MOTIVATING What is Motivation?Factors Contribution to Motivation Maslows’s Needs Hierarchy Theory Herzberg’s Two – Factor Theory Theories of Motivation Expectancy Theory Goal Setting Theory Motivation Through Job Design Techniques Of Motivation Motivating Through Rewards Motivation Through Employee Participation Requisites to Successful Employee Participation Other Motivation Techniques
WHAT IS MOTIVATION? refers to the “process of activating behavior, sustaining it, and directing it toward a particular goal”
Motivatingrefers to the act of “giving employees reason orincentives. . .to work to achieve organizationalobjectives”
Process of Motivation NEEDS PLUS MOTIVATION WHICH LEADS TO REDINESS LEADS TO FOR THE NEXT NEED ACTION OR NEED SATISFACTION WHICH RESULTS TO GOAL – DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO MOTIVATIONWillingness to do a job People who like what they are doing are highly motivated to produce the expected output.Self-confidence in carrying out a task When employees feel that they have the required skill and training to perform a task, the more motivated they become.Needs satisfaction People will do their jobs well if they feel that by doing so, their needs will be satisfied.
MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORYAbraham Maslow, a psychologist,theorized that human beings havefive basic needs which are asfollows: physiology, security,social, esteem, and self-actualization. These needs arehierarchical, which means, oneneed will have to be satisfiedfirst before the other need.
Physiological Needs. Those that are concerned with biological needs likefood, drink, rest, and sex fall under the category of physiological needs. Theseneeds take priority over other needs.Security Needs. After satisfying the physiological needs, people will seek tosatisfy their safety needs. These needs include freedom from harm comingfrom the elements or from other people, financial security which may beaffected by loss of job or the breadwinner in the family, etc.Social Needs. After satisfying his physiological and security needs, theemployee will now strive to secure love, affection, and the need to be acceptedby peers.Esteem Needs. The fourth level of needs is called esteem needs and they referto the need for a positive self-image and self-respect and the need to berespected by others.Self-Actualization Needs. The fifth and the topmost level needs in thehierarchy are called self-actualization needs and involve realizing our fullpotential as human beings and becoming all that we are able to be.
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory self - fulfillment SELF – ACTUALIZATION NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS status, respect, prestige friendship, belonging, love SOCIAL NEEDS SECURITY NEEDS freedom from harm and financial securityfood, drink/water, rest/sleep, sex, body PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDSelimination
THE RELEVANCE OF MASLOW’S THEORY TO ENGINEERING MANAGEMENTEven if Maslow’s theory has beenLargely questioned, one basicpremise cannot be discarded: a fulfilledneed no longer motivates an individual.If thins is the situation thesubordinate is in, the engineeringmanager must identify an unfulfilled needand work out a scheme so that thesubordinate will be motivated to work inorder to satisfy the unfulfilled need.
Herzberg’s Two – Factory Theorydeveloped by Frederick Herzberg indicate that a satisfied employeeis motivated from within to work harder and that a dissatisfiedemployee is not self - motivated pany policy r job diss atisfaction: com Hygiene responsible fo tionship with ation, su pervision, rela and administr ordinates, factors l life, relatio nship with sub peers, persona urity. status, and sec motivation factors
HERBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY 10 9 LEVEL 8 7 OF 6 5 4SATISFACTION 3 2 1 0 level of no satisfaction and no dissatisfaction 1 ( no reason not to work but no motivation to 2 work hard) LEVEL 3 4 OF 5 6DISSATISFACTIO 7 8 9 N 10
Herzberg indentified two classes of factors associated with employee:Satisfiers or Dissatisfiers or hygiene factorsmotivation factors − Company policy and administration − Achievement − Supervision − Recognition − Relationship with supervisor − Work itself − Work condition − Responsibility − Salary − Advancement − Relationship with peers − Growth − Personal life − Relationship with subordinates − Status
Expectancy Theory is a motivation model based on the assumption that an individual will work depending on his perception of the probability of his expectations to happen.Expectancy theory is based on the following assumption: A combination of forces within the individual and in the environment determines behavior. People make decisions about their own behavior and that of organizations. People have different types of needs, goals, and desires. People make choices among alternative behaviors based on he extent to which they think a certain behavior will lead to a desired outcome.
EXPECTANCY MODEL EXPECTANC EXPECTANCY Y perceived perceived probability of probability successful of receiving performance, an outcome given effort given Valence + performance Second – level Outcome Valence + (ability to purchase First - level house and lot) Outcome (compensation) Valence - Second – level OutcomeEFFORT PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES (ability to be with family) Valence + Valence + Second – level Outcome (self - esteem) First - level Outcome (recognition) Valence + Second – level Outcome (esteem of others)
Goal Setting Theory refers to the process of “improving performance with objectives, deadlines or quality standard.”The goal setting model drawn by Edwin A. Locke and his associates consists of thefollowing components: goal content goal commitment work behavior feedback aspects
GOALS MOTIVATE AND FACILITATE PERFORMANCE GOAL CONTENT which is 1. challenging 2. attainable 3. specific and measurable 4. time limited 5. relevantknowledge of results WORK job knowledge and BEHAVIO or feedback R ability with 1. direction 2. effort 3. persistence 4. planning Situational Task Constraints: Complexity 1. tools 2. materials 3. equipment PERFORMANCE
Goal Commitment when individuals or groups are committed to the goals they are supposed to achieve, there is a chance that they will be able to achieve them.Work Behavior Goals influence behavior in terms of direction, effort, persistence, and planning. When an individual individual is provided with direction, performance is facilitated. Feedback Aspects Feedback provide the individuals with a way of knowing how far they have gone in achieving objectives. Feedback also facilitate the introduction of corrective measures whenever they are found to be necessary.
TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION motivation through job design motivation through rewards motivation through employee participation other motivation techniques for the diverse work force
Techniques of Motivation TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATIONMotivation thru Motivation thru Motivation thru Other Motivation Job Design Job Rewards Employee’s Techniques Participation extrinsic quality Fitting people rewards control to jobs circles with self – 1. realistic job previews intrinsic managed 2. job rotation rewards teams 3. limited exposure Fitting jobs to people with Family 1. job enlargement Flexible work support sabbaticals 2. job enrichment schedules services
Motivation Through Job Design specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group Two approaches may be used: fitting people to jobs or fitting jobs to people Fitting People to Jobs. Routine and repetitive tasks make workers suffer from chronic dissatisfaction. To avoid this, the following remedies may be adapted: 1. Realistic job previews – where management provides honest explanations of what a job actually entails. 2. Job rotation – where people are moved periodically from one specialized job to another. 3. Limited exposure – where a worker’s exposure to a highly fragmented and tedious job is limited. Fitting Jobs to People. Instead of changing the person, management may consider changing the job. This may be achieved with the use of the following: 1. Job enlargement – where two or more specialized tasks in a work flow sequence is combined into a single job. 2. Job enrichment – where efforts are made to make jobs more interesting, challenging, and rewarding.
Motivating Through Rewards Rewards consist of material and psychological benefits to employees for performing tasks in the workplace. Properly administered reward system can improve job performance and satisfaction. Rewards may be classified into two categories: 1. Extrinsic – those which refer to payoffs granted to the individual by another party. 2. Intrinsic rewards – those which are internally experienced payoffs which are self – granted. Management of Extrinsic Rewards. To motivate job performance effectively, extrinsic rewards must be properly managed in line with the following: It must satisfy individual needs; the employees must believe effort will lead to reward; rewards must be equitable; rewards must be linked to performance.
An Array of Monetary and Other Incentives for Employees Type of Benefit Feature 1. Monthly Pay depends on qualifications of employee 2. 13th month pay given at mid – year 3. 14th month pay given at yearend 4. Housing allowance given to permanent employees 5. Sick leave benefits 15 days a year with pay 6. Vacation leave benefits 15 days a year with pay 7. Pension plan given to permanent employees 8. Paid vacation trip given to employees with outstanding performance 9. Health insurance given to permanent employees 10. Accident insurance given to permanent employees
Motivation Through Employee Participation when employees participate in deciding various aspects of their jobs, the personal involvement, oftentimes, is carried up to the point where the task is completed. The specific activities identified where employees may participate are as follows: 1. setting goals 2. making decisions 3. solving problems, and 4. designing and implementing organizational changes. The more popular approaches to participation includes the following: 1. quality control circle 2. self – managed teams Quality Control Circles. A method of direct employee participation is the quality control circle (QCC). The objective of the QCC is to increase productivity and quality of output. Self . Managed Teams. When workers have reached a certain degree of discipline, they may be ripe for forming self – managed teams.
THE QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE PROCESSback, recognition and rewards given to quality members brainstorm,makes decisions. establish cause and effect. reco Management considers quality circle recommendations and Quality circle members prepare solutions and Quality circle control circle members. gather data, and Requisites to Successful Employee Participation Program To succeed, an employee participation program will require the following: 1. a profit – sharing or gain sharing plan. 2. a long – term employment relationship with good job security. 3. a concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness. 4. protection of the individual employee’s rights.
Other Motivation TechniquesThe advent of theories on individual differences and the biological clock of human beingsput pressure on the engineer manager to adapt other motivation techniques wheneverapplicable. These refer to the following: flexible work schedules There is an arrangement, called flextime, which allows employees to determine their own arrival and departure times within specified limits. family support services Employees are oftentimes burdened by family obligations like caring for children. Progress companies provide day care facilities for children of employees. sabbaticals a sabbatical leave is one given to an employee after a certain number of years of service. The employee is allowed to go on leave for two months to one year with pay to give him time for family, recreation, and travel.
Q. Sir, What do you mean by motivation? A. Motivation is the inner power that pushes us toward taking action and toward achievements. Motivation ispowered by desire and ambition. Q. What motivates you in your job? A. For me, I think my motivation comes from being competitive. I like saying Im better at something than mypeers, and being able to back it up with numbers....especially when I can say Im better than the majority in a field thatsmostly male dominated. Q. Is money enough to motivate your employees , Sir? A. No amount of money can motivate employees.However, when money is an indicator of achievement, recognition, gratitude, justice, any positive feeling and all of theabove, then money becomes a strong motivator. Q. For you Sir, what exactly does a person require to motivate an individual? A. As to motivate individual we need leadership quality and have the high confidence level in ourselves tomotivate other and reach up to social individual and company objective and goal. Q. What do you enjoy most about your job? A. I enjoy the ever moving and fast paced nature of this industry. I am constantly learning new skills anddeveloping my knowledge on a daily basis. Having this level of responsibility really motivates me and pushes me forwards inmy professional development.