Culminating presentation

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Culminating presentation

  1. 1. A Michael Middleton PresentationA Michael Middleton Presentation
  2. 2. Environmental Psychology:Environmental Psychology:How Environmental Disasters AffectHow Environmental Disasters Affectthe Psychethe Psyche
  3. 3. Environmental Psychology Defined:Environmental Psychology Defined:●A broad and interdisciplinary field of studyA broad and interdisciplinary field of studyconcentrating on the relationship betweenconcentrating on the relationship betweenhumans and their environment.humans and their environment.●Sustainability issues have pushed theSustainability issues have pushed theboundaries of this field of study. It now moreboundaries of this field of study. It now morefully incorporates the effects of humans onfully incorporates the effects of humans ontheir environment as well as the environmenttheir environment as well as the environmenton them. Technology and societal issueson them. Technology and societal issuesfactor heavily in this field of psychology.factor heavily in this field of psychology.
  4. 4. ““...an encounter between a hazard (forces of...an encounter between a hazard (forces ofharm) and a human population in harms way,harm) and a human population in harms way,influenced by the ecological context, creatinginfluenced by the ecological context, creatingdemands that exceed the coping capacity of thedemands that exceed the coping capacity of theaffected community”affected community” (Ursano, 69).(Ursano, 69).A Definition of Disaster.A Definition of Disaster.
  5. 5. Consider the implications of that definition.Consider the implications of that definition.
  6. 6. Two Types of DisastersTwo Types of DisastersNaturalNatural●EarthquakesEarthquakes●TornadoesTornadoes●FloodsFloods●HurricanesHurricanes●FiresFires●TsunamiTsunami●AvalancheAvalancheHuman-MadeHuman-Made●TerrorismTerrorism●Oil SpillsOil Spills●Chemical leaksChemical leaks●NuclearNuclear●MiningMining●WarWar●TechnologicalTechnological
  7. 7. Two Types of DisastersTwo Types of DisastersNaturalNatural●EarthquakesEarthquakes●TornadoesTornadoes●FloodsFloods●HurricanesHurricanes●FiresFires●TsunamiTsunami●AvalancheAvalancheHuman-MadeHuman-Made●TerrorismTerrorism●Oil SpillsOil Spills●Chemical leaksChemical leaks●NuclearNuclear●MiningMining●WarWar●TechnologicalTechnological
  8. 8. Disasters Overlap as TechnologyDisasters Overlap as TechnologyAdvances.Advances.Ask yourself how many of the examples given inAsk yourself how many of the examples given inthe previous slide occurred during thethe previous slide occurred during theFukushima Earthquake in Japan? Are thereFukushima Earthquake in Japan? Are theremore examples that arent listed?more examples that arent listed?
  9. 9. External Events That Can Help induceExternal Events That Can Help induceTrauma in Disaster VictimsTrauma in Disaster Victims““destruction of their dwelling, substantial property loss, loss ofdestruction of their dwelling, substantial property loss, loss ofjob, exposure to traumatic stimuli, familiarity andjob, exposure to traumatic stimuli, familiarity andidentification with victims, worry about safety of significantidentification with victims, worry about safety of significantothers, stress reactions of significant others, preexistingothers, stress reactions of significant others, preexistingstress, major trauma or loss especially within the laststress, major trauma or loss especially within the last year,year,lack of social support, lack of material support, and poorlack of social support, lack of material support, and poorcoping skillscoping skills based on past experiences” (Myers, 42).based on past experiences” (Myers, 42).
  10. 10. External Events That Can Help induceExternal Events That Can Help induceTrauma in Victims dealing with violentTrauma in Victims dealing with violentDisasters.Disasters.““Lack of warning, lack of familiarity, weapons that cant beLack of warning, lack of familiarity, weapons that cant beeasily seen or identified, a wide spread perception thateasily seen or identified, a wide spread perception thatgovernment response systems aregovernment response systems are not prepared, seriousnot prepared, seriousthreat to personal safety, a sudden change in scene andthreat to personal safety, a sudden change in scene andrealityreality (such as a building being there one moment and(such as a building being there one moment anddestroyed the next), the scope of destruction, the amount ofdestroyed the next), the scope of destruction, the amount offatalities, exposure tofatalities, exposure to gruesome or grotesque situations,gruesome or grotesque situations,intentional human causality, intensity of emotions andintentional human causality, intensity of emotions andpsychological reactions, high degree of uncertainty, lack ofpsychological reactions, high degree of uncertainty, lack ofpersonal control or accurate information, immediate or longpersonal control or accurate information, immediate or longterm healthterm health problems”problems” (Myers, 239-246).(Myers, 239-246).
  11. 11. Post Traumatic Stress DisorderPost Traumatic Stress DisorderCriterion according to the DSMCriterion according to the DSM
  12. 12. Criterion A: StressorCriterion A: StressorThe person has been exposed to a traumatic event in whichThe person has been exposed to a traumatic event in whichboth of the following have been present:both of the following have been present:●The person has experienced, witnessed, or been confrontedThe person has experienced, witnessed, or been confrontedwith an event or events that involve actual or threatened deathwith an event or events that involve actual or threatened deathor serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneselfor serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneselfor others.or others.●The persons response involved intense fear,helplessness, orThe persons response involved intense fear,helplessness, orhorror. Note: in children, it may be expressed instead byhorror. Note: in children, it may be expressed instead bydisorganized or agitated behavior.disorganized or agitated behavior.
  13. 13. What disaster events might cause someone toWhat disaster events might cause someone toexperience symptoms of Criterion (A) ?experience symptoms of Criterion (A) ?
  14. 14. Criterion B: Intrusive RecollectionCriterion B: Intrusive RecollectionThe traumatic event is persistently re-experienced in at least one of theThe traumatic event is persistently re-experienced in at least one of thefollowing ways:following ways:●Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, includingRecurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, includingimages, thoughts, or perceptions. Note: in young children, repetitive playimages, thoughts, or perceptions. Note: in young children, repetitive playmay occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed.may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed.●Recurrent distressing dreams of the event. Note: in children, there may beRecurrent distressing dreams of the event. Note: in children, there may befrightening dreams without recognizable contentfrightening dreams without recognizable content●Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a senseActing or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a senseof reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociativeof reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociativeflashback episodes,including those that occur upon awakening or whenflashback episodes,including those that occur upon awakening or whenintoxicated). Note: in children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur.intoxicated). Note: in children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur.●Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues thatIntense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues thatsymbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.●Physiologic reactivity upon exposure to internal or external cues thatPhysiologic reactivity upon exposure to internal or external cues thatsymbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic eventsymbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event
  15. 15. What events might cause these symptoms outside of a warWhat events might cause these symptoms outside of a warenvironment?environment?
  16. 16. Criterion C: avoidant/numbingCriterion C: avoidant/numbingPersistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing ofPersistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing ofgeneral responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by atgeneral responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by atleast three of the following:least three of the following:●Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with theEfforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with thetraumatrauma●Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of theEfforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of thetraumatrauma●Inability to recall an important aspect of the traumaInability to recall an important aspect of the trauma●Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activitiesMarkedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities●Feeling of detachment or estrangement from othersFeeling of detachment or estrangement from others●Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)●Sense of foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career,Sense of foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career,marriage, children, or a normal life span)marriage, children, or a normal life span)
  17. 17. Have you experienced one of these symptoms?Have you experienced one of these symptoms?How might it feel to experience three of themHow might it feel to experience three of themsimultaneously?simultaneously?
  18. 18. Criterion D: hyper-arousalCriterion D: hyper-arousalPersistent symptoms of increasing arousal (not present before thePersistent symptoms of increasing arousal (not present before thetrauma), indicated by at least two of the following:trauma), indicated by at least two of the following:●Difficulty falling or staying asleepDifficulty falling or staying asleep●Irritability or outbursts of angerIrritability or outbursts of anger●Difficulty concentratingDifficulty concentrating●Hyper-vigilanceHyper-vigilance●Exaggerated startle responseExaggerated startle response
  19. 19. Though rape may not be immediately thought ofThough rape may not be immediately thought ofas part of enviromental psychology,theseas part of enviromental psychology,thesesymptoms are especially prevalent in rapesymptoms are especially prevalent in rapevictims.victims.In a meta-analysis of 160 samples of disaster victims over 20In a meta-analysis of 160 samples of disaster victims over 20years, it was found that in 94% of the samples, females wereyears, it was found that in 94% of the samples, females were“more adversely impacted irrespective of if they were children,“more adversely impacted irrespective of if they were children,adolescents, or adults...”adolescents, or adults...” (Myers, 58).(Myers, 58).
  20. 20. Criterion E: durationCriterion E: durationDuration of the disturbance (symptoms in B, C, and D) is more thanDuration of the disturbance (symptoms in B, C, and D) is more thanone monthone month.
  21. 21. Often soldiers will fake normalcy in order toOften soldiers will fake normalcy in order tocontinue with their duties making this criteriacontinue with their duties making this criteriadifficult to ascertain in their situationdifficult to ascertain in their situation.
  22. 22. Criterion F: functional significanceCriterion F: functional significanceThe disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairmentThe disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairmentin social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.●Specify if:Specify if:Acute: if duration of symptoms is less than three monthsAcute: if duration of symptoms is less than three monthsChronic: if duration of symptoms is three months or moreChronic: if duration of symptoms is three months or more●Specify if:Specify if:With or Without delay onset: Onset of symptoms at least six monthsWith or Without delay onset: Onset of symptoms at least six monthsafter the stressorafter the stressor
  23. 23. Keep in mind that trauma can have varying effectKeep in mind that trauma can have varying effecton different socioeconomic groups as well as ageon different socioeconomic groups as well as agegroups. Traumatic experiences do not necessarilygroups. Traumatic experiences do not necessarilyindicate a person will suffer from PTSD, but thereindicate a person will suffer from PTSD, but thereis a strong correlation between disaster eventsis a strong correlation between disaster eventsand this particular disorder.and this particular disorder.
  24. 24. Questions to consider.Questions to consider.●How might you react to an environmentalHow might you react to an environmentaldisaster and how might that differ from otherdisaster and how might that differ from othertraumatic events?traumatic events?●How are natural environmental disastersHow are natural environmental disastersdifferent from other disaster events such asdifferent from other disaster events such asterrorism?terrorism?
  25. 25. Works CitedWorks CitedFullerton, Carol, and Robert Ursano.Fullerton, Carol, and Robert Ursano. Textbook of Disaster PsychiatryTextbook of Disaster Psychiatry. New York: Cambridge. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2007. Print.University Press, 2007. Print.Myers, Diane.Myers, Diane. Disaster Mental Health ServicesDisaster Mental Health Services. New York: Routledge Taylor& Francis Group,. New York: Routledge Taylor& Francis Group,2005. Print.2005. Print."PTSD Screening Instruments.""PTSD Screening Instruments."United States Department of Veterans AffairsUnited States Department of Veterans Affairs. US Department of. US Department ofVeterans Affairs, 02 Nov 2012. Web. 4 Apr 2013.Veterans Affairs, 02 Nov 2012. Web. 4 Apr 2013.
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