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Errores que-hacemos-aprender-ingles-8687-completo Errores que-hacemos-aprender-ingles-8687-completo Document Transcript

  • Errores que hacemos alaprender InglésAutor: Begoña Ruiz Cordero1mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • Presentación del cursoCon el presente curso se pretende explicar en lengua inglesa los errores másfrecuentes que cometemos los españoles al aprender inglés y sus causas. Además,se incluyen una serie de ejercicios prácticos para su corrección.2mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 1. IntroductionMost of people agree that making mistakes is a part of learning, others think ofmistake as a problem, but ... what is a mistake? Why do we make them? Can we learna language without making mistakes? Do we need a teacher to correct all mistakeswe make? Is it useful?This paper´s aim is to clarify these questions, analyse mistakes students make whenlearning a foreign language, and present different techniques how to correct them.Moreover, it focuses on the common mistakes Spanish students make whenspeaking English. It also discusses the causes of these mistakes.This paper consists of two parts. The first one is theoretical and it is based ongeneral information about mistakes and the second part focuses on mistakesSpanish students make as well as on the causes of these mistakes. This part alsoincludes exercises and recommendations how to avoid or correct these mistakes.3mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 2. Definition of mistakesWhen we talk about mistakes when learning a second language we talk about anunconscious derivation when a learner sometimes uses one form and sometimes theother - he "gets it right" - but sometimes he makes a mistake and uses a wrongform. (GADUSOVÁ, Z. and HAR?ANSKÁ, J: Methodology of teaching English as aforeign language, Anthology of Methodological Text, 1994)In other words a mistake is incorrect language which a native speaker would notusually produce, that is, sometimes that only learners of the language produce.There are two sorts of mistakes:- The mistake that occurs when a speaker uses a correct piece of language(linguistic form) that does not mean what the speaker wanted to mean.- The mistake that occurs when the speaker uses a correct linguistic form thatis socially unacceptable - the big problem here being one of politeness.From a teacher´s opinion of how a mistake fits in with an individual student´s stageof learning in her class, mistakes can be divided up into different categories:a) Slips: If the teacher thinks that a student could self correct a mistake.b) Errors: If a student cannot self correct a mistake in his or her own language,but the teacher thinks that the class is familiar with the correct form.c) Attempts: When the teacher knows that the students have not yet learned thelanguage necessary to express what they want to say.(EDGE, J: Mistakes and correction, Longman, 1989).4mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 3. CausesThere are six causes of mistakes but we can join them into four:Mother tongue interference: One cause of mistake in speaking a foreign language isthe influence of the speaker´s first language. Although children appear to be able tolearn a foreign language quite easily and to reproduce new sounds very effectively,most older learners experience considerable difficulty. The sound system(phonology) and the grammar of the first language impose themselves on the newlanguage and this leads to a "foreign" pronunciation, faculty grammatical patternsand, occasionally, to the wrong choice of vocabulary. As a result, when people donot know how to say something in a foreign language, one possibility is to usewords and structure for their own language and try to make them fit into the foreignlanguage. E.g. a German speaker with a cigarette and no lighter might ask: "have youfire?" instead of "do you have light?"2. Overgeneralization: A second cause of mistake is when learners think theyknow a rule, but in fact they do not know quite enough. The learner can also makeup a rule that is simply wrong itself. E.g. "he growed up in Canada" or "your room ismore tider than mine"3. Thirdly, people may say things that they know are not correct because this isstill their best chance of getting their message across. This is another intelligent useof knowledge about things in order to communicate.4. Fourthly, mistakes can happen because someone is in a hurry or tired orthinking about something lese. There are differences between mistakes made bynative speakers and mistakes made by learners, but slips of the tongue or of thepen are found in everyone´s English.It´s quite easy to think of possible causes of mistakes that learners make whenspeaking a foreign language, but it is very difficult indeed to say in anyone´s caseexactly what causes a particular mistake to occur. (EDGE, J. Mistakes and correction,Longman 1989; GOWER, R., PHILLIPS, D., WALTERS, S., Teaching Practise Handbook,Heinemann, 1995)5mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 4. Correction: who, how, when,...It´s very important to know that it is more important to correct mistakes that affectthe meaning of several sentences than to correct small grammatical points insideone sentence. We have to emphasize the communication.The psychology of correctionCorrection has a number of possible psychological effects on students, and whataffects one student badly affects another very positively. (Frustration, satisfaction,fear, confidence, etc.)Talking about confidence, it´s obvious that it is a keyword; on one hand, somestudents gain confidence from being allowed to express themselves without beingpicked up for every mistake and, on the other, some gain confidence from knowingvery strictly the limits of what is right or wrong. The one thing that can bring thesetwo seemingly opposed groups together is technique. (GOWER, R., PHILLIPS, D.,WALTERS, S., Teaching Practise Handbook, Heinemann, 1995; BARTRAM, M. andWALTON, R. Correction, Language Teaching Publication 1991)Who corrects?There are different types of correction:Self-correction: when the teacher gives the students the chance to correctthemselves. Sometimes they need some assistance from the teacher in knowingwhere the mistake is and what kind of mistake it is before they can self-correct. Astudent-student correction: when the student cannot get it right, it is probable s/hedoesn´t know how to; in this case another student can help out. This has someadvantages such as involving all the students in the correction process, making thelearning more cooperative, etc. Teacher correction: when the teacher corrects.How do you correct?The ability to correct "sensitively, efficiently and effectively" is a skill that takes timeto perfect. One of the most important things is to maintain a cooperative workingatmosphere. In this process, the main stages are: the student must know whensomething is not accurate, where the error is, and what kind if error it is.When do you correct?In general, it depends on the aim of the activity. It is a good idea to tell students thepurpose of the activity: whether the emphasis is on the accuracy or fluency, to whatextent the teacher is going to correct them, how the teacher is going to providefeedback, etc.Are errors always bad?Positive aspects to be considered:- At least the students are trying- By making errors, learners are testing out their ideas about the language;making errors is a part of the learning process!- By noting the errors that the students make, the teacher can see what needsfocusing on in future lessons6mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 7mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 5. Ortographic mistakes1. "The people is"In Spanish, the Spaniards make concordance between the noun and the verb. Thenoun "people" is used in singular in Spanish so this is why they use the verb insingular.In general, this kind of mistakes can be caused by the influence of the firstlanguage´s structure. They also try to apply a rule of English "noun + verb" which isnot correct because the verb is not making English concordance.To correct this problem, this exercise can be suggested in order to practise "people+ verb in plural" or "person + verb in singular". After having done this exercise, thestudent will be able to acquire the rule.Exercise: filling the gaps using the correct form of the verbThere is a house in the country where people _____________ (to be) very happy.One person _________ (to be) sitting on the floor.Three people _________ (to eat) tomatoes in my house.I go to a club where people _________ (to play) tennis.People in Slovakia _________ (to speak) Slovak.2. "The car red"The Spaniards always put the adjective after the noun. This is why they make thismistake in English where this rule doesn´t apply. We can say that this mistake iscaused by the mother tongue interference. But sometimes the student hasn´tacquired the rule and s/he uses this structure because it´s the best chance ofgetting his/her message across. Several exercises can be used in order to correctthis problem. We can also use tapes as a good resource to help the students to placethe adjective in a correct way.Exercise: Make sentences using these words- car/father/has/my/a/red- I/wonderful/live/a/house/in- wears/blue/my brother/T-shirt/a- men/black/use/umbrellas- music/I/modern/listen to¿You went to England?The Spaniards always use two question marks when asking (one at the beginningand the other one at the end) and they don´t use auxiliaries when asking. This iswhy they make these mistakes - because of the mother tongue interference. At thesame time the Spaniards don´t use auxiliaries when answering because they don´thave them in Spanish and they usually answer using the same verb as the one usedin the question. E.g. "do you go to London? Yes, I go."To correct these problems, the following exercises should be done:a) Join these sentences with an appropriate answer.8mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • Do you like vegetables? Yes, I do.Does your father smoke? No, I don´t.Do you practice sports? Yes, he/ she does.Do your friends like chocolate? No, he/she doesn´t.Does your mother work?b) Complete the sentences with the correct auxiliary according to the answer._________you need help? No, I don´t._________ your sister go to the cinema? No, she doesn´t._________ they need some fruits? Yes, they do.__________ he like swimming? Yes, he does.__________ you smoke cigarettes? No, I don´t.c) Put short answers in the blanks.Do you like tennis? No, ____________.Does your mother play the guitar? Yes, ____________.Do your family sing in Christmas? Yes, ____________.Do you go shopping on Sunday? No, ______________.Does your friend eat vegetables? No, ______________.2. "I am constipated" instead of "I have a cold"In this case they use "constipated" meaning "having a cold" because the word inSpanish referring to "have a cold" is similar: constipado.To solve this problem students just have to memorize the meaning of the word.9mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 6. Phonetic mistakesMost of the phonetic mistakes are caused for two reasons ¨C either because somesounds don¡¯t exist in Spanish or because they pronounce every word in the sameway as it¡¯s written.The following sounds do not occur or are pronounced differently in Spanish:a). /b-/v/. The Spaniards don¡¯t make differences between the voiced sound /b/and voiceless /v/ because in Spanish they pronounce both as voiceless. E.g. very,button ¨C the same sound in Spanish language.To correct the problem with /b/ and /v/, students can do the following exercises.Before that, the teacher has to explain that one of them is ¡°bilabial¡±(b) and theother one is ¡°labiodental¡± (v).Listen to the teacher and repeat these words:Vacation button vomit basketVery cover problem verbListen to the tape and put a tick to the word you hear:Vine__ Labial___ Job___ Very_____ Blue___ Liberal___Bad____ Very____ Ball___ Van______ Vocal___ Brother____Watch and listen to the film and write down same words with the sound /b/ and /v/.b). /¡Ò /-/s/. The Spaniards don¡¯t have the sound /s / and it is a little bit difficultfor them to pronounce words with this sound. To differentiate /s/ and /¡Ò /students can do this exercise.Listen to the teacher and repeat these words:Shower vacation shockGraduation shoes questionListen to the tape and put a tick on the word you hear:Question___ vacation ___ special___ science ____Shock__---_ space ____condition____ some____c). /dz/ - /h/ The Spaniards don¡¯t have these sounds in their mother tongue. Forthem it¡¯s very difficult to produce these sounds. E.g. just, luggage /dz/, history,honey /h/.To produce the sound /dz/ in a correct way the following exercises can be done.Listen to the teacher and repeat these words:10mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • Just sandwich job jogLuggage pigeon percentage cageListen to the tape and put a tick on the word you hear:Just ____ jump ____ garage ____ pyjama _____ cabbage ____ jumper ___Watch and listen to the film and write down some words with the sound /dz/.2. The Spanish pronounce every word in the same way as it¡¯s written. E.g.women¨C they say /women/ instead of /wimin/.Bird ¨C they say /bi:d/ instead of /b3: d/.Table ¨C they say /table/ instead of /teibl/.To correct this reading/pronunciation problems, this exercise can be done:Listen to the tape and choose the appropriate form:Woman- /wimin/-/w¦Ôman/.Layer- /leja /-/lajer/.Philosophy- /filosafi/- /pilosopi/Bird- /bi:d/-/b3:d/.Moreover, they also tend to pronounce an e before the s at the beginning of thewords starting with s to make easier their pronunciation. E.g. Spanish-espanish.Small-esmall. Spell-espell.To correct this problem these exercise can be done:Listen and repeat these words:Spain Slovak Spell SpoonSki Sweater Spanish Small11mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 7. ConclusionTo conclude, everyone can agree with me that making mistakes is a part of learning.Obviously, both the teacher and the student would rather they didn´t makemistakes but we can say that it´s nearly impossible to learn a foreign languagewithout making them.To sum up, students have to realize that mistakes are necessary, acceptable, andwill be corrected in a non-judgmental, supportive and effective way.However, students have to accept mistakes as a part of learning process as well astry to avoid them in future situations.12mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes
  • 8. BibliographyBARTRAM, M and WALTON, R: Correction (Language Teaching Publications, 1991)ISBN: 09067 17914.EDGE, J: Mistakes and Correction (Longman, 1989) ISBN:05827 46264.GADUSOVÁ, Z and HAR?ANSKÁ, J: Methodology of Teaching English as a ForeignLanguage (Anthology of Methodological Text, 1994).GOWER, R, PHILLIPS, D and WALTERS, S: Teaching Practice Handbook (Heinemann,1995) ISBN: 04352 40595.HUBBARD, P, TONES, H, THORNTON, B and WHEELER, R: A Training Course for TEFL(Oxford University Press, 1983) ISBN: 01943 27108.13mailxmail - Cursos para compartir lo que sabes