Improvement Kata Quick Start
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Get started practicing the Improvement Kata today, with this Improvement Kata Quick Start Guide.

Get started practicing the Improvement Kata today, with this Improvement Kata Quick Start Guide.

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  • 1. Improvement Kata QUICK START v3.2 Mike Rother Bill Costantino Beth Carrington 2013 This document and its contents are copyright © 2013 by Mike Rother, all rights reserved 1217 Baldwin Avenue / Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA / tel: (734) 665-5411 / mrother@umich.edu© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 1
  • 2. Purpose: TO BE ABLE TO BEGIN PRACTICING ON REAL PROCESSES TOMORROW Weʼre fans of rolling up sleeves, getting going on a small scale, and adjusting based on what you learn. Thatʼs what this Quick Start is about. Follow the detailed step-by-step guidelines presented in this file and you can practice Improvement Kata basics right away. Understand Grasp the Establish the PDCA Toward the the Current Next Target Target Condition Direction Condition Condition ACT PLAN Go and Target CHECK See DO TC Condition The 5 CC Questions© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 2
  • 3. THE OVERALL PATTERN The routine of the Improvement Kata has 4 basic steps Improvement Kata Coaching Kata© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 3
  • 4. PART I: CREATE SOME STRUCTURE FOR DAILY PRACTICE PART I Improvement Kata Coaching Kata© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 4
  • 5. SELECT TWO PEOPLE To start practicing as learners u v Process 1 Process 2 You and someone else Youʼll pick two processes Each person takes one process, to which s/he will apply the Quick-Start steps© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 5
  • 6. PEER COACHING Youʼll be rotating to coach one another Process 1 Coach Learner Working with Process 1 Process 2 Coach Learner Working with Process 2 Note: the Learner should pair with the process Supervisor to apply the Improvement Kata to the focus process. Donʼt work around the Supervisor.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 6
  • 7. THE TWO CORE ROLES ARE COACH & LEARNER These roles ultimately mirror a reporting relationship but not necessarily in this initial practicing Applies the v Teaches the IK u Improvement Kata Process Coach Learner (Mentor) (Mentee) Supervisor Person responsible or manager for the process© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 7
  • 8. TWO DIFFERENT FOCAL POINTS The Learnerʼs goal is to achieve the target condition. The Coachs goal is to increase the Learners skill in applying the Improvement Kata pattern. The task here is developing the Learnerʼs ability to apply The task here is to use the the Improvement Kata pattern, pattern of the Improvement Kata to achieve a target ...by engaging and guiding the condition & meet a challenge. Learner in practicing the Improvement Kata pattern. Learnerʼs Storyboard Applies the v Teaches the IK u Improvement Kata Process Coach Learner© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 8
  • 9. SELECT TWO WORK PROCESSES There are many processes in a value stream The word “process” refers to several kinds of activity, not just production processes. Material handling, order-entry, lab procedures, handling customer returns, etc. Think of processes as the chainlinks of a value stream that serves a customer. Process Planning & Scheduling Process Process ProcessProcess Process Process Process Value Stream With beginners itʼs important to select an easy-to-understand process for initial practicing, so they can concentrate on the pattern of the Improvement Kata. Once a learner is at competent level you can pick the focus process more in line with business objectives.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 9
  • 10. START BY SETTING UP YOUR STORYBOARD Begin with a board that has these six fields and headings Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Blank fields where information will beadded and updatedas the learner goes through the Improvement Kata Obstacles pattern Parking Lot MAKE YOUR STORYBOARD Set a board up in this format now. But since your board will evolve donʼt worry about making it perfect at this time.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 10
  • 11. PART II: WHERE DO WE WANT TO GO? PART II Improvement Kata Coaching Kata Refer to these five basic TK questions every time youʼre involved in a team effort© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 11
  • 12. Understand the Direction© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 12
  • 13. LEARNERʼS STORYBOARD Youʼre now concentrating on these two fields Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Obstacles Parking Lot© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 13
  • 14. THE PURPOSE OF THE IMPROVEMENT KATA IS TO HAVE A SYSTEMATIC WAY TO STRIVE FOR AND MEET CHALLENGES What breakthrough challenge are you trying to meet? Current Target Overall Condition Obstacles Condition Challenge Vision 1 Week to Distant 3 Months out Having an overall challenge is important, so individual process target conditions are connected and meaningful. Itʼs difficult for people to get engaged by something that doesnʼt have a purpose.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 14
  • 15. SOME EXAMPLE CHALLENGES A challenge may involve lead time, volume, cost, etc. Example Challenge Example Wouldnʼt it be great if we could... Challenge Statement• ...machine parts 1x1 directly in “Machine to assemble” the assembly process.• ...paint parts 1x1 directly in “Paint to assemble” the assembly process.• ...build one customer kitchen at a “Build to truck, kitchen at a time” time and put it right on the truck.• ...have lab-test results done in “Know in 45” 45 minutes, with no errors.• ...take 7 days from new patient “Just a week” referral to evaluation.• ...assemble the day ordered, and “Same day, next day” ship the next day.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 15
  • 16. FOR NOW, ASSUME “1X1 FLOW AT LOWEST COST” IS THE CHALLENGE YOUʼRE REACHING FOR* I.e., only producing what the next step, process or customer wants, when and where itʼs wanted Illustration from Learning to See Page 45* This challenge is good enough for getting started with practicing the Improvement Kata, but you will need a real challenge soon.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 16
  • 17. RECORD THE PROCESS AND THE CHALLENGE ON YOUR STORYBOARD© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 17
  • 18. Grasp the Current Condition© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 18
  • 19. LEARNERʻS STORYBOARD Youʼre now concentrating on this field Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Obstacles Parking Lot© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 19
  • 20. THE PURPOSE OF GRASPING THE INITIAL CURRENT CONDITION The purpose is not to uncover problems, wastes or potential improvements. Analyzing the initial current condition is done to obtain the facts & data you need in order to then describe an appropriate next target condition. Once you have a target condition and strive to move toward it with PDCA cycles youʼll discover what you need to work on.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 20
  • 21. MAKE TWO RUN CHARTS (1) Process Exit Cycles (2) Process Output per Shift Redo this run chart daily Update this run chart daily© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 21
  • 22. TIME 20-30 EXIT CYCLES FOR EACH OPERATOR An ʻexit cycleʼ is how often a work cycle occurs • Select a single reference point in the operatorʼs work cycle. Youʼll be starting & stopping your stopwatch at this point. • Let the stopwatch run until the operator returns to this point, no matter what takes place. • Record the exit cycle times on the worksheet (2 pages ahead). • Note any consistent wait time or out-of-cycle work you observe. Exit Cycles Measure Start and stop your this! stopwatch at the same point, to get the total cycle© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 22
  • 23. EXIT CYCLES Itʼs essentially the time between completed units coming off the end of an operatorʼs section of the process. Not how long, but how often. Nope, not this: Time this! Process lead time Process exit cycles Nope, Operator not this: task time At this stage donʼt worry too much about operator task time© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 23
  • 24. Unit of WORKSHEET FOR TIMING CYCLES measure Observed Times Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 re he nt 7 f t te 8 e i sis 9 10 11 12 ot n N co time 13 is ait 14 15 16 w 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 24
  • 25. DRAW A RUN CHART OF THE DATA POINTS TO SEE VARIABILITY IN THE PROCESS A run chart is a graph that displays observed data in time sequence. The graph represents some aspect of the performance of a process. Run charts are an excellent way to gather and communicate current- state information. Exit Cycles 50 Range = • • 18-42 seconds • • 40 • • • • • • •Takt 30 • • Lowest Pc/t 22 2 0 • • • • • repeatable = 25 • • 10 % Variation compared to Pc/t = + 91% / - 18% You can make a run chart for almost any work process, because there is a pattern in almost every work process. Sometimes it can be difficult to see and measure the pattern.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 25
  • 26. RUN CHART - Step by Step It doesnʼt work well to simply tell someone to “make a run chart.” Draw their first run chart together with them. Hereʼs how. Step 1 Step 2 50 50 • • •• 40 40Takt 30 Takt 30 • • • • •• •Pc/t 22 0 Pc/t 22 0 • •• •• •• 2 2 • • 10 10 1) If you have a Takt Time and/or 2) Plot & connect the data points Planned Cycle Time for the Note: • Do not use averages process, draw horizontal lines because they obscure for them on the chart. variation If you donʼt have a TT or Pc/t, • Include all data points draw a line for the exit cycle time you would like to have. © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 26
  • 27. RUN CHART - Step by Step Step 3 Steps 4 & 5 50 50 • • • •• • •• 40 40Takt 30 • • • • •• • Takt 30 • • • • •• •Pc/t 22 0 • •• •• •• Pc/t 22 0 • •• •• •• 2 • • 2 • • 10 10 3) Find the lowest repeatable time* 4) Draw the bar to show the by moving a ruler up from the lowest repeatable time + the bottom until data points start thinner bar to show the range. repeating. * Lowest repeatable time serves 5) Calculate current +/- % variation as an estimate of the cycle time %+ Var: if everything goes as intended. (Highest point - Pc/t) ÷ Pc/t %- Var: (Lowest point - Pc/t) ÷ Pc/t © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 27
  • 28. EXAMPLE RUN CHART OF EXIT CYCLES Operator 3 = last workstation Range Lowest repeatable© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 28
  • 29. (2) PROCESS OUTPUT PER SHIFT Example Process Output per Day (1 shift) 500450 • • • • • • • • • • 400 • • • • • • • • • • 350 300 200 • • • • M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S OT OT OT OT © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 29
  • 30. CALCULATED NUMBER OF OPERATORS If the process were stable Total operator time Necessary to process 1 pieceOperator Lowest repeatable number of = operator cycle Notes(or task) (or task time) operators Planned cycle time 1 15 seconds 2 13 seconds This is not about reducing the number of operators, but determining the correct number of operators... if the 3 16 seconds Estimated total in-cycle operator process were stable and there is no work time to out-of-cycle work. 4 25 seconds process one piece Note that operator time and machine time are two different things. We are ∑ = 69 sec looking at operator time here. 69 sec. total cycle time = 3.2 operators 22 sec. Pc/t Note: If there is a consistent wait time in each cycle, subtract that wait time© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 30
  • 31. WHY IS IT OK TO USE LOWEST REPEATABLE TIME? Because these times & the number-of-operators calculation are just a starting point for PDCA! This approach is acceptable if you plan to work with rapid PDCA cycles daily, as with the Improvement Kata. Then the initial times donʼt need to be exact, because you will notice analysis errors and other problems quickly, adjust and keep moving forward. • Youʼre not setting a standard at this point. • As you move toward that first target condition youʼll learn more about the process, which you can add to the target condition. You canʼt change a target condition, but you can add to it.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 31
  • 32. USE YOUR NOW SUMMARIZE STORYBOARD THE INITIAL CURRENT CONDITION (1) Fill in the left side of the Current Condition / Target Condition form The first form is for manufacturing processes and the second form is for other processes. There are blank forms at the end of this file. (2) Post on the storyboard: - The CC/TC form - The run charts - Any other information you collected© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 32
  • 33. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Takt time Pc/t # of Shifts2 Process steps, sequence, times Batch size. Where WIP. # of Operators % exit cycle fluctuation Other observations about the current pattern3 Equipment capacity4 # of Operators (calculated)5 Actual output / shift Overtime? © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 33
  • 34. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Task unit and time to complete2 Current operating pattern3 Equipment capacity4 Number of people required5 Performance data © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 34
  • 35. Establish the Next Target Condition Target Condition© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 35
  • 36. LEARNERʼS STORYBOARD Youʼre now concentrating on these two fields Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Obstacles Parking Lot© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 36
  • 37. THE TARGET CONDITION SHOULD BE IN THE DIRECTION OF THE CHALLENGE© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 37
  • 38. THE INFORMATION IN A TARGET CONDITION A target condition should name the focus process, specify a date, and include these categories of information Focus Process: Achieve-by Date: (1 week - 3 months in the future) q CUSTOMER DEMAND & PLANNED CYCLE TIME The task unit and the time to complete it q DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS STEPS, SEQUENCE & TIMES The pattern of how you want the focus process to be operating. (Details will come from the PDCA cycles.)How thegame is q OTHER PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS played Examples: • Number of operators • Amount of cycle fluctuation • Number of shifts • Production sequence & lot sizes • Where 1x1 flow is desired • Changeover time • Standard WIP • % Downtime q PROCESS METRIC(S) An aspect you can experiment against in real time Examples: • Time for each step, piece, pitch, etc. • Degree of time fluctuation from cycle to cycle q OUTCOME METRIC(S) - A target The Examples: • Number of pieces per hour or shift score • Overtime • Productivity© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 38
  • 39. LEARN TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THESE THREE THINGS FUNCTIONAL PLAN PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS SOLUTIONS A description and A prediction of what The actual steps, specification of the the steps to meet techniques and operating pattern the functional countermeasures you want a process requirements will be. that are necessary or system to be to meet the fulfilling on (date) requirements These are determined through PDCA on the This is a way to the target Target Condition condition© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 39
  • 40. A TARGET CONDITION IS NOT JUST AN OUTCOME METRIC TARGET CONDITION PROCESS PARAMETERS OUTCOME METRIC A learning goal that A performance goal thatʼs describes an operating pattern a result or score Examples: Inventory level Lead time Output per hour Cost, Labor cost Focus process Quality level Productivity Machine reliability etc. This is actionable Canʼt be achieved directly We predict the process operating in this pattern will generate.......................this outcome / result A target condition is a description of circumstances -- of an operating pattern -- that you predict will generate the desired outcome© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 40
  • 41. EXAMPLES Concentrate on this, and youʼll get the desired outcome The “construction site” is here PROCESS PARAMETERS OUTCOME METRIC A learning goal that A performance goal thatʼs describes an operating pattern a result or score Desired pattern for how 80% of free throws made to shoot free throws Desired pattern of how math All 6th grade students and science are taught. in our school passing Desired pattern of student the standardized test study habits. for math and science This is actionable Canʼt be achieved directly We predict the process operating in this pattern will generate............................ this outcome / result© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 41
  • 42. TARGET CONDITION GUIDELINES Words that should not be in the operating description WHY No verbs in a target condition! Thatʼs for“Minimize” “Reduce” how to get there, which comes later.“Improve” “Increase” A target condition describes a desired pattern at a future point in time, not actions. Transport yourself to the future and state the target condition as if you are already there.“Apply 5S” (Housekeeping & These are countermeasures, which should workplace organization) not be confused with a target condition. First describe how the process should“Install a barcode system” operate. Countermeasures are then developed as needed as you strive to reach“Change the layout” that target condition.“A pull system” (kanban) Not enough detail. A kanban or material- delivery system can be a target condition,“Milk-run material delivery” but you need to describe the pattern of how you want the specific system to operate.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 42
  • 43. A TARGET CONDITION MUST BE CHALLENGING A good target condition brings you and your team to the limits of your knowledge and compels you to learn, grow and adapt The coach decides how much of a stretch the next target condition should be, trying to have the learner practice just over the edge of his/her capability. Remember... learning new skill and making progress requires stretching and experiencing small failures. Itʼs better to fail to achieve a target condition once in a while than to stay in the green apparent certainty zone. er e arn t h e Mystery he l f e e l eT t us w zonm llo Uncertainty ye Apparent Certainty Too easy A target condition should be in Already see how to get there the yellow zone of uncertainty. A beginner learner should be Too hard deeper into the yellow zone than the coach. Itʼs important to challenge the learner, so s/he feels a sense of accomplishment.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 43
  • 44. USE YOUR NOW DEFINE THE FIRST STORYBOARD TARGET CONDITION For 2 weeks from today The target condition achieve-by date is: _________ (1) Use the CC/TC form: - Remove the form from your storyboard - Complete the right side of the form while referring to the Current Condition Summary: --> What you will keep the same? --> What do you want to change? (2) Cut the form where indicated and post the TC & CC sections in the corresponding fields on the storyboard© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 44
  • 45. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Takt time Pc/t # of Shifts2 Process steps, sequence, times Batch size. Where WIP. # of Operators % exit cycle fluctuation Other observations about the current pattern3 Equipment capacity4 # of Operators (calculated)5 Actual output / shift Overtime? © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 45
  • 46. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Task unit and time to complete2 Current operating pattern3 Equipment capacity4 Number of people required5 Performance data © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 46
  • 47. START AN OBSTACLES PARKING LOT The coach now asks the learner to list obstacles that the learner thinks might prevent the team from reaching the target condition. The learner maintains this list throughout the Improvement Kata process, on the storyboard. POST ON YOUR STORYBOARD Do not Pareto this list and do not turn it into an action-item list. Itʼs simply a place to note and hold perceived obstacles, which you may or may not address. The steps you take and the obstacles you work on come out of the PDCA cycles. The purpose of the obstacles parking lot is: 1) To help the learner see the limits of prediction 2) To prevent the learner from chasing several ideas at once© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 47
  • 48. PART III: NOW ITERATE TO GET THERE PART III Improvement Kata Coaching Kata© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 48
  • 49. LEARNERʼS STORYBOARD - SETUP IS COMPLETE Youʼll now use the entire storyboard Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Obstacles Parking Lot© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 49
  • 50. PDCA Toward the Conduct Target Condition Coaching Cycles ACT PLAN Go and Process See TC CHECK DO Daily CC Coach Learner© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 50
  • 51. TIME TO PUT ON YOUR SCIENTIST HAT... Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature,© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 51
  • 52. ...AND WATCH FOR KNOWLEDGE THRESHOLDS The threshold of knowledge is the point at which you have no data and start guessing (I think, maybe, could). This is where the next experiment (PDCA cycle) lies. Predictable Zone Uncertainty / Learning Zone tacl e s ? Ob s ? Next Target Condition r nclea ry ? U Terri to Current We want to Knowledge be here Threshold next Spot the knowledge threshold and conduct your next PDCA experiment there© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 52
  • 53. WHERE DO THE STEPS YOU TAKE COME FROM? The day-to-day steps you take toward the target condition take are not going to come from an action plan or a Pareto analysis. Theyʼll typically come from a chain of rapid and frequent PDCA cycles, where what you learn in one step often leads you to the next step.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 53
  • 54. ACTUALIZE DAILY PDCA WITH THESE TWO INTERLOCKING ROUTINES / TOOLS The Five Questions PDCA Cycles Record Used by the coach Used by the learner Meet at the focus process every day and use these two tools© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 54
  • 55. USE THEM IN DAILY COACHING CYCLES Target Condition Learner CurrentCondition Coach © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 55
  • 56. For the Coach THE FIVE COACHING-KATA QUESTIONSThe pattern of the Five Questions fosters scientific thinking & acting Card available on the Toyota Kata Website The Five Questions 1) What is the Target Condition? Back of card - Reflection Section 2) What is the Actual Condition now? --------(Turn Card Over)---------------------> 3) What Obstacles do you think are preventing Reflect on the Last Step Taken you from reaching the target condition? Because you donʼt actually know Which *one* are you addressing now? what the result of a step will be! 4) What is your Next Step? (next PDCA / 1) What was your Last Step? experiment) What do you expect? 5) When can we go and see what we 2) What did you Expect? Have Learned from taking that step? 3) What Actually Happened? *Youʼll often work on the same obstacle for several PDCA cycles 4) What did you Learn?Card is turned over to ------------------------------>reflect on the last step Return© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 56
  • 57. For the LearnerPDCA CYCLES RECORDDate: ProcessProcess: Metric What do you Observe Step expect? Result closely What We Learned A B Coaching Cycle EXPERIMENT C Each row = one experiment. Think of this as a chain of PDCA cycles, where one step builds on what was learned in the last step.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 57
  • 58. HOW TO USE THE PDCA CYCLES RECORD • The PDCA form is read left-to-right, one row at a time. Each row = one experiment • Once you get started, the 1[2 pattern of the form repeats after every coaching cycleBefore the 1st coaching cycle the learner proposes the 1st step and what s/he expects Row 1 --> 1 1 Once a step or Row 2 --> 2 experiment is completed, the learner fills in Result and What We Learned 2 Based on what was learned in the last step, the learner proposes the Next Step and describes what s/he Expects from the next step The information on the PDCA Cycles Record is written by the learner before the next coaching cycle. During the coaching cycle the coach will either validate the proposed next step, or help the learner explore other steps. © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 58
  • 59. DEFINE YOUR FIRST EXPERIMENTPDCA CYCLES RECORDDate: ProcessProcess: Metric What do you Observe Coaching Cycle Step Result What We Learned EXPERIMENT expect? closely u Use these two fields. POST ON YOUR u What will be your first step STORYBOARD and what do you expect? There are blank forms at the end of this file © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 59
  • 60. THREE KINDS OF PDCA EXPERIMENTS The following hierarchy goes from less to more scientific 1) Go and See Direct observation and data collection, without changing anything, to learn more about a process or situation. 2) Exploratory Experiment Introducing a change in a process to see, via direct observation, how the process reacts. Done to help better understand the process. Example: Try to run a process as specified in the target condition, to see where it fails and build your obstacles parking lot. Often this is the first experiment. 3) Testing a Hypothesis Introducing a change, ideally in only a single factor, together with a prediction of what you expect to happen.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 60
  • 61. THE FIRST PDCA EXPERIMENT IS OFTEN AN EXPLORATORY SETUP First PDCA Second cycle PDCA cycle Try running See a Note them Pick one Start your the process bunch of on the obstacle PDCA as specified true obstacles cycles in the target obstacles parking condition lot Knowledge threshold! Often you do an exploratory experiment first to get true obstacles to show themselves, so you know what you need to work on© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 61
  • 62. CALIBRATE YOURSELVES BEFORE ANY EXPERIMENT! -------- Ask: Why do we experiment? -------- This is what many of us Itʼs not: “Letʼs see if this target condition will work” may think - but rather - experimenting is about “Letʼs see what we need to do to make it work” Calibrate yourself to this mindset before you start “We already know it wonʼt work at first. Weʼre interested in seeing what doesnʼt go as planned, so we can learn what we need to work on.” © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 62
  • 63. Please Keep in Mind: THE CURRENT CONDITION WILL BE NEW AFTER EACH EXPERIMENT Every time you make an adjustment in a process, itʼs a new process. The learner should re-assess the current condition and update that field of the storyboard in preparation for each daily coaching cycle.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 63
  • 64. INTERNALIZE THE BASIC COACHING-CYCLE PATTERN E IT 1 2 MAK IT! Target Condition Current Condition What are we Where are we Now reflect: HAB striving to actually now? - What was your last step? A achieve? Reflect on the last step - - - What did you expect? What actually happened? What did you learn? 4 3 Next Step Obstacle What is our next What obstacle are experiment? we focusing on? What do we expect? Now conduct the next experiment Now 1 2 5 Target Current Experiment Repeat Condition Condition Testing an expectation through action 4 3 Next Obstacle Step Based on a diagram by Don Clark© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 64
  • 65. DEVELOPING A META HABIT THROUGH PRACTICE The Improvement Kata provides the form, the focus process provides the content The content and obstacles the Learner works on are situational and will vary. Obstacles . . . . . .. . . .. Current Condition . Target Condition . UnclearLearner Territory The pattern of thinking and Coaching acting (the kata) Cycles 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q stays the same with the 5 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q 5Q and repeats. Questions This is the habit the Coach isCoach trying to teach. © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 65
  • 66. WHEN YOU EXPERIMENT A) Try not to think too far ahead You donʼt actually know what the result of the next step will be. So concentrate on the next step, because what you learn from that may influence the step after that. Target Condition Seeing Further Next Take this step as soon as possible, Step with “duct tape and baling wire” if Last necessary, so you can see further. Current Step Condition Donʼt wait until you have a perfect solution. A provisional step is OK. B) Take the step as quickly as possible (rapid cycles) Since it is refuted hypotheses (unexpected results) that help us find the way forward, we are interested in seeing the next obstacle ASAP. We can only see the next true obstacle after we take a step, so take that step ASAP.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 66
  • 67. ASK YOURSELF THIS QUESTION REPEATEDLY What is preventing the operators from being able to work in the desired pattern? This perspective will keep you focused on the work process and help you work together with the process team© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 67
  • 68. CONCLUSION: COACHING CYCLE DOʼS AND DONʼTS Schedule daily coaching cycles................................ Conduct coaching cycles only infrequently or irregularly Conduct your first daily coaching cycle.................. Do the first coaching cycle near early in the day, so the learner can do the end of the day the next step (the next experiment) that day. Proceed systematically by........................................... Permit unstructured, meandering following the 5 questions disorganized discussions Determine whether or not the learner....................... Ask questions to audit if the learner is operating within the corridor of the is doing what they said theyʼd do Improvement Kata Ask questions to get the learner to implement your preconceived solutions Ask the 5 questions while standing...........................Conduct coaching cycles in the office at the process.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 68
  • 69. Have the learner point to items on............................. Just talkthe storyboard while s/he is talking.Have the learner retime exit cycles............................Use old current-condition dataof their process every day.Remember, question 5 is about.................................. Ask question 5 as“What are we learning?” “When will you have it done?”Take it a step at a time. Try to change...................... Change multiple variables at onceonly one thing at a time and closelyobserve what happensPlan the next PDCA cycle based on..........................Stab at the problem with disconnectedwhat was learned in the last PDCA cycle countermeasuresRealize that itʼs the Target Condition ........................ Think that each step has to bring(which has an achieve-by date) that brings a measureable benefit. Many stepsthe measureable benefit and results will not, but you will learn from themEnd the coaching cycle when the next.................... Keep discussing possibilitiesstep and the expectation are clear and after the next experiment haswritten on the PDCA Cycles Record been defined© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 69
  • 70. ONE MORE THING Once you start applying the Improvement Kata to a process, you shouldnʼt stop. Soon youʼll need to define and flesh out the next target condition for your process. And so on.© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 70
  • 71. RESOURCES1) The Improvement Kata Handbook The reference manual for what we did today2) Toyota Kata Learning Network on LinkedIn Post questions from your actual practicing Toyota Kata on© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 71
  • 72. Copies of the Forms© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 72
  • 73. LEARNERʼS STORYBOARD Focus Process: Challenge: Target Current PDCA Cycles Condition Condition Record Achieve by: _______ Obstacles Parking Lot© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 73
  • 74. Unit of WORKSHEET FOR TIMING CYCLES measure Observed Times Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 re he nt 7 f t te 8 e i sis 9 10 11 12 ot n N co time 13 is ait 14 15 16 w 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25© Mike Rother TK Quick Start 74
  • 75. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Takt time Pc/t # of Shifts2 Process steps, sequence, times Batch size. Where WIP. # of Operators % exit cycle fluctuation Other observations about the current pattern3 Equipment capacity4 # of Operators (calculated)5 Actual output / shift Overtime? © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 75
  • 76. Process Metric Outcome MetricCURRENT CONDITION / TARGET CONDITIONLearner: Coach: Process: Date Achieve-By Date Process Characteristics Current Condition Target Condition1 Task unit and time to complete2 Current operating pattern3 Equipment capacity4 Number of people required5 Performance data © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 76
  • 77. FIVE QUESTION CARDwww-personal.umich.edu/~mrother/KATA_Files/5Q_Card.pdf The Five Questions 1) What is the Target Condition? 2) What is the Actual Condition now? --------(Turn Card Over)---------------------> 3) What Obstacles do you think are preventing Reflect on the Last Step Taken you from reaching the target condition? Because you donʼt actually know Which *one* are you addressing now? what the result of a step will be! 4) What is your Next Step? (next PDCA / 1) What was your Last Step? experiment) What do you expect? 5) When can we go and see what we 2) What did you Expect? Have Learned from taking that step? 3) What Actually Happened? *Youʼll often work on the same obstacle for several PDCA cycles 4) What did you Learn? ------------------------------> Return © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 77
  • 78. PDCA CYCLES RECORD (Each row = one experiment)Date: ProcessProcess: Metric What do you Observe Step expect? Result closely What We Learned Coaching Cycle EXPERIMENT © Mike Rother TK Quick Start 78