How to Use the Key Improvement Kata Forms - By Richard Green

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The standard Improvement Kata / Coaching Kata forms in this SlideShare help you operationalize the IK/CK patterns in your organization. They are being used by Kata practitioners worldwide, and within …

The standard Improvement Kata / Coaching Kata forms in this SlideShare help you operationalize the IK/CK patterns in your organization. They are being used by Kata practitioners worldwide, and within the A3 format.

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  • 1. KEY FORMS for the IMPROVEMENT KATA & COACHING KATA By Richard Green, with Mike Rother B E Aerospace United Kingdom Based on Toyota Kata and the November 2013 Improvement Kata Handbook by Mike Rother CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace
  • 2. Scripting the Critical Moves One of the key principles in Chip and Dan Heath's book "Switch" is that if you want people to change then you should shape their path. We're more likely to see change if we have specific behaviors to practice. This was the same finding in the "Toyota Kata" research, and is the thinking behind the structured practice routines of the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata. This SlideShare is about key pencil & paper tools that are used when you go through the Improvement Kata & Coaching Kata patterns. CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 2
  • 3. Hello! I worked for Toyota Motor Manufacturing UK for 18 years, at a management level, and then moved into the Aerospace industry. At my company we've embraced the Improvement Kata / Coaching Kata approach and have experienced rapid deployment. With this SlideShare I'd like to share some key points with regard to the forms and the routines they mirror, which are used to support development of Kata practitioners. It's about how to maintain strong guidance and standards moving forward. I'm a systems-oriented person; probably through working at Toyota for so long! Specifically, I created how-to annotation for documents used with the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata on the Learner's Storyboard. I find that clear how-to instructions support a deployment greatly, and even allow self-help in the absence of immediate coaching support. I love the Toyota Kata approach and hope the annotated forms in this SlideShare help you a bit in achieving successful deployment of the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata. Richard Green CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 3
  • 4. The Pattern of the Improvement Kata The Improvement Kata models a scientific way of thinking and acting so that, with practice, anyone can learn it and use it From the Improvement Kata Handbook CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 4
  • 5. The Learner's Storyboard The layout and information on the storyboard follow the steps of the Improvement Kata and flow naturally with the sequence of the Five Coaching Kata Questions Illustration from the Improvement Kata Handbook CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 5
  • 6. Where the Forms Go on the Storyboard The forms/routines are also effective within an A3 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 6
  • 7. Let's look at how to use each form... CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 7
  • 8. CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 8
  • 9. Something you measure every cycle Something you measure periodically (eg units/day) A description / statement of a desired state people can rally around, not just a number. A good challenge focuses our attention and effort. The rate of customer demand for the group or family of parts produced by one process. Takt time is calculated by dividing the total working time by the quantity of parts required by the customer. The desired production rate, usually faster than Takt time as it accommodates changeover time and perhaps some planned downtime. Sometimes simply set at 15% below Takt. The process being worked on. Number of shifts currently worked, i.e. "1 shift" (Days) "2 shifts" (Days & Nights) etc. • Here you're just trying to figure out the current work pattern and flow, not so much the physical layout. • Get to know the process by sketching a block diagram, process map, etc. Detail to show current batch sizes, operators, cycle times, etc., can be added successively. • Remember this is a process-level diagram, not a value stream map! What is the build batch size? Where does WIPaccumulate in the process? Number of operators currently used to carry out the process. Plus & minus variation % at end of line [( highest point -Pc/t) / Pc/t] & [(Lowest point -Pc/t) / Pc/t] What else do you notice about the the pattern of how the process is operating? These are not issues or problems but simply characteristics of how the process currently works. Note your observations about how it currently operates in bullet form. Are there any machine constraints ? What are they (data)? What is the fastest Pc/t the automated equipment can currently support? Do not include machines that operators run, like hand tools, hand welders, arbor presses. Total operator time to process 1 piece, divided by the planned cycle time. Maintain a run chart of output per shift. Maintain a run chart of overtime per shift, or any other desired outcome metric CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 9
  • 10. CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 10
  • 11. Visually describe the steps and sequence of how the work is done At this stage all you're trying to do is figure out the current work pattern and flow, not so much the physical layout. Observe the process' operation and capture as much information as possible. This will allow you to become acquainted with the process . The block diagram sketch doesn't have to resemble the actual layout, it just needs to show how the process flows. Draw each box the same size to simply represent a work station, table, fixture or machine. CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 11
  • 12. Exit-Cycle Observation Sheet Process Name / No Unit of Measure Observed Times Exit Cycle Wait Time Cycle Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 12
  • 13. Exit-Cycle Observation Sheet Process Name / No BMFT Station 4 Write in details of process observing for traceability/ref Unit of Measure Observed Times Exit Cycle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 92 63 56 69 78 53 87 73 68 73 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace Wait Time 18 21 12 Notes Cycle 92 45 56 69 78 53 87 52 56 73 Had to change empty applicator Waiting on previous process Cleaning applicator nozzle Cleaning applicator nozzle Seconds (60) Unit of measure for awareness of current operational time and guideline for timing cycles. Note: What you're measuring here is "Exit Cycles." Pick a point in the operator's work cycle and measure the total time from when this point is reached until it is reached again. This is done to capture variability in the process, not to measure the operator. Cleaning applicator nozzle Almost every process has a work pattern Waiting on previous process that you can measure this way. In some processes it's difficult to see the pattern. Waiting on previous process Incorrect rivet fitted / mixed parts in box Record times inclusive of any wait time, document individually so you can learn about actual process cycle time for work. Saves having to retime after analysis of all process timings to understand reasons for or which process was creating waiting. Record observed details for reasons of delay, to support analysis of current condition. Note if waiting for pre (starved) or post (blocked) process. 13
  • 14. How to Make a Run Chart (Step 1) Run charts are an excellent way to gather and communicate information about variation in any work process v u Seconds Draw simple X & Y axes. Use the same vertical scale as your unit of measure. 100 90 Transfer data points from the ExitCycle observation sheet to your run chart, using the "Exit Cycle" values. This gives you a picture of the variation in the process at the time you observed it. w x 80 70 60 50 40 Draw in the PC/T line (BLUE) (e.g. 85% of Takt). This shows the actual rate at which you would like this process to cycle. Allow an additional run after initial data so data can continue to be monitored to show trend during experiments 30 20 10 1 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace Draw in the Takt Time line (RED) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14
  • 15. How to Make a Run Chart (Step 2) Summarize process variation with two vertical bars 100 90 v v 80 70 Seconds 60 50 u 40 u Find the "lowest repeatable time." Simply move a ruler up the page until you find 2 or more times aligned with each other (or nearly) and then draw the vertical bar to represent this time (blue). 30 The lowest repeatable time is an estimate of the actual cycle time it takes to do this work IF EVERYTHING GOES AS PLANNED. Note: If there is waiting time in the lowest repeatable times it should be subtracted. 20 10 1 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 2 3 4 5 Draw in a second vertical bar inlaid into the initial bar to show the highest time and the lowest time (red), this gives you a visual of the range of variation in the process 6 7 8 9 10 15
  • 16. How to Make a Run Chart (Step 3) Add the + and – variation calculations EXAMPLE: % Plus Variation = [Highest point (here 92) – Planned Cycle Time (here 51)] / Planned Cycle Time (51) = 0.80 (+80%) 100 90 80 70 Seconds 60 50 40 30 20 EXAMPLE: % Minus Variation = [Lowest point (here 45) – Planned cycle time (here 51)] / Planned cycle time 51 = -0.11 (-11%) 10 1 CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16
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  • 18. The process being focused on (Same as on the the Current Condition form) Describe how you want this process to be functioning on the achieve-by date à Pretend you travel forward in time to visit the process. What do you see? What is the sequence of steps required to complete one cycle through the entire process, how long should each step take, and who is to perform that step? New block diagram / Fluctuations / # of Operators / Quality / Safety / etc. Try to avoid a lot of words. Figures are good and measurable. Be creative & stretch, but realistic. What does it look like compared to your Current Condition observations? For instance... • Number of operators • Number of shifts • Where 1 x 1 flow is planned • Where buffers are to be held • Lot sizes / EPEI / Change over times • Heijunka / Leveling pattern For checking the condition of the process in real-time increments while the process is running , to help guide improvement efforts. Examples: Actual cycle time for each step/piece/standard quantity of pieces i.e. a box. For checking the output of the process periodically. Number of pieces produced per time increment, productivity, Quality indicators, Cost, fluctuation in output from shift to shift. etc. Graph it! CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 18
  • 19. CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 19
  • 20. • Review what you believe may be potential obstacles that may prevent you from reaching the Target Condition. • This should ideally be derived from direct observations / experiences. • Involve the operators in the process as they may have superior knowledge of the process. • The Learner maintains the Obstacle Parking Lot throughout the Improvement Kata. • The purpose of the Obstacle Parking Lot is to help the Learner see the limits of prediction and prevent him/her from chasing several ideas at once. Only one idea can be experimented on at any one time. • This is not an action-item list! It's simply a place to note and hold perceived obstacles that are discovered throughout the IK process • If you try to focus on more than just one obstacle at a time how do you understand which action has given you the positive or adverse result? Doing this may result in you following the wrong path CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 20
  • 21. PDCA Cycles Record DATE: FOCUS OBSTACLE: PROCESS METRIC: PROCESS: Date, Step & Metric What do you expect? What happened? What we learned           Conduct the E X P E R I M E N T   Do a C O A C H I N G C Y C L E   Date: Time:   Time:   Time:     Date:   Date:     CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace   Date: Time:   21
  • 22. PDCA Cycles Record (Each Row = One Experiment) Date sheet is started DATE: Current Obstacle being worked on FOCUS OBSTACLE: (ONE Obstacle per sheet) PROCESS METRIC: PROCESS: Date, Step & Metric What do you expect?   The 2nd step is derived from your learning from the 1st step.         Conduct the E X P E R I M E N T   What do you expect the step to do? Remember, you won't know until the step has been taken. What happened? Do a C O A C H I N G C Y C L E 1st step (experiment) toward achieving the Target condition, against the Focus Obstacle. Do not try to think too far ahead. Take the first step A.S.A.P. Same metric used on Target Condition and Current Condition forms What we learned Summarize the actual results from the step. Capture important points   and key occurrences. What did you learn about the focus process or improving it? This learning is important... it leads to the next step and advances your knowledge threshhold. Date: Time:   Date and time planned   for the experiment Date: Time:   Time:     Date:     CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace   Date: Time:   22
  • 23. The 5 Coaching Kata Questions The Coach asks the Learner these questions in daily "Coaching Cycles" CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 23
  • 24. Watch a Coaching Cycle The 5-minute video on the next page illustrates how the forms are used in a daily Coaching Cycle On Next Page CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 24
  • 25. Conclusion: Developing Strong Skills The standard Improvement Kata / Coaching Kata forms presented in this SlideShare help you operationalize the IK/CK patterns in your organization. They are being used by Kata practitioners worldwide, and within the A3 format. Coaching in this case is not an informal conversation, but a structured dialogue designed for (a) effective and efficient information exchange, and (b) training the Learner in the systematic, scientific pattern of the Improvement Kata. The Learner knows the Five Questions that will be asked and updates the forms on their storyboard before the next coaching cycle begins. The Coach's goal is to develop a scientific thought process as a skill or habit in both the Learner and the Coach. The routine of the Coach asking the Five Coaching Kata Questions in sequence (plus clarifying questions as needed) and the Learner responding by pointing to information on the storyboard helps to ingrain the pattern of the Improvement Kata. As in sports and music, this kind of practice may seem a bit mechanical at first. As you practice it though, you'll see that it keeps your coaching cycles short and focused on key information relevant to your current target condition and challenge. Best wishes for achieving your next target condition! Richard Green CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 25
  • 26. Best wishes for achieving your next Target Condition CONFIDENTIAL © B/E Aerospace 26