Cultural anthropology ch10 to ch14


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Cultural anthropology ch10 to ch14

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Gender Chapter Outline ! Sex and Gender ! Cultural Variation in Sexual Behavior ! Coming of Age in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Male and Female Rites of Passage ! Gender Roles, Power, and Prestige: The Status of Women ! Gender Relations: Complex and Variable SEX AND GENDER Are men and women born, made, or both? Do our genetics dictate who we become as males and females? ! ! Do we learn what is appropriate behavior for a male and female in our society?
  2. 2. The answer is both, 
 but heavy on learning. SEX • The biological qualities inherited by a male or female because of either the XX or XY chromosomes that help produce testosterone and estrogen in appropriate proportions. GENDER • The learned appropriate behaviors associated with males or females. Gender is best described with the terms MASCULINE and FEMININE. THE RANGE OF MASCULINITY
  3. 3. THE RANGE OF FEMININITY Most people don’t measure up to either extreme. 
 We fall in between. ! Your sex would be male or female. (INHERITED) ! Your gender would be masculine or feminine. (LEARNED) Sexual Division of Labor Makes most sense with H/G. (men hunt, while women, tied to nursing, gather) ! The problem with the current “women’s work” in most places is …….? (women’s domestic contributions are devalued)
  4. 4. Where is the most value? Theories about the sexual D.O.L. • Strength • Compatibility with child care • Economy of effort • Expendability theory Alternative Genders • Typically genders are thought of as one of two types. • However, the world isn’t quite that simple. ! • Transsexuals, hijra, berdache, gays, and lesbians are a few alternatives to heterosexuality. Transsexual/Transgender • It is when an individual identifies with the opposite gender, and expresses a desire to be the opposite sex. • It could lead to a sex change operation, most likely in Trinidad, CO.
  5. 5. The berdache (or Two-Spirit) • First identified by French fur traders and trappers. • Part of a number of American Indian societies. • They dress in the clothes of the opposite gender, and do the tasks appropriate for that gender. • Typically they are thought of as “holy people” with special powers, and not shunned or criticized. Berdache examples Modern Transvestities The Hijra of India • These are men who usually have undergone a sex change operation and often make a living as prostitutes for men.
  6. 6. Margaret Mead and Gender • She studied a number of tribes in New Guinea. Arapesh – both genders gentle. Mead’s study centered on how gender was expressed in a number of isolated groups. Mundugumon –
 Both genders aggressive and violent Tchambuli – males gentle, females aggressive
  7. 7. The conclusions of Mead’s research? • The extreme variation among people who share an original gene pool in the same environment has to be due to learning, not genetics (nurture, NOT nature). Cultural Construction of Gender ! The idea that gender characteristics are not inborn but rather constructed within each culture. ! All cultures recognize: – Two sexes: male and female. – Two genders: masculine and feminine. Homosexuality • Commonly going by the names of gays or lesbians, homosexuals remain anatomically as they are born, but find close identity with members of the same sex. A Nearly Universal Gender Quality Patriarchy – MEN RULE!
  8. 8. Expressions of Sexuality in Culture ! • In most cultures, sexuality exceeds the simple act of procreation. ! • It includes learned standards of appearance and actions. Modern concerns about sexual mutilation Location of FGM and Statistics FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION TYPES
 (in increasing order of severity)
 1- Circumcision (sunna)
 • mildest form for mutilation
 • includes the removal of the sheath of clitoris and tip of clitoris
 2- Excision (clitoridectomy)
 • entire clitoris is removed
 • often parts of labia minora also removed
 • sometimes cuts made around vagina (to facilitate future childbirth)
 3- Infibulation (Pharonic circumcision)
 • a surgical version of a chastity belt.
 • term FIBULA originates with Romans, who fastened rings through the genital lips of
 slave women to prevent unauthorized intercourse and pregnancy.
 • involves removal of sheath, clitoris, labia minora, and scraping flesh from labia
 • sometimes also involves scraping of flesh from inside of vagina.
 • genitals are then sewed together, with a tiny opening allowed.
 • upon marriage, surgery performed to open it.
 • additional surgery often needed to accommodate childbirth.

  9. 9. Why do FGM? • Many mothers or grandmothers actually conduct the surgery themselves. • Reason – to make daughters “marriageable” by conforming to the standards of future husbands. Is it ethnocentric to condemn FGM? ! • Judging the impact of FGM on the population is allowable (not comparing it to our system). ! • Birth rates, mortality rates, and health conditions all are legitimate concerns for an anthropologist. Exaggerations of females’ bodies • Footbinding in China ! • Corsetting in Victorian America ! • Modern breast alterations.
  10. 10. Chinese Footbinding: Why do it? Corsetting: 
 Striving to achieve the “hourglass” Impacts of Corsetting
  11. 11. Plastic Surgery: Striving for Perfection What plastic surgeons 
 would do to Audrey Hepburn The Goddess of the 50’s What plastic surgeons would do to Marilyn.
  12. 12. Breast Alterations Guess what is the most popular plastic surgery procedure in Brazil? How about lips? Who decides the idealized shapes for women? ! • Men (who are given their marching orders from the mass media). Would you buy a used car from this man?
  13. 13. What About Men? • Most Cultures = right of passage to Manhood ! • In the last decade or so, body image has become an issue for men as well. ! • Modern plastic surgery for men
  14. 14. The global range of sexual behavior ! • Polynesia (sensuous, promiscuous) ! • Dani of New Guinea (ambivalent) ! • Inis Beag of Ireland (ultra-Puritanical) Polynesia: sensuous, promiscuous Dani of New Guinea: ambivalent Inis Beag of Ireland: repressed
  15. 15. SUMMARY ! • Sexual identities and behaviors are as varied as any other cultural practices around the world. ! • The impact of male influences on sexual behavior indicates where power is centered in most cultures. Chapter 11 Political Organization Chapter Outline ▪ Social Differentiation ▪ Power and Social Control ▪ Types of Political Organization Social Differentiation ▪ The relative access individuals and groups have to basic material resources, wealth, power, and prestige.
  16. 16. Egalitarian Societies ▪ No individual or group has more access to resources, power, or prestige than any other. ▪ No fixed number of social positions for which individuals must compete. ▪ Associated with bands and tribes. Rank Society ▪ Institutionalized differences in prestige but no restrictions on access to basic resources. ▪ Individuals obtain what they need to survive through their kinship group. ▪ Associated with horticulture or pastoral societies with a surplus of food. ▪ Associated with chiefdoms. Stratified Society ▪ Formal, permanent, social and economic inequality. ▪ Some people are denied access to basic resources. ▪ Characterized by differences in standard of living, security, prestige and political power. Stratified Society ▪ Economically organized by market systems. ▪ Based on intensive cultivation (agriculture) and industrialism. ▪ Associated with form of political organization called the state.
  17. 17. Social Control of Behavior Ways societies deal with abnormal behavior and conflict: ▪ Gossip and ridicule ▪ Fear of witchcraft accusations ▪ Avoidance ▪ Supernatural sanctions Law ▪ Law is found in every society. ▪ In complex societies, functions of law belong to legal institutions, such as courts. ▪ Law addresses conflicts that would otherwise disrupt community life. Band Societies ▪ Small group of people (20 to 50) ▪ Related by blood or marriage ▪ Live together and are loosely associated with a territory in which they forage ▪ Egalitarian Band Societies: Leadership ▪ Decision-making is by consensus. ▪ Leaders are older men and women. ▪ Leaders cannot enforce their decisions; They can only persuade. ▪ Sharing and generosity are important sources of respect.
  18. 18. Band Societies: Social Order ▪ Maintained by gossip, ridicule, and avoidance. ▪ Violations of norms are sins. ▪ Offenders may be controlled through ritual means such as public confessions. ▪ Offender is defined as a patient rather than a criminal. Tribal Societies ▪ Members consider themselves descended from the same ancestor. ▪ Found primarily among pastoralists and horticulturalists. ▪ Egalitarian ▪ Leadership: Bigman Chiefdom Societies Characteristics: ▪ Monumental architecture ▪ Distinct ceremonial centers ▪ Elaborate grave goods reflect high social status ▪ Larger settlements by smaller villages ▪ Cultivators and pastoralists State Societies ▪ Central government with monopoly over the use of force. ▪ More populous, heterogeneous, and powerful than other political organizations. ▪ Able to organize large populations for coordinated action. ▪ Defend against external threats.

  19. 19. Politics and Social Control Politics – A Cultural Universal Societies only survive if there is leadership to make decisions and keep the peace. The political institution is: . . .concerned with how members of a society make decisions for the group and keep the peace. ! ! Making decisions for the group includes writing laws. Keeping the peace includes: 1) maintaining order within the society (law enforcement), as well as 2) defending the nation from outside threats (military defense). Politics “Who gets, what, when, and How” ! Government – System or organization for exercising power over citizen
  20. 20. Machiavelli ! • At early age sought the political life • Politics was a passion to Machiavelli, not just a job or position but a driving force within him • Vowed to be involved at all costs The Prince • Power is key to all politics & rivals need to get along for trade = commerce over beliefs • Aristotle and old view = politics is source of friendships and moral excellence • Machiavelli = politics as means to control the people, • Compel people to obey whether they want to or not • Human beings are essentially self- interested and self-regarding • This is to be used to the leaders advantage ! • Observation of how people actually behave, as opposed to how they ought to behave. Political Systems • Monarchy – Power in one person – Based on birth & wealth ! • Theocracy – God is in charge, speaking through an earthly appointee
  21. 21. Fascism – State is all powerful and citizens submit ! Oligarchy – Power in a group within the state ! Democracy – Popular sovereignty – Will of the majority over minority • Elite • Pluralist • Participatory Dangers of Democracy Social Contract ! America as a Republic ! American Political Culture Aging of America
  22. 22. Levels of Political Organization ! • STATE (most complex) • CHIEFDOM • TRIBE • BAND (simplest) • Headman is “leader” • Egalitarian • No power, only some influence • Headman is “leader” of only a small village of related people, primarily nomadic. • Example: San hunters The Band
  23. 23. The Tribe • Leader can be a Big Man, a Warlord, etc. • Egalitarian • Leadership achieved by actions • Still lacks dictatorial power, but has more influence • Leads multi-community alliance • Examples: Trobriand 
 “Big Man”, Afghani tribal warlord, or Iraqi cleric The Chiefdom • Queen, King, or Chief is leader. • Stratified system (structured inequality) • Leader has power over citizens • Leadership often inherited (unearned) • Leads entire societies • Example: Zulu Queen of Swaziland The State • King, Queen, President is leader • Stratified system (structured inequality) • Leader has power over citizens • Leads large societies (larger than Chiefdoms) • Leadership can be inherited (Jordan’s King Abdullah from dad, King Hussein) or selected by vote (JFK) Comparative Political Systems
  24. 24. Great Britain Unwritten Constitution The Law of the Constitution • Many historic documents figure in the written parts of Britain’s constitution, such as the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights. A body of legal rules has also been recorded in centuries of court decisions. The Conventions of the Constitution • The customs and practices of British politics make up the bulk of the unwritten constitution. The system is flexible, but provides no absolute safeguards for people’s rights. The Monarchy One of the queen’s responsibilities is to appoint the prime minister, but the appointment is still subject to approval of the House of Commons. It can be said that the British monarch reigns but does not rule. In formal terms, all acts of the British government are performed in the name of the queen. The queen, however, has very little influence on the daily running of the British government. Parliament The House of Lords The upper house, the House of Lords, consists of members appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister. The House of Lords has limited power. Lords can delay, but not block, passage of bills passed in the House of Commons, and they serve as the final court of appeals in the British court system. The House of Commons The lower house, the House of Commons, consists of 659 elected officials. The Commons is responsible for initial passage of British legislation. The majority party in the Commons largely controls the work that body undertakes.
  25. 25. Ministers, Elections, and Parties The Prime Minister The prime minister is chosen by the queen and subject to the approval of the Commons. The Cabinet Ministers, or cabinet members, are chosen by the prime minister. The cabinet, along with the prime minister, provides political leadership. Cabinet members also head the various executive departments. Calling Elections There is no fixed date for parliamentary elections. Instead, under normal conditions, a prime minister announces the date of the next election (at least once every five years). Elections can also be called if the government loses a vote of confidence. Political Parties High levels of party loyalty and party discipline characterize the British party system. Japan The Constitution Japan’s current constitution, adopted in 1947, was written under the watchful eye of American authorities. The current Japanese constitution places the right to govern in the hands of the people, instead of in the hands of the emperor. Basic freedoms, paralleling many of the freedoms guaranteed in the U.S. Bill of Rights, are granted in the Japanese constitution. A unique anti-military clause is also part of the Japanese constitution, stating that the Japanese people “forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation.” The National Diet House of Councillors Consisting of 252 members who are elected every six years, the House of Councillors holds much prestige, but has little real governing power. The House of Councillors votes on all bills, although it can be overridden by a two-thirds vote by the House of Representatives. House of Representatives The House of Representatives consists of 500 members, 300 of which are elected from single- member districts, and 200 from 11 larger multi-seat districts. The powers of the House of Representatives include the right to call for a vote of no confidence, to make treaties, to raise funds, and to make appropriations.
  26. 26. Executive Functions and the Bureaucracy Executive Functions The prime minister and the cabinet perform the executive functions of government in Japan. The prime minister is elected by the House of Representatives. The prime minister picks the cabinet members. The prime minister has the power to dissolve the House of Representatives. If she/he calls for a dissolution, a general election takes place to elect and fill all 500 seats in the lower house Bureaucracy The Japanese bureaucracy, or civil service, is unusually well- respected and powerful in Japanese society. Even though civil service jobs don’t pay well, positions are still sought after and can lead to cabinet appointments. China Political Background The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 when Mao Zedong’s Red Army finally vanquished Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists after decades of civil war. Nationalists fled to Taiwan. To increase agricultural and industrial production in China, Mao instituted a series of drastic Five-Year Plans. Frequent and extreme changes in policy had the opposite of their intended effect. In the mid-1960s, Mao tried to purge China of old thoughts, His plan was called the Cultural Revolution, and led to much violence and many atrocities committed by Mao’s overzealous Red Guard. Mao abandoned the Cultural Revolution in 1968. In 1976, Deng Xiaoping came to power after Mao’s death. Deng’s reforms loosened government control of the economy, but did not grant the people more human rights. A dramatic example of this was the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989. China Today China’s Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party has 58 million members in China. It is organized in a similar way to the government of the former Soviet Union. A 1,900 member National Party Congress elects a smaller Central Committee, which in turn elects the 20-member Politburo. The Politburo makes party policy and organizes the Secretariat. China’s Government The government of China is composed of two main bodies, the National People’s Congress and the State Council. Nominally, the National People’s Council is the highest authority in the land. In reality, it passes policy decisions made by the State Council and the Party onto lower levels of government. The State Council is headed by the premier, who is chosen by the Party.
  27. 27. Political Parties Voting choices Party identification – Partisanship – single most important factor • when voters have little information about candidates – Candidate appeal, with the importance of name identification and the advantages of incumbency – Issue voting • economic conditions, education, jobs, and the environment Party balance and imbalance – Classified according to how the parties share public offices • Two-party state • Modified one-party state • One-party state – Since the end of World War II, there has been a trend toward two-party competition
  28. 28. Interest Groups -Collection of persons who share common interest or attitude Interact with one another, directly or indirectly ! -Try to affect policy process to achieve goals Constitutional Assumptions: Federalist 10 (James Madison) • Factions -- citizens united and activated 
 by common impulses or passions adverse 
 to the rights of other citizens and the aggregate interests of the community! • Popular government would be destroyed 
 by excessive democracy De Tocqueville ! • Americans are a nation of joiners The Roots and Development of American Interest Groups • National Groups Emerge (1830-80)! • Progressive Era (1890-1920)! • Organized Labor – the American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1886)! • Business and Trade Associations – The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) (1895)! • The Rise of the Interest Group State (1960s and 1970s)! • Religious and Ideological Groups! • Business Groups, Trade and Professional Associations! • Organized Labor
  29. 29. Special Interest Groups • Business related! • Corporations! • Trade Associations! • Labor! • Professional! • Non-economic groups! • Demographic ! • Education Single Interest Groups • Narrow range of concerns! • Intense interests! • Dislike “bargaining, negotiation and compromise”! • Examples! • NRA! • NARAL Strategies and Tactics • Lobbying! • Grass roots mobilization! • Measure public opinion! • Build coalitions! • Litigation! • Influence elections – endorsements, PACs! • Rate voting records of legislators Criticism Interest Groups have been criticized for! • Ignoring the wider interest of society! • Producing confusion and deadlock in Congress! • Generating so much emotion that they make reasoned discussion difficult! • Having too much influence
  30. 30. Lobbyists • A lobbyist must be honest and truthful if he or she wants to remain effective.! • Access to lawmakers is critical ! • Lobbyists put their group's position in a favorable light How Does A Society Maintain Control? ! • Internal social control ! • External social control Internal Social Control Conscience (the young are taught the cultural norms) ! This is a society’s first line of defense against rule breaking. EXternal Social Control 1 – Informal External Social Control scolding (most effective if the rule breaker respects the opinions of the authority figure)
  31. 31. EXternal Social Control 1 – Informal External Social Control ( cont.) gossip i- fear of being gossiped about may deter. ii- hearing gossip is a cautionary tale. EXternal Social Control 2- Formal External Social Control a- Laws b- Criminal Justice System (cops, court, jail) Mediation:
 Another way to gain conformity • The process requires a third party working with the two adversaries. This third party has NO power to force an outcome, but uses skills of persuasion to try and resolve the problem. Mediation 
 • Family intervention (tough love)
  32. 32. Mediation • Ho’o pono pono - the Hawaiian version of restoring a family member back into the group (prayer, confession, repentance). Mediation • Marriage counseling ADJUDICATION • Like mediation, adjudication involves a third party working with adversaries, but in this case the third party HAS POWER. Normally the adjudicator is called a JUDGE. The American Form of Adjudication:
 The Adversarial System • Adversaries work against each other. • In the U.S. court system, the adversaries are whom? Prosecution and Defense The goal of both prosecution and defense is what? Justice? Truth? NO – to win!
  33. 33. The Inquisitional System:
 Another Form of Adjudication • An inquisitional system does not assume innocence of the accused. • The accused is not represented by a defense attorney. • Often an inquisitional trial involves the accused having to withstand some sort of ordeal to prove innocence. SUMMARY:
 Politics and Social Control • All societies function best when there is harmony. • All societies need decisions made in order to remain productive and progress. • Making decisions for the group, and encouraging its members to conform to cultural norms are primary tasks of the political institution. • In addition, if a society is to survive, it must be able to defend itself from outside threats. Like it or not, we are ALL prisoners of our culture, and must conform to some degree. Chapter 12 Stratification: Class and Caste
  34. 34. Theories of Stratification ▪ Functionalism specifies that specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or serve the needs of individuals in society. ▪ Conflict theory focuses on inequality as a source of conflict and change. Dimensions of Stratification ▪ Power is the ability to control resources in one’s own interest. ▪ Wealth is the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources. ▪ Prestige is social honor or respect. Ascribed Vs. Achieved Status ▪ Ascribed Status
 Social position into which a person is 
 born. (sex, race, kinship group) ▪ Achieved Status
 Social position that a person chooses or achieves. (professor, criminal, artist) Social Class in the United States ▪ Status depends on occupation, education, and lifestyle. ▪ “The American Dream,” is based on the democratic principle of equality and opportunity for all.
  35. 35. 17 ❑ Class largely viewed as a statistical category based on ■ Education ■ Occupation ■ Income ■ Place of residence Prestige: respect and admiration an occupation holds in society Measuring Social Class ■ Objective Method Esteem: reputation specific person has earned within an occupation Prestige Rankings of Occupations What is America? • Land of Opportunity – Anyone in America can become president, rich, famous – Jobs and education are open to everyone equally • Social Class is achieved – Individuals decide what class to belong to. • Horatio Alger: rags to riches – People of low class worked hard and rose to positions of wealth and power 5 American Social Class • Upper Class – Percentage of Americans .5% – Wealth: • A lot • Ownership: They owns 50% stocks, 60% bonds; corporations, property, inheritances • Income: High income—mostly from investments – Top 1% has 22 times the average wealth of the other 99% – Power: From Ownership, lots of power – Prestige: May not have jobs; prestige from family name, resources
  36. 36. • Corporate Class – Percentage of Americans .5% – Wealth: • A lot, but not as much as upper class • Ownership—no major ownership of companies • Income—median CEO salary $10.83 million – President of the U.S., $400,000 – Power: Heads of companies, government – Prestige: high • Middle Class – Percentage of Americans 43% – Wealth: • Some • Ownership—little property • Income—mid to high income – Engineer, $58,000 – Teacher, $34,000 – Professor, ?? – Power: Some – Prestige: White collar jobs • Working Class – Percentage of Americans 43% – Wealth: • Little • Ownership—little or no property • Income—mid to low – Factory worker, $24,000 – Machine operator, $23,000 – Power: Little – Prestige: Blue collar jobs • Lower Class – Percentage of Americans 13% – Wealth: • Very little or none • Ownership: none • Income: low – Poverty rate in 2001: 9.9% – Only about 1/3 of poor get welfare – Power: Low – Prestige: Low
  37. 37. 22 Comparison of Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United States Household Income 
 in the United States, 2006 24 The U.S. Social Class Ladder. Source: Henslin 2004
  38. 38. 25 U.S. Minimum Wage Adjusted for Inflation, 1950-2005 Source: Author’s estimate and Bureau of the Census 2005a:413. Stratification Systems ▪ Closed system 
 A system of stratification based primarily on ascription. ▪ Open system 
 A system of stratification based primarily on achievement. ▪ Class system
 A form of social stratification in which the different strata form a continuum and social mobility is possible. Social mobility ▪ Movement from one social class to another. Life Chances ▪ Opportunities people have to fulfill their potential in society. ▪ Include: – chance of survival and longevity – opportunities to obtain an education – opportunities to participate in cultural life – opportunities to live in comfort and security
  39. 39. Social Classes as Subcultures ▪ Many studies demonstrate that social class correlates with differences in attitudes, behavior, lifestyle, and values. ▪ A social class has aspects of a subculture: – its members tend to share similar life experiences, occupational roles, values, educational backgrounds, affiliations, leisure activities, buying habits, religious affiliation, and political views. Caste System ▪ System of stratification based on birth. ▪ Movement from one caste to another is not possible. ▪ Castes are hereditary, endogamous, ranked in relation to one another and usually associated with a traditional occupation. The Four Varna These four castes—brahman, kshatriya, vaishya, and sudra—are the classical four divisions of Hindu society. In practice, however, there have always been many subdivisions (J'atis) of these castes. Where does this system come from? The earliest known mention of caste is found in the Aryan’s Vedic hymns, perhaps dating from about 1000 B.C.E. In a famous passage, the metaphor of the human body was used to describe Indian society. The brahman, or priestly, caste represents society's head; the kshatriya, or warrior, caste are its arms; the vaishya caste— traders and landowners—are the legs; and the sudra caste—the servants of the other three—are the feet. This metaphor stresses the idea of hierarchy as well as that of interdependence.
  40. 40. • Reincarnation 
 A person is born, lives, dies, and is reborn again many times. Souls are reborn many times until they are pure enough to be with the creator, Brahma • Karma A person’s social position in the next life is determined by his conduct in the present life. • Dharma • Code of behavior or set of moral and ethical rules that govern the conduct of each social class. Each group has a different set of rules to live by. Hindu Caste System Four caste categories 1. Brahmins - priests and scholars 2. Kshatriyas - ruling and warrior caste 3. Vaisyas - the merchants 4. Shudras - menial workers and artisans 5. Harijans – “untouchables” Changes in the Caste System ▪ There have been important changes in the caste system in the past 50 years. Chapter 13 Stratification: 
 “Race” and Ethnicity
  41. 41. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race and ethnicity are complicated • Is the child of a biracial couple (black and white) black or white? Mixed? • Is Judaism a religion or an ethnicity? Both? • Race and ethnicity are terms used every day but rarely explored. 3 Introduction to Sociology: Race and Ethnicity 166 □ This woman is not real. □ She was created by a computer from a mix of several races. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Defining race • Race refers to an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification. • No true biological races exist; rather, human groups must be placed on a continuum. • Typically, race refers to some set of physical characteristics granted importance by a society. • Race is socially constructed. 6 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Defining ethnicity • Ethnicity refers to the distinct cultural norms and values of a social group. • Characteristics of ethnic groups include (to varying degrees): – Shared history – Religion and culture – Kin or ancestry – Sense of shared destiny – Language 4
  42. 42. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Racism • Racism is a form of prejudice and/or discrimination based on physical differences. • There are many layers of racism – Individual consciousness and behavior – Ideologies of supremacy – Institutional racism 8 Ethnicity ▪ Perceived differences in culture, national origin, and historical experience by which groups of people are distinguished from others in the same social environment. – Ethnic identity - The sense of self one experiences as a member of an ethnic group. Ethnic Conflict ▪ Extreme ethnic conflict is a product of contemporary economic, political, and social conditions. ▪ Ethnic violence, as described for the former Yugoslavia, suggests that political manipulation of cultural differences, not ethnicity per se, is at the root of interethnic violence. U.S. Cultural Diversity ▪ From the 1880s through the 1920s, restrictive and racist immigration laws gave preference to immigration from European countries. ▪ In 1965, changes in American immigration laws led to increasing immigration from a wide diversity of nations and “races.”
  43. 43. © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 14 65.9% WHITE (NON-HISPANIC) 198,420,355 people 15.1% HISPANIC 
 OR LATINO 45,432,158 people 12.1% AFRICAN AMERICAN 36,397,922 people 4.3% ASIAN 13,000,306 people 1.6% TWO OR 
 MORE RACES 4,794,461 people 0.7% AMERICAN 
 PACIFIC ISLANDER 413,294 people 0.2% SOME OTHER RACE 737,938 people Note: This map is not geographically representative of population distribution. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census 2008b. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Racial and Ethnic Populations Models of Adaptation ▪ Assimilation model ▪ Melting pot model ▪ Mosaic Model Assimilation Model ▪ Immigrants should abandon traditions and become absorbed in American culture. ▪ Resulted in the building of urban Settlement Houses, designed to teach immigrants “American” ways. Melting Pot Model ▪ Immigrants will melt together into a new American culture. ▪ By the late 1950s, it was clear that the melting pot theory had only limited application.
  44. 44. Mosaic Model ▪ Cultural diversity is a positive aspect of American national identity. ▪ Arose in response to the swell of immigration in the past 25 years. Figure 10.3 Median Household Income by Race, 1980– 2008. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Introduction to Sociology: Race and Ethnicity 179 Number of Executions and Race of Prisoners Executed, 1976–2009 Introduction to Sociology: Race and Ethnicity 180 Americans without Health Insurance by Race, 2007
  45. 45. Introduction to Sociology: Race and Ethnicity 181 U.S. Infant Mortality Rate, 2005 Introduction to Sociology: Race and Ethnicity 182 Educational Attainment Based on Race, 2007 183 GENOCIDE Nazis: (1933-1945) Jews, Gypsies, gays & lesbians, communists, mentally ill KILLED: @11 MILLION Turks: Armenians in WWI (1914-1918) KILLED:@2 MILLION MASS MURDER Slave Trade (U.S. & many W. European countries): @1600-1850 KILLED:@20 MILLION Turks Armenians, 1890s KILLED 300-400,000 ETHNIC CLEANSING U.S. & Native Americans Pop. of NAs reduced from about 2million to 500,000 over 300 years. -- mass murder -- starvation -- war -- forced removals -- disease Yugoslavia Serbs in Bosnia (1980s,1990s) -- terror, expulsion, and thousands found in mass graves DISCRIMINATION ! History of many non- Northern European groups in U.S. -- Irish, Italians, eastern Europeans, Jews, African-Americans, Latinos, Asians, etc. Women around the world Hindu Caste system examples of genocide, mass murder, ethnic cleansing and discrimination 184 Mass Murder and Genocide in the 20th Century
 from R. J. Rummel, TOTALITARIAN REGIMES USSR, 1917-1987 62,000,000 Chinese Communists, 1923-1987 39,000,000 Nazi Germany, 1933-1945 21,000,000 ! AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES Chinese Nationalists, 1928-1949 10,000,000 Japan, 1936-1945 6,000,000 Turkey, 1909-1923 2,600,000 Cambodia, 1975-1980 2,000,000 ! ! Note: These numbers are best guesstimates. In most cases, because of denials, secrecy, and coverups, it is impossible to know the exact number with precision.
  46. 46. 185 Mass Killing is common in Africa Congo 4 million deaths since 1998, prompted by endless fighting between armed gangs/ warlords. ! Sudan (Darfur) 800,000 dead since 2002, in tribal/religious warfare/genocide ! Uganda Idi Amin (dictator) killed 400,000 of his own people in the 1970s and 1980s. (Last King of Scotland) Since 2002, another 100,000 dead from rebellion in North. ! Nigerian Civil War (1970s) 400,000 dead ! Rwanda (1990s) 800,000 dead (about half from gov’t-sponsored genocide) (Hotel Rwanda) Ethnic majority groups in the Balkans • The Balkans was once part of the Roman Empire and many people there are still Christian 
 (Catholic or Orthodox)
 • Because the Balkans sits at a cultural crossroads, there are many ethnic groups in the area. 
 This has caused tension making the region a SHATTERBELT. 
 (Bosnia is about the size of Wyoming)
  48. 48. Chapter 14 Religion Religion . . . . . . is a cultural universal that involves a belief in the supernatural , and typically includes the worship of a force or forces. ! . . . . involves faith, which cannot be empirically demonstrated. A Human Universal ▪ Religion dates back to the beginnings of the human species. ▪ No religion is more evolved than another. ▪ E. B. Tylor,one of the founders of anthropology, saw religion as beginning with animism, animism, the notion that all objects, living and non-living are imbued with spirits. Functions of Religion in Society 1. Explains aspects of the physical and social environment. 2. Helps people understand the world. 3. Preserves the social order. 4. Includes practices aimed at ensuring success.
  49. 49. Religious Symbols ▪ Religious symbols are multivalent, they include many different and sometimes contradictory meanings into a single word, idea, or object. – The Christian cross. • The cross means life, death, love, sacrifice, identity, history, power, weakness, wealth, poverty, and much more besides. • Because it carries so many meanings, it has enormous emotional and intellectual power for Christians. God ▪ A named spirit who is believed to have created or to control some aspect of the world. ▪ Gods understood as the creator of the world and as the ultimate power in it are present in only about half of all societies. ▪ In about 1/3 of these societies, such gods are distant and withdrawn, having little interest in people, and prayer to them is unnecessary. God ▪ Religions may be polytheistic (many gods) or monotheistic (one god). ▪ Polytheistic religions - many gods may be different aspects of one god. – In India, there are millions of gods; yet all Indians understand that in some way they are all aspects of one divine essence. ▪ Monotheistic religions - one god may have several aspects. – In Roman Catholicism: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are all part of a single, unitary god. Theories on Origins 
 and Functions of Religion (cont.) • RELIGION BINDS PEOPLE TOGETHER • Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - French • People who share strong religious beliefs are bound together socially with a sense of belonging. (congregation).
  50. 50. Theories on Origins 
 and Functions of Religion (cont.) • EXPLANATORY FUNCTIONS • Tylor and others • Religion is a source of explanations about the world. • It answers the BIG questions that are beyond the reach of science. Theories on Origins 
 and Functions of Religion (cont.) • RELIGION GIVES COMFORT TO BELIEVERS • Faith that the forces unseen are more important that those seen. • Faith that the will of God is most important, and whatever happens will be “for the best” • Faith that there will be eternal rewards in the next world. Theories on Origins 
 and Functions of Religion (cont.) • RELIGION HELPS WITH SOCIAL CONTROL. • It teaches right from wrong (morality), and the consequences of sinning (breaking the rules). • The term animism (from Latin anima or soul), commonly refers to belief systems that attribute souls to animals, plants, natural phenomena, and geographic features, in addition to humans. Animism – the earliest form of religion?
  51. 51. Other forms of religion • Monotheism -Christianity -Islam -Judiasm ! Major tenet – salvation and heaven Other forms of religion • Polytheism - Hinduism Major tenet - reincarnation Rites of Passage: The Ceremonial Marking 
 Of A Transition To Another Life Stage. • Bar Mitzvah • Bat Mitzvah • Quinceana In U.S., there are secular rites of passage marking the gradual change to adulthood. • They include:
  52. 52. A Religious Pilgrimage: “Pilgrims” Visit Significant Religious Sites to Demonstrate Their Dedication • Mecca for Muslims A Religious Pilgrimage: “Pilgrims” Visit Significant Religious Sites to Demonstrate Their Dedication (cont.) • Jerusalem and the Wailing Wall for Jews A Religious Pilgrimage: “Pilgrims” Visit Significant Religious Sites to Demonstrate Their Dedication (cont.) • Bethlehem and Calvary for Christians Voudou (Voodoo) is a form of magic • It originated in Africa, then spread to Haiti and New Orleans
  53. 53. Navajo Healing: a Quest for Harmony • It is a combination of animism and magic using dry painting (sand) and a complex ritual to heal. Wicca : 
 Modern nature worship and witchcraft • There is a belief in a God or gods (many variations). • Rituals are performs, spells may be cast. Baseball Magic (cont.) • Can’t mention “no hitters” to anyone during the game or pitcher will be jinxed. Baseball Magic: the quirks of Turk Wendell
  54. 54. A 2008 attempt to “hex” the Yankees during construction of the new Yankee Stadium. To tie up the subject of religion 
 into a neat bow, what can we say? • It is a cultural universal. We can assume that means that all societies find a need for it. ! • Religion does perform a number of functions (explanatory, comfort, social). ! • Tylor thought that as science expanded, religion would diminish until it disappeared completely. He was presuming that it ONLY had the explanatory function. Science has grown, but religion remains. Classification of Religions ■Monotheism --- belief in a single deity ■Polytheism ----- belief in many gods ! ■Universalizing Religions -- faiths that claim to apply to all humans and seek to transmit this to all lands Judaism ■Belief in a single god ■Foundation of Christianity and Islam ■Identified with a single ethnic group ■Emerged about 3000 to 3500 years ago ■Dispersed throughout the world by 500 ad. ■1948 creation of the Jewish state, Israel
  55. 55. Christianity ■Origin in the life and teachings of Jesus, ■began as a cult "The Way“ ! ■Promise of salvation to all, not just a chosen people ■Mission: conversion of the world, the hope it provides led to rapid growth Islam ■ Islam = submission ■ Muslim = one who submits ■ Qua’ran unchanged since 650 b.c. ■ Unifying language of Arabic ■ Standard & regulation of faith leaves no room for interpretation Five Pillars of Faith ■ There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet ■ A Muslim must pray five times daily, facing Mecca ■ A Muslim must give alms to the poor. ■ A Muslim must fast during daylight hours in the month of Ramadan ■ A holy visit to Mecca must be undertaken by every Muslim who can afford it during lifetime Dome of the Rock
  56. 56. Mecca — Ka’ ba The “Black Stone” Hinduism ■Forces of nature are personified as gods & goddesses ■150,000 gods ! ■Hindu pantheon ■Brahma --- the Creator ■Vishnu --- the Preserver ■Shiva --- the Destroyer
  57. 57. Key Concepts ■Dharma ■One’s social duty ! ! ■Karma ■Result of acting against one’s dharma Buddhism ■300 million followers ■Siddhartha Guatama --- 563 b.c. ■Buddha = Enlightened One ! ■Four Noble Truths ■All living beings suffer ■Suffering comes from desire to live ■Goal of life is to escape suffering and endless cycle of rebirth --- Nirvana ■Nirvana is attained through Eightfold Path Eight-fold Path Confucius – Kung Fu tzu ■Troubles of society could be fixed, if man would submit to political and social order ! ■Five Types of Human Relationships ■father and son (loving / reverential) ■elder brother and younger brother (gentle / respectful) ■husband and wife (good / listening) ■older friend and younger friend (considerate / deferential) ■ruler and subject (benevolent / loyal)
  58. 58. Taoism – Lao zi ■Opposite of Confucian stress on world of man ■All nature follows the Tao = “the Way” ■Relativity of all things and dependence of one thing on its opposite ■Yin & Yang Baseball Magic • The use of Rally Caps - 
 “bottom of the 9th, one run down, two out” MAGIC • The belief that supernatural forces can be controlled by the human shaman / magician. • It involves using specific incantations or other rituals, that, if followed properly, will guarantee the desired outcome. (In religion, practitioners beseech the supernatural, but accept whatever outcome is desired by the supernatural. God can say “NO”.) • Magic involves arrogance, religion uses reverence. An American Secular Pilgrimage • If one is part of a TRUE American family, where MUST that family make a pilgrimage sometime before the children leave home for good?