Chapter IntroductionSection 1: The First AmendmentSection 2: The Bill of RightsSection 3: Extending the Bill of RightsSection 4: The Civil Rights StruggleVisual Summary
Americans have the right tospeak out on issues andmake their feelings known.The Bill of Rights—the first 10amendments to the U.S.Constitution—guaranteescertain basic rights to allAmericans. Among the mostimportant is freedom ofspeech. It guarantees thatpeople will not be punishedfor stating their beliefs even ifmost people disagree withthose beliefs.
Section 1:First AmendmentThe Constitution of theUnited States establishesand protects fundamentalrights and liberties. TheFirst Amendment protectsfive basic freedoms that areessential to the Americanway of life.
Section 2:The Bill of RightsThe Constitution of theUnited States establishesand protects fundamentalrights and liberties. The first10 amendments to theConstitution describe therights of American citizens.
Section 3:Extending the Bill of RightsA constitution reflects thevalues and goals of thesociety that creates it.Some Americans have notalways enjoyed the full rightsof United States citizens.
Section 4:The Civil Rights StrugglePolitical, social, religious,and economic changesinfluence the wayAmericans think and act. Inthe 1950s and 1960s, manyAfrican Americans began anorganized fight for their rightsas citizens.
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution of the United Statesestablishes and protects fundamentalrights and liberties.
First Amendment Freedoms Soon after ratification of the Constitution, the First Amendment was added to guarantee basic freedoms essential to American democracy.
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• The First Amendment guarantees basic freedoms to all United States citizens.• Protection of civil liberties and basic rights: – Freedom of religion – Freedom of speech – Freedom of the press – Freedom of assembly – Freedom to petition
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Freedom of religion: – Prohibits Congress from establishing an official religion – Separates church and state – People free to practice their faith as they wish – No specific religion favored by government
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Freedom of speech: – Free to say what is on our minds – Face-to-face discussion, telephone conversations, radio and TV broadcasts – Internet communication, art, music, clothing also protected
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Freedom of the press: – People free to express themselves in print – Ensures people are exposed to a wide variety of viewpoints – Prevents government censorship
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Zenger Case: – Publisher Peter Zenger arrested for criticizing governor of New York in New-York Weekly Journal. – Zenger was acquitted. – Regarded as a landmark in development of free press in America.
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Freedom of assembly: – Allows people to gather peacefully in groups – Implies freedom of association
First Amendment Freedoms (cont.)• Freedom to petition: – Guarantees people can petition or make a formal request of the government – Allows people to express their ideas to the government The First Amendment
First Amendment Limits All constitutional rights are limited. These limitations are necessary to ensure our other rights are protected.
First Amendment Limits (cont.)• The First Amendment guarantees certain rights, but it also places some limits on those rights. – Civil liberties interfering with the rights of others – Rights of individuals balanced against the rights of the community – Personal opinion as opposed to slander or libel
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaThe Constitution of the United Statesestablishes and protects fundamentalrights and liberties.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• search • due process warrant • eminent domain• indictment • bail• grand jury• double jeopardy
Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• proportion• involve
Protecting the Rights of the Accused In addition to the important civil liberties protected by the First Amendment, the other nine amendments in the Bill of Rights guarantee the right to fair legal treatment, as well as other freedoms.
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.)• Several amendments in the Bill of Rights guarantee fair treatment to people who are suspected or accused of committing a crime. Rights of the Accused
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.)• Fourth Amendment: – No unreasonable searches and seizures – Search warrant required to search a suspect’s property
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.)• Fifth Amendment: – Indictment by a grand jury required to put someone on trial for a serious federal crime – Protects against double jeopardy – People cannot be forced to testify against themselves
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) – Guarantees due process – Limits the government’s power of eminent domain
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.)• Sixth Amendment: – Requires the accused to be told exact nature of charges – Provides right to a trial by jury – Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) – Ensures right to hear and question witnesses – Assures defense by a lawyer
Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.)• Eighth Amendment: – Forbids excessive bail – Forbids excessive fines – Forbids “cruel and unusual punishments” – Punishment in proportion to the crime
Other Protections In addition to the First Amendment freedoms and due process guarantees, the Bill of Rights includes other protections for American citizens.
Other Protections (cont.)• The Bill of Rights assures citizens of other rights.• Second Amendment: – Each state maintain a militia – The right to keep and bear arms – Government control of the possession of weapons
Other Protections (cont.)• Third Amendment prohibits soldiers moving into private homes without consent during peacetime.• Seventh Amendment: – Concerns civil cases – Provides the right to a jury trial in federal courts
Other Protections (cont.)• Ninth Amendment: – All other rights “retained by the people” – Prevents claim that the only rights people have are listed in the Bill of Rights
Other Protections (cont.)• Tenth Amendment: – Powers that the Constitution doesn’t give to the national government belong to the states and the people – Prevents Congress and the president from becoming too strong
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaA constitution reflects the values andgoals of the society that creates it.
Civil War Amendments The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments are called the Civil War amendments because they grew out of that war.
Civil War Amendments (cont.)• After the Civil War, several amendments were ratified that gave rights to formerly enslaved African Americans.• Thirteenth Amendment: – Outlawed slavery in the United States – Outlawed forced labor except as punishment for a crime
Civil War Amendments (cont.)• Fourteenth Amendment: – Defined who was a United States citizen – Required states to grant citizens “equal protection of the laws” – Forbade state governments from interfering with citizen “privileges or immunities” – Nationalization of the Bill of Rights and the Gitlow v. New York ruling
Civil War Amendments (cont.)• Fifteenth Amendment: – Guaranteed suffrage to African Americans – Protected only men Constitutional Amendments
Later Amendments Amendments added to the Constitution in the twentieth century deal with a wide range of topics.
Later Amendments (cont.)• A number of the amendments to the Constitution in the twentieth century addressed inequalities in voting and elections.• Seventeenth Amendment: – Allowed voters to directly elect their senators – Gave Americans a greater voice in government
Later Amendments (cont.)• Nineteenth Amendment: – States previously made laws concerning woman suffrage – Gave women the right to vote in national and state elections• Twenty-third Amendment gave voting rights to people who live in the District of Columbia.
Later Amendments (cont.)• Twenty-fourth Amendment: – Trouble with the Fifteenth Amendment – State poll taxes prevented many African Americans and poor whites from voting – Outlawed poll taxes in federal elections• Twenty-sixth Amendment guaranteed citizens 18 and older the right to vote. • Because of Vietnam
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical, social, religious, andeconomic changes influence the wayAmericans think and act.
Struggle for Rights Although amendments to the Constitution guaranteed rights to Americans, African Americans and other groups still did not enjoy civil rights.
Struggle for Rights (cont.)• African Americans and others had to struggle against discrimination in order to secure their civil rights.• Segregation is the social separation of races.• Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling against segregation• Rosa Parks and boycott of the Montgomery bus system
Struggle for Rights (cont.)• Martin Luther King, Jr., led nonviolent resistance.• Demonstrations and sit-ins• King’s “I Have a Dream” speech is inspirational.
Struggle for Rights (cont.)• Civil Rights Act of 1964: – Prohibited discrimination in public facilities, employment, education, and voter registration – Banned discrimination by race, color, gender, religion, and national origin
The Struggle Continues The struggle for equality in America has persisted and has extended to include many groups.
The Struggle Continues (cont.)• The civil rights struggle began with African Americans but has grown to include many different groups.• Voting Rights Act of 1965: – Ensured that all citizens would have the opportunity to vote, regardless of race – Renewed in 2006
The Struggle Continues (cont.)• Affirmative action: – Designed to make up for past discrimination – Encouraged hiring and promoting minorities and women – Considered by critics to discriminate against men and whites
The Struggle Continues (cont.)• Continuing struggles: – Workplace discrimination – Racial profiling – Hate crimes Landmark Civil Rights Acts
Rights of CitizensThe Bill of Rights—the first 10amendments to the U.S.Constitution—guaranteescertain basic rights to allAmericans. The Bill of Rightsensures constitutionalguarantees of• freedom of expression and belief;• individual security; and• equal and fair treatment before the law.
Limits on Rights• An individual’s rights must be balanced with the rights of others and the community’s health and safety.
Equality Under the Law• Limits on rights must be reasonable and apply equally to all.• This is especially critical in the courtroom, which is where the right to due process comes into play.• Due process means that government may not act unfairly or arbitrarily but must follow a set of reasonable, fair, and standard procedures.
Civil Rights• Civil rights are the protections granted in the Constitution that recognize all citizens must be treated equally under the law.• In the United States at one time, there were widespread segregation laws.• In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court ruled that separate-but-equal facilities were constitutional.
Civil Rights (cont.)• In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Court ruled for complete desegregation.• The civil rights movement made possible the passage of legislation guaranteeing basic civil rights for all Americans.
civil liberties freedoms to think and act withoutgovernment interference or fear ofunfair legal treatment
censorship the banning of printed materials orfilms due to alarming or offensiveideas
petition a formal request for governmentaction; a process by which candidateswho are not affiliated with one of thetwo major parties can get on theballot for the general election in moststates
slander spoken untruths that are harmful tosomeone’s reputation
libel written untruths that are harmful tosomeone’s reputation
media a means of communication with largeinfluence
imply something suggested rather thandirectly stated
search warrant a court order allowing lawenforcement officers to search asuspect’s home or business and takespecific items as evidence
indictment a formal charge by a grand jury
grand jury a group of citizens that decideswhether there is sufficient evidence toaccuse someone of a crime
double jeopardy putting someone on trial for a crime ofwhich he or she was previouslyacquitted
due process following established legalprocedures
eminent domain the right of government to take privateproperty for public use
bail a sum of money used as a securitydeposit to ensure that an accusedperson returns for his or her trial
proportion the size or amount of something inrelation to something else or to awhole
involve to take part in or include as anecessary component
suffrage the right to vote
poll tax a sum of money required of votersbefore they are permitted to cast aballot
violate to fail to keep or to break, as in a law
specify to mention exactly or clearly
discrimination unfair treatment based on prejudiceagainst a certain group
segregation the social separation of the races
civil rights the rights of full citizenship andequality under the law
affirmative action programs intended to make up forpast discrimination by helpingminority groups and women gainaccess to jobs and opportunities
racial profiling singling out an individual as a suspectdue to appearance of ethnicity
section an area or division
gendera notation of the sex of a person
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