How to Deploy the Improvement Kata v6.3

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This SlideShare is a detailed description of how to deploy a Coach/Learner structure in your organization, to teach people in the scientific patterns of the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata. We've …

This SlideShare is a detailed description of how to deploy a Coach/Learner structure in your organization, to teach people in the scientific patterns of the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata. We've been evolving this SlideShare based on our experiences since it was first posted in 2011. Use it as a guide for your own deployment efforts!

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  • 1. How to Deploy the Improvement Kata Based on our experiences so far v 6.3 Mike Rother Bill Costantino Beth Carrington Gerd Aulinger Copyright © 2014 Mike Rother, all rights reserved 1217 Baldwin Avenue / Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA / tel: (734) 665-5411 / mrother@umich.edu Includes How to Run Your ADVANCE GROUP For reference see: Chapter 9 Published April 2011 and regularly updated © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata are about teaching a systematic and scientific way of working throughout an organization, to get better at reaching difficult goals. For most organizations this will be a change process that entails having people develop new skills and mindset through deliberate practice. One shift is that managers guide the development of their peopleʼs skills, by coaching them in daily practice on real goals. Of course, those managers will have to be among the first to practice and learn the new skills themselves, before they can coach others. Intentionally changing an organization is a significant undertaking. In this case there are scientific skills (the Improvement Kata pattern) and teaching/coaching skills (the Coaching Kata). This SlideShare, which we keep up-to-date, describes a well-tested approach for deploying IK/CK skill development in an organization. Mike Rother © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 2
  • 3. WHAT ITʼS ALL ABOUT: -- Learning Scientific Skills -- The Improvement Kata & Coaching Kata combine a scientific working pattern with techniques of deliberate practice, to make scientific thinking a teachable meta-skill that anyone can learn. These foundational thinking habits are the basis for: • Learning how to successfully pursue seemingly unattainable goals in complex systems. • Enabling teams who are nearer to a situation to make their own decisions & maneuver effectively. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 3
  • 4. WEʼVE LEARNED A LOT ABOUT DEPLOYING IMPROVEMENT-KATA SKILL DEVELOPMENT Mike Gerd Bill Beth Practicing the Improvement Kata helps anyone get better at navigating unknown territory and meeting challenges. To make the pattern of the Improvement Kata a habit it should be practiced and coached every day. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 4
  • 5. DEPLOYING THE IMPROVEMENT KATA INVOLVES SKILL-BUILDING PRACTICE This document describes how to set up a coaching process in your organization, to train people in applying the Improvement Kata pattern © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 5
  • 6. FOUR INGREDIENTS FOR LEARNING A NEW HABIT AND SKILL PRACTICE Daily repetition COACHING Corrective feedback KATA Structured routine to practice (beginner) MASTERY Overcoming obstacles © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 6
  • 7. COACHING IS A KEY INGREDIENT COACHING Corrective feedback Without coaching we lose our way and donʼt practice the right pattern, or practice ineffectively. If the Learner isnʼt learning the Improvement Kata pattern or if the target condition is not being reached, examine the coaching. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 7
  • 8. THE DEPLOYMENT GOAL IS TO MAKE PRACTICING AND COACHING THE IMPROVEMENT KATA PATTERN PART OF EVERY DAYʼS WORK Practicing the Improvement Kata should get integrated into daily management, not just be an add-on project or workshop Striving with the Improvement Kata A slice of each day is focused on striving toward a challenging target condition via the Improvement Kata pattern. This is guided via the Five Coaching Kata Questions (Coach/Manager) and the PDCA Cycles Record (Learner) in daily Coaching Cycles. Troubleshooting The Workday © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 8
  • 9. PRACTICE THE IMPROVEMENT KATA BY APPLYING IT TO A REAL PROCESS & TARGET CONDITION Learners do 2 things simultaneously: Strive to reach a real target condition + practice the pattern of the Improvement Kata Training Doing Doing & Training Not this But this (combined) Here the Coach can see in real time where the Learner is, and introduce appropriate adjustments right away © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 9
  • 10. THERE ARE PRACTICE ROUTINES FOR EACH STEP OF THE IMPROVEMENT KATA + THE COACHING KATA The Four Steps of the IMPROVEMENT KATA Iterate Toward the Target Condition CC TC Establish the Next Target Condition Target Condition Grasp the Current Condition Understand the Direction LEARNER The COACHING KATA ʻExecutingʼ Coaching Cycles Coach Learner ʻPlanningʼ Coaching Cycles COACH © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 10
  • 11. THE IK HANDBOOK HAS THE PRACTICE ROUTINES This free online handbook gives you step-by-step instructions A practice routine for Setting the Challenge A practice routine for Grasping the Current Condition A practice routine for Establishing a Target Condition A practice routine for Iterating to the Target Condition A practice routine for Coaching the IK © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 11
  • 12. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DEPLOYING THE IMPROVEMENT KATA Lessons Learned This is not something for every organization. Itʼs about a different way of managing, not just adding techniques on top of how you currently manage. Itʼs a process of developing new skill and mindset throughout an organization, not just a problem-solving approach to implement. To bring the pattern of the Improvement Kata into the operation of your organization and make it a habit, mid-level management will have to actively coach it every day. You may think deploying simply means getting people in the organization to start practicing the Improvement Kata, but in our experience an effort to deploy the Improvement Kata needs to be monitored and guided. To do that be sure to Establish an ʻAdvance Groupʼ as described in this document. R R R © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 12
  • 13. Lessons Learned continued A gating factor is how much Coaching-Kata capability you are developing in your organization. You cannot expand wider and faster than your coaching capacity. To be able to coach the Improvement Kata, a person has to know how to do the Improvement Kata. Demonstrated proficiency with the Improvement Kata is ideally required before starting to coach. It's not sufficient for the organization's leaders to simply say they support the working pattern of the Improvement Kata. If they donʼt practice it themselves in some way, they will not understand it. R R R © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 13
  • 14. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 14
  • 15. IMPROVEMENT KATA SKILL COMES BEFORE COACHING SKILL To coach the Improvement Kata you need experience in applying the Improvement Kata Know why Can teach others Some demonstrated proficiency with the Improvement Kata is required before starting to coach PRACTICE Coaching Kata PRACTICE Improvement Kata Able to COACH it Able to DO it AWARE of it Know how Can effectively apply the Improvement Kata Know what Know about the Improvement Kata © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 15
  • 16. THREE KINDS OF PRACTICING (3) DAILY PRACTICE (2) SKILL-BUILDING PRACTICE (1) AWARENESS ʻPRACTICEʼ Daily practice and daily Coaching Cycles, now built into your normal management routine This is the first real practice. Focused practice sessions with the Improvement Kata pattern, conducted on real processes in your organization, with real target conditions. Initial study of the topic - Read Toyota Kata & The Talent Code. - Participate in a Toyota Kata course or workshop. - Get initial experience with the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata routines. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 16
  • 17. A THREE-PHASE DEPLOYMENT APPROACH One way to bring the Improvement Kata into an organization PHASE I: If your organization is interested in the IK / CK, start by forming a small group of 'scouts' to study the subject. The scouts should take an Improvement Kata course, such as as the ones offered by the University of Michigan and the Lean Enterprise Institute. PHASE II: Now the team of scouts better understands the scope of the task and how much itʼs about culture change through deliberate practice. If the organization is still interested at this point then the next step is to form an Advance Group of about 5 people who will oversee the deployment. This group should include at least one senior manager. At this point an external coach can start working with the organization by coaching the Advance Group. The external coach does not have responsibility for bringing the Improvement Kata into the organization. Thatʼs the responsibility of the Advance Group, which canʼt be delegated. Note that the Advance Group is not the start of a cascade, but rather a group that will conduct PDCA of skill development at the organization level. At this point the Advance Group practices applying the Improvement Kata to selected work processes, under guidance of the external coach, in order to learn the Improvement Kata. This takes about 2 months. PHASE III: Now you can expand into the normal daily activity of middle managers by focusing on applying the Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata at work processes and their associated chain of persons. You add processes as coaching capacity permits. The Advance Group now monitors and shepherds the skill-development process. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 17
  • 18. THE THREE-PHASE DEPLOYMENT APPROACH PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III - Expansion into normal business process of line managers, slice by slice Advance Supervisors Group Practices the IK Senior Managers Area Managers Prepare Skill-Dev Plan Form an Advance Group Scouts study the subject Skill Building Practice Awareness Practice Awareness Practice Have a few ʻScoutsʼ familiarize themselves with the subject; by reading ʻToyota Kataʼ & ʻThe Talent Codeʼ, and taking a Toyota Kata course. Practice Daily Coaching Cycles Skill Building Practice Awareness Practice External coach needed here! The basic deployment process is to practice the Improvement Kata pattern at one management level and pass it down another level through one-on-one coaching; so the behavior pattern permeates the organization. The Advance Group observes and PDCAs the skill-development process © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 18
  • 19. PHASE III: EXPANDING SLICE BY SLICE • A slice = a process and itʼs associated chain of persons. • Add slices only as your coaching capacity permits. • Once you start applying the Improvement Kata to a process you should never stop. So itʼs better to start too small than to involve too many people too quickly. Coach <---> Learner relationships Advance Group Site Manager Area Mgr. or Supervisor PROCESSES Process A Process B Supervisor or Team Leader © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 19
  • 20. WHAT YOUʼRE WORKING TOWARD This is a depiction of what youʼre working toward: Coach-Learner relationships up-and-down a value stream. Of course, it takes time to build this kind of capability & structure. Responsible for a Value Stream Responsible for a Value Stream Loop Responsible for a Process Each Learner has a storyboard Video on the next page 3 minutes with Jeff Liker © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 20
  • 21. WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE / HOW IT WORKS The higher your level in the value stream, the bigger the goal you are responsible for. A Target Condition at one level is the Challenge for the next level down, and one level coaches the next level down. Understand the Direction (from level above) Organization Level Value Stream Level Value Stream Loop Level Process Level Based on an illustration by Emiel van Est Grasp the Current Condition Establish the Next Target Condition Iterate Toward the Target Condition Longer-Cycle Experiments Short-Cycle Experiments Longer TC Future State Value Stream Mapping Shorter TCs Current State Value Stream Mapping PLANNING EXECUTING © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 21
  • 22. SO WHO PRACTICES FIRST? Practicing is generally done top-down in a value stream. In Phase II the Advance Group and some designated coaches are the first Learners (~9 persons). Then in Phase III you begin with managers, not supervisors, practicing on the actual processes they manage. Advance Group Site Manager Area Mgr. or Supervisor PROCESSES Process A Process B Supervisor or Team Leader Why top down? Middle managers are key players in teaching and reinforcing habits of thinking and acting in an organization. If you start IK projects with process supervisors but they are surrounded by a different way of thinking among their managers then the projects are unlikely to sustain. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 22
  • 23. Donʼt expand faster than you can develop Coaching proficiency! Organization has ʻscoutsʼ study the IK/CK topic THE DEPLOYMENT TIMELINE Advance Group AG works on a series of 3 Target Conditions (does ~ 25 PDCA cycles) Form AG - not to scale - Advance Group makes 6 or 12-month plan Increasing number of managers in the organization who are proficient coaches Slice 1 Slice 2 Slice 3 Slice 4 Advance Group conducts bi-weekly reflections Training: on real processes AG and first coaches practice the IK Advance Group reflection and next plan PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III EXTERNAL COACH ROLE Initial instructor and coach On site frequently (eg. every 2 weeks) EXTERNAL COACH ROLE As 2nd Coach On site every 2 - 4 weeks EXTERNAL COACH ROLE As needed © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 23
  • 24. WHAT ABOUT THE LEAN TOOLS AND PRACTICES? Lean tools, techniques and principles to improve quality, cost and delivery are as useful and important as ever, but they should be applied within the context of the Improvement Kata. What are you trying to achieve? Lean tools are brought in (pulled) situationally as needed. The mindset youʼre trying to develop is one of working iteratively to discover and do what is necessary to achieve a goal, as opposed to a mindset of pushing and implementing pre-defined solutions or tools. For example, if a kanban system will help a team achieve its target condition, then at that point kanban is brought in and utilized. Teams stay focused on their next target condition. This approach makes our efforts more meaningful and successful. It teaches us more scientific & effective habits of thinking and acting. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 24
  • 25. THE ROLES IN DEPLOYMENT Learner and Team (The Process Owners) Responsible for required performance in the required time and quality, and for improving the process with the Improvement Kata. The Learner conducts experiments with PDCA and develops solutions, in dialogue with process operators and 1st Coach. Middle Managers (The Coaches/Teachers) Responsible for teaching the Improvement Kata and for the team’s results. Conducts coaching cycles daily using the 5 questions. Ensures the Learner is working and practicing scientifically and experimentally according to the Improvement Kata. The coach’s job is to develop the Learner, not to improve the process. 2nd Coach (Coach the Managers) Responsible for the coaching process. Periodically observes coaching cycles between middle managers and Learners. Ensures connection between an overall challenge and process-level improvement. Advance Group (The Shepherds) Responsible for overall deployment of the Improvement Kata in the organization. The Advance Group plans & monitors the deployment process, and introduces course corrections (PDCAs the skill-building process). y External Coach x w Advance Group Coaching v Kata 2nd Learner & Team u Improvement Kata Coach Coach (Manager) © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 25
  • 26. AN EXTERNAL COACH y The role of an external coach is to help selected persons in your organization develop Coaching Kata proficiency as quickly and effectively as possible, so you can then teach and spread the Improvement Kata within your organization with less and less reliance on outside expertise. An external coach is used more at the beginning than later. Itʼs important that IK training and coaching be done by persons inside your organization as soon as possible. The role of the external coach is not to do all your training for you, because that prevents your organization from developing the necessary skills. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 26
  • 27. THE “ADVANCE GROUP” x A small group that plans, monitors and course-corrects the deployment of Improvement Kata skill development in the organization Itʼs called the “Advance Group” because they go first © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 27
  • 28. START DEPLOYMENT WITH THE ADVANCE GROUP AKA “The Shepherds” Advance Group refers to a team of 3-5 people who orchestrate the deployment of Improvement Kata thinking and skill in the organization or site. There can be one Advance Group for the overall organization and an Advance Group at each site. Suggestions for forming your Advance Group: • The Advance Group is not responsible for conducting all coaching and training, nor for making improvement happen at all processes. That will be the responsibility of middle managers and leaders who coach in their areas. • Because internal coaches are needed, this is also a good time to simultaneously train a few high-potential coaches who can later coach in various areas of the organization as needed. • The Advance Group plus initial coaches should total no more than 9 persons. A larger group becomes too difficult to manage when everyoneʼs skill levels is ʻbeginnerʼ. • The Advance Group should include a senior executive (the senior executive in small and mid-sized companies or sites). • The Advance Group is not a Lean staff group, although a Lean staff member can be on the Advance Group. If you have a lean staff, their role may migrate toward being “master coaches” for middle managers, who will be the heart of the IK effort. • The Advance Group will initially need training and guidance from an external coach, which can be an outside consultant. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 28
  • 29. WITHOUT AN ADVANCE GROUP TO SHEPHERD IT, CHANGE IS UNLIKELY TO SUCCEED Planning a perfect deployment of new skills is impossible, so it will be important to sense obstacles, problems and weaknesses as they arise, learn from them and adapt the deployment plan accordingly. This is normal and itʼs the responsibility of the Advance Group. Current Condition Obstacles Problems Old Habits (x) persons at (x) Dreyfus level of Improvement Kata skill, and (x) processes under Improvement Kata management, by (x) date. AG Target Condition Youʼre working on a change in how your organization manages people, so there's a need for high-level PDCA. The Advance Group does this high-level reflecting and adjusting. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 29
  • 30. Phase II: ADVANCE GROUP PRACTICING To be able to fulfill their shepherding role, the Advance Group members first develop some Improvement Kata skill by practicing on real work processes • The Advance Groupʼs practicing typically takes two months. • If the site does not already have a future-state value stream map to provide challenge, then the Advance Group may begin with VS Mapping, which adds additional time but is good experience. • To gain experience in all four steps of the IK, the Advance Group members work toward three successive target conditions. • A key skill is “PDCA rigor,” and an Advance Group member should personally experience at least 25 PDCA cycles. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 30
  • 31. SUGGESTIONS FOR ADVANCE GROUP PRACTICING Select focus processes that are well-suited for beginners to practice on. Typically these are compact processes that have repetitive cycles. With beginners the primary goal is to internalize the Improvement Kata pattern, not to address the most complicated processes and problems. The development of internal Kata coaches is a prerequisite for teaching people how to work with the Improvement Kata every day. However, at the start there are no experienced coaches. To bridge this gap you can do Phase II Advance Group practicing in a rotation model, whereby each person in turn takes the role of Learner, Coach and 2nd Coach. This is a temporary, artificial structure for Advance Group practicing and to quickly develop some internal coaching capacity. Remember, you can select a few extra persons to practice together with the Advance group, so youʼll have a few more coaches for the initial deployment. (Eventually middle managers will be the coaches.) R R © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 31
  • 32. YOU CAN USE A ROTATION MODEL FOR GETTING THE ADVANCE GROUP & FIRST COACHES UP TO SPEED For example for 9 Persons • Select 3 processes with 3 persons practicing per process. This is the Advance Group members + the additional coaches in training, for a total of 9 persons. • Since these are artificially-selected processes, the Learner pairs with the process Supervisor to apply the Improvement Kata to the process. • The members in each group periodically rotate roles within their group. Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 2nd Coach Learner Coach Process and Supervisor Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 EXAMPLE © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 32
  • 33. ADVANCE GROUP PRACTICE-PLANNING FORM Fill in persons and processes for Advance Group IK practicing Rotation Frequency Process Supervisor(s) (pairs with Learner) Practice Dates Start: End: Advance Group Members and Coaches in Training PRACTICE PROCESSES © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 33
  • 34. Phase III: ONCE THE ADVANCE GROUP HAS PRACTICED THE IK The Advance Groupʼs focus now shifts to the following tasks: Expand IK practice into the organization “slice” by “slice” Prepare a 6 or 12-month skill-development plan. Help start the process by coaching as necessary. At the early stages when there are too few coaches, Advance Group members may also coach managers or be 2nd coaches. Observe coaching cycles. Check and adjust the deployment via PDCA. This is the most important Advance Group task. Conduct regular reflections of actual current conditions against the skill-development plan. Ensure that teams applying the IK are working toward an appropriate challenge. Ensure IK activities are connected to meaningful goals. q q q q q © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 34
  • 35. THE ADVANCE GROUP PREPARES A 6 or 12 MONTH SKILL-DEVELOPMENT PLAN The basic question... what persons do you want to bring to what skill level with the Improvement Kata by 6 or 12 months from now? Use the following headings in the plan I. Vision (your ultimate goal related to IK skill) II. Challenge (related to IK skill, 6 to 12 months out) III. Current Condition IV. Next Target Condition (1-3 months out) V. What We Will Measure Obstacles & necessary course corrections (PDCA) will arise in the Advance Groupʼs bi-weekly reflections © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 35
  • 36. THE ADVANCE GROUP THEN REFLECTS REGULARLY The Advance Group reflects against the skill development plan (for example bi-weekly) and introduces adjustments as necessary By conducting regular checks the Advance Group learns what it needs to work on to achieve its target condition of skill development © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 36
  • 37. THEORETICAL DEPLOYMENT Current Management Approach Improvement Kata Approach Time Managerʼs Workday © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 37
  • 38. The Advance Group conducts PDCA at the deployment level. Managerʼs Workday THE REALITY Hereʼs why you need an Advance Group! Improvement Kata Approach Unforeseen deployment obstacles, problems, etc. Without an Advance Group, the deployment dies here Time Current Management Approach © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 38
  • 39. CONDUCT REGULAR ADVANCE GROUP REFLECTIONS This is where a lot of the success or failure in developing Improvement Kata skills and management will be determined When you execute a plan and work toward a target condition youʼll need to make adjustments based on what you learn from the unforeseen obstacles and problems you discover along the way. The advance group does this by scheduling regular reflection times. Bi-weekly, for example. An Advance Group reflection is built around the same 5 Coaching Kata Questions that the Coaches use The Five Question Card is a free download on the Toyota Kata Website © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 39
  • 40. u v w FIVE THINGS FOR THE ADVANCE GROUP TO MEASURE Progress toward the system-level challenge Are individual process-level target conditions related to a higher-level challenge (lead time, productivity, etc.), and is progress being made? Progress toward process target conditions Relevant metric(s) can be taken right from each work processʼs target condition. Learnerʼs skill development How well are the coaches doing in developing Improvement Kata skill in their learners? Use the Dreyfus Levels to assess skill level. Frequency and duration of coaching cycles For each coach, track the start and stop times of their coaching cycles. (Longer is not better.) Length of Learnersʼ PDCA cycles PDCA cycles should ideally be short & frequent x y © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 40
  • 41. PAY PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO COACHING Learnerʼs Storyboard Process Learner Coach Coaching is the key variable If the Learner is not learning or the target condition is not being reached, the problem lies in the coaching © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 41
  • 42. To all Advance Groups... WATCH THE ROLLOUT SPEED Resist the temptation to roll out the Improvement Kata as broadly and quickly as possible. Thatʼs a sure bet for failure because it will... -> Multiply mistakes due to shortcutting the necessary PDCAs. -> Outrun your organizationʼs coaching capacity. The Advance Group should practice and learn first. Then move ahead slowly at first, experimenting and adjusting. Gain speed as coaching capacity increases. After the first year itʼs better to say, “We could have gone faster,” than to say, “We went too fast.” © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 42
  • 43. MANAGERS v Managers are the Improvement Kata teachers / coaches Middle managers, not Lean staff persons, should be the main teachers of the Improvement Kata pattern in the organization. They are the primary coaches. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 43
  • 44. THE IK + CK = A WAY OF MANAGING! Managers teach the Improvement Kata pattern to their people every day while those people work on real goals Although the Improvement Kata describes a routine for continuous improvement, keep in mind that this kata is a way of managing people every day. Because they are automatically teachers every day, middle managers may have more influence on an organizationʼs capability than any other group. The Improvement Kata is a way of managing that generates skills and initiative to improve, adapt and keep the organization moving forward. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 44
  • 45. w 2nd Coach Participates periodically Pays particular THE THREE CORE ROLES FOR DAILY PRACTICING Line Manager attention to the Coach (coaches the Coach) Team Learnerʼs Storyboard Process v u Coach Learner (Manager) The Coach is responsible for teaching the Improvement Kata pattern, and for the results The Coach uses the Coaching Kata, asking the 5 CK questions The team owns the target condition and works to achieve it The Learner & team apply the Improvement Kata © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 45
  • 46. COACHING CYCLES ARE THE MANAGERʼS DAILY IMPROVEMENT-KATA TEACHING MECHANISM Once they have practiced and learned the Improvement Kata, managers use daily Coaching Cycles as a teaching technique The Coach uses the Five CK Questions The Learner uses the PDCA Cycles Record Coaching cycles are a way to guide Learners in their Improvement Kata practice © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 46
  • 47. COACHING CYCLES FOR DAILY IMPROVEMENT KATA TRAINING One coaching cycle involves a Coach asking the Learner the Five CK Questions, while at the process. We usually strive for this to be done at least once every shift, taking 10-15 minutes. (Note: it takes some practice to get to 10-15 minute coaching cycles that are not just a formality.) Coaching cycles are conducted at regularly-scheduled times + spontaneously when the need arises. As necessary, after a coaching cycle the Coach may opt to accompany the Learner - which would be coaching - or simply to return for the next coaching cycle. One Day Additional coaching cycles if necessary Scheduled Coaching Cycle For detailed instructions on how to conduct Coaching Cycles see the online Improvement Kata Handbook © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 47
  • 48. THESE ARE THE TWO FUNDAMENTAL ROUTINES AT THE CORE OF THE COACHING KATA The Five Question card is available on the Toyota Kata Website The 5-Question Coaching Dialog Rapid PDCA Cycles Five-Question Card Used by the COACH PDCA Cycles Record Used by the LEARNER © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 48
  • 49. Current Condition Target Condition Learner Coach © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 49
  • 50. THE 2nd COACHES w They observe & coach the coaches There will be a need for some master coaches. These may initially come from the Advance Group, Lean staff, etc. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 50
  • 51. THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF THE 2nd COACH The apparent simplicity of the Five Questions makes coaching seem easier to learn than it is. We underestimate whatʼs involved in coaching and what it takes to learn it. It takes considerable practice and regular reflection to master the intent and pattern of the Coaching Kata. For the Coach, coaching cycles are not only a means of teaching the Improvement Kata pattern but also a PDCA cycle whereby the Coach checks and reflects on the result of his/her last coaching. If the Learner isnʼt learning the Improvement Kata or a team is not achieving its target conditions the problem is usually in the coaching. In other words, the Coach is practicing the Coaching Kata and for this needs someone with coaching experience to periodically observe him conducting coaching cycles and provide feedback (to coach the coach). Thatʼs the role of the 2nd coach. Periodic observation of coaching cycles by an experienced second coach is essential if you want to teach managers effective coaching skills. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 51
  • 52. THE ROLE OF THE 2nd COACH 2nd Coach Participates periodically (eg. once / week) Pays particular attention to the Coach (coaches the Coach) Team Learnerʼs Storyboard Process Coach Learner (Manager) Coach is responsible for teaching the Improvement Kata pattern, and for the results Learner & Team own the target condition and work to achieve it The 2nd Coachʼs role is to ensure that middle managers are teaching/coaching the Improvement Kata correctly. The 2nd Coach does this primarily by observing a managersʼ coaching cycles. © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 52
  • 53. A COACHING CYCLE IN ACTION © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 53
  • 54. Summary: IMPROVEMENT KATA PRACTICE IS BRAIN TRAINING! Detailed practice instructions are available in the online Improvement Kata Handbook © Mike Rother How to Deploy the Improvement Kata 54