • pocket veto
  • 41. Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• element • category
  • 42. Bills Congress Considers Congress considers several different kinds of legislation each year. Most pieces of legislation are in the form of bills.
  • 43. Bills Congress Considers (cont.)• Only about one percent of all bills proposed during a Congressional session become laws.
  • 44. Bills Congress Considers (cont.)• Private and public bills: – Private concerns of people or places – Public apply to entire nation and are more general
  • 45. Bills Congress Considers (cont.)• Joint resolutions become law if signed by president
  • 46. From Bill to Law To become a law, a bill must be passed in identical form by both chambers of Congress.
  • 47. From Bill to Law (cont.)• A bill must be introduced by a representative or senator before it can be considered by Congress.• The idea for the bill can come from private citizens, the White House, or from special- interest groups.
  • 48. From Bill to Law (cont.)• Bills that are introduced are sent to standing committees: – Can pass the bill – Can mark up the bill with changes – Can replace the original bill – Can ignore the bill – Can kill the bill outright by majority vote
  • 49. From Bill to Law (cont.)• If passed in committee, bill is sent to floor for debate• Senate filibuster• Filibuster can end if three-fifths of the members vote for cloture. Profile of the 109th Congress
  • 50. From Bill to Law (cont.)• Voting on a bill: – Voice vote – Standing vote – Roll-call vote• Presidential veto• Pocket veto How a Bill Becomes Law
  • 51. Comparing the House and the SenateThe Congress of the United States was created byArticle I, Section 1, of the Constitution, providing that“All legislativePowers hereingranted shall bevested in aCongress of theUnited States,which shall consistof a Senate and aHouse ofRepresentatives.”
  • 52. California; it hasmore representativesthan any other statelisted.
  • 53. bicamerala legislature consisting of two parts,or houses
  • 54. censusa population count taken by theCensus Bureau
  • 55. constituenta person from a legislator’s district
  • 56. gerrymanderan oddly shaped district designed toincrease the voting strength of aparticular group
  • 57. majority partyin both the House of Representativesand the Senate, the political party towhich more than half the membersbelong
  • 58. minority partyin both the House of Representativesand the Senate, the political party towhich fewer than half the membersbelong
  • 59. standing committeespermanent committees that continuetheir work from session to session inCongress
  • 60. seniorityyears of service, which is used as aconsideration for assigning committeemembers
  • 61. occurto happen or take place
  • 62. adjustto change or alter in order to fit orconform
  • 63. expressed powerspowers that Congress has that arespecifically listed in the Constitution
  • 64. implied powerspowers that Congress has that arenot stated explicitly in the Constitution
  • 65. elastic clauseclause in Article I, Section 8 of theConstitution that gives Congress theright to make all laws “necessary andproper” to carry out its expressedpowers
  • 66. impeachto accuse government officials ofmisconduct in office
  • 67. writ of habeas corpusa court order that requires police tobring a prisoner to court to explainwhy they are holding the person
  • 68. bill of attaindera law that punishes a person accusedof a crime without a trial or a fairhearing in court
  • 69. ex post facto lawa law that would allow a person to bepunished for an action that was notagainst the law when it wascommitted
  • 70. regulateto control or govern
  • 71. franking privilegethe right of senators andrepresentatives to send job-relatedmail without paying postage
  • 72. lobbyistrepresentative of an interest groupwho contacts lawmakers or othergovernment officials directly toinfluence their policy making
  • 73. caseworkthe work that a lawmaker does to helpconstituents with a problem
  • 74. pork-barrel projectsgovernment projects and grants thatprimarily benefit the home district orstate
  • 75. draftto create an outline
  • 76. complexcomplicated or intricate
  • 77. estimateto judge the approximate nature,value, quality, or amount of a thing
  • 78. joint resolutiona resolution that is passed by bothhouses of Congress
  • 79. special-interest groupan organization of people with somecommon interest who try to influencegovernment decisions
  • 80. filibustera tactic for defeating a bill in theSenate by talking until the bill’ssponsor withdraws it
  • 81. cloturea procedure used in the Senate tolimit debate on a bill
  • 82. voice votea voting method in which those infavor say “Yea” and those against say“No”
  • 83. standing votein Congress, when members stand tobe counted for a vote on a bill
  • 84. roll-call votea voting method in the Senate inwhich members voice their votes inturn
  • 85. vetorefusal to sign a bill or resolution
  • 86. pocket vetopresident’s power to kill a bill, ifCongress is not in session, by notsigning it for 10 days
  • 87. elementa component of a whole
  • 88. categorya division or grouping used to classifysomething
  • 89. To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu or Chapter Introduction slides to access the TIME Transparency that is relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Economics Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens.
  • 90. This slide is intentionally blank.