Chapter IntroductionSection 1: The Diversity of AmericansSection 2: Who Are America’s Citizens?Section 3: Government and the PeopleVisual Summary
Our Declaration ofIndependence proclaims that“all men are created equal.” Thisdoes not mean that everyone isborn with the same wealth,intelligence, strength, orambition. Each one of us has aunique combination of qualitiesand characteristics. The wordsof the Declaration mean that allpeople should have equal rights,which is the cornerstone of thedemocratic ideal.
Section 1:The Diversity of AmericansAs American citizens, wemake a commitment to thenation and to the valuesand principles that are partof United Statesdemocracy. In addition to thecommon values and civicunity, the United Statesbenefits from its rich diversity.
Section 2: Who AreAmerica’s Citizens?Citizens possess certainrights. With citizenship,there are also certainresponsibilities expected ofall Americans. In the UnitedStates, there are two ways tobecome a citizen: by birthand by a process callednaturalization.
Section 3:Government and thePeoplePeople form governmentsto establish order, providesecurity, and accomplishcommon goals. Democraticgovernments performnecessary functions socitizens can live togetherpeacefully.
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaAs American citizens, we make acommitment to the nation and to thevalues and principles that are part ofUnited States democracy.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• civics • popular sovereignty• citizenship • institution• citizen• service economy• value
Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• diverse• ethnic• principle
What is Civics? Civics is the study of the rights and duties of citizens.
What is Civics? (cont.)• Civics is the study of the rights and duties of citizens.• Changes in citizenship requirements
What is Civics? (cont.)• Rights and duties of citizens: – Owe loyalty to the government – Entitled to protection from the government• Citizens as part of a country
A Changing Society American society has undergone many changes in the past, and these changes continue today.
A Changing Society (cont.)• The United States is a nation of immigrants.• Immigration from Europe: – Early immigration – After American independence – From southern and eastern Europe U.S. Foreign-Born Population, 1850–2005
A Changing Society (cont.)• Changes in immigration patterns: – Latin America – Asia• African immigrants brought by force
A Changing Society (cont.)• Ethnic diversity: – Whites of European descent – African Americans – Asians and Pacific Islanders – Native Americans – Latinos United States Immigration, 2004
A Changing Society (cont.)• Religious diversity: – Christians – Jews – Muslims – Buddhists – Other religious groups
A Changing Society (cont.)• Population growth and change today: – Birthrate – Service Economy – Increasing population in the South and West
A Changing Society (cont.) – Rising age of citizens – Increasing levels of education – Growing Latino population
American Values and Institutions Americans share key values, and these values are reflected in the important institutions of American life.
American Values and Institutions (cont.)• Values are broad ideas about what is good or desirable that are shared by people in a society.
American Values and Institutions (cont.)• Basic American values• Values uniting Americans: – The country’s founding documents – The English language as a source of unity – Belief in popular sovereignty
American Values and Institutions (cont.)• Role of major American institutions: – The family – Religious institutions – Educational institutions – Social institutions – Governmental institutions
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaCitizens possess certain rights. Withcitizenship, Americans also havecertain responsibilities.
Path to Citizenship In the United States, there are two ways to become a citizen: by birth and by a process called naturalization.
Path to Citizenship (cont.)• There are two ways to become an American citizen: – Birth – Naturalization• D u a l c it i
Path to Citizenship (cont.)• The naturalization process for aliens: – Declaration of Intention – Living in the United States – Interview and citizenship exam – Oath of allegiance• Native Americans as citizens
Path to Citizenship (cont.)• Denying and losing citizenship: – Improperly obtained citizenship – Expatriation – Federal crimes involving extreme disloyalty
Aliens in America Even though the United States controls the admission of aliens to this country, each year millions of people enter America illegally.
Aliens in America (cont.)• There are restrictions on the number of immigrants who can enter the United States.• Immigration Act of 1990
Aliens in America (cont.)• Aliens living in the United States illegally: – Temporary visitors – Crossing borders – Foreigners with expired legal permits – Many fear being deported
Aliens in America (cont.)• The United States Border Patrol:• Different categories of legal aliens: – Resident aliens – Nonresident aliens – Refugees• Rights of aliens
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPeople form governments toestablish order, provide security, andaccomplish common goals.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• government • republic• public policy • monarchy• budget • majority rule• democracy • authoritarian• direct • totalitarian democracy• representative democracy
Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• community• enforce• constrain
The Need for Government The different levels of government provide many different services.
The Need for Government (cont.)• Government is the ruling authority for a community, or society.• Functions of government: – Keep order – Provide security Functions of Government
The Need for Government (cont.) – Provide services – Guide the community • Formulate public policy • Plan and budget Functions of Government
The Need for Government (cont.)• Levels of government: – National – State and local
Types of Government The people are the ultimate rulers of democratic countries, while in totalitarian states, a single person or small group holds all the power.
Types of Government (cont.)• Democratic government• Types of democracy: – Direct democracy – Representative democracy or republic – Constitutional monarchy
Types of Government (cont.)• Principles of democracy: – Rule of law – Limited government – Consent of the governed Principles of American Democracy
Types of Government (cont.) – Individual rights – Representative government – Majority rule Principles of American Democracy
Types of Government (cont.)• Authoritarian government – Absolute monarchy – Dictatorship – TotalitarianismComparing Democratic and Authoritarian Systems
The American People• Because of its heritage, the United States is often called “a nation of immigrants.”• Until the mid-1900s, most immigrants came from Europe.• Latin America now accounts for the largest share of immigrants to the United States.• The United States is a diverse nation, reflecting the values of many groups.
American Values and Institutions• Values are ideas about what is good or desirable that are shared by people in a society.• Our basic values include freedom, equality, opportunity, justice, and tolerance.• Every society has institutions that help it transmit its values.• Important American institutions are the family, religious, educational, social, and governmental institutions.
Citizenship• According to the U.S. Constitution, people can become American citizens by birth and through naturalization.• Millions of illegal aliens live in the United States. Legal aliens have entered the country lawfully.
Government• People need governments to make and enforce laws and to help us meet our needs. The purposes of government include the following:• Providing order and security• Providing public services• Guiding the community
Government• Although all governments carry out the same basic functions, there are differences in the ways governments can be organized.• The main types of government are democratic government and authoritarian government.• In a democracy, the supreme political authority rests with the people.
civicsthe study of the rights and duties ofcitizens
citizenshiprights and duties of members of astate
citizenscommunity members who owe loyaltyto the government and are entitled toprotection from it
service economywhere the majority of people earntheir living by providing a servicerather than manufacturing a product
valuethe general principles of beliefspeople use to make judgments anddecisions
popular sovereigntythe notion that power lies with thepeople
institutionsets of ideas that people have aboutrelationships, obligations, roles andfunctions of society
diversediffering from one another
ethnicrelating to races or groups of peoplewho share common traits andcustoms
principle a rule of conduct or belief
naturalizationa legal process to obtain citizenship
immigranta person who moves permanently toa new country
deportto send an alien or immigrant back tohis or her own country
denyrefusal to grant, agree, or believe
obtainto gain or acquire
prioritysomething that is given moreattention or importance
governmentthe ruling authority for a community
public policythe course of action the governmenttakes in response to an issue orproblem
budgeta plan for making and spendingmoney
democracya government in which citizens holdthe power to rule
direct democracya form of democracy in which thepeople vote firsthand
representative democracya government in which citizenschoose a smaller group to govern ontheir behalf
republica representative democracy wherecitizens choose their lawmakers
monarchya government with a hereditary,single leader
majority rulepolitical principle providing that amajority of the members of acommunity has the power to makelaws binding upon all the people
authoritariana government in which one leader orgroup of people holds absolute power
totalitariana system in which government controlextends to almost all aspects ofpeople’s lives
communitya group of people who share thesame interests and concerns