Six types of tasks (Willis, 1996) Take part in a dressing-up competition / Write a poem / Talk or write about past customs/ Produce a class magazine / Perform interactions Talk about things you own, past routines/ preferences and find people with similar ones / What generally makes you annoyed? Give advice in response to a letter from an advice column / Guess what’s in a picture / Social studies of young offenders Listen to descriptions of people & identify which person is / Compare ways of doing things in different countries/ Spot the differences Organize days of the week / Rank items in order of importance / Complete a chart / think of 5 ways to classify clothes you wear List things found in a particular place / everyday things / things you can do / qualities needed for a particular job Sample tasks Memory challenge games / ordering and sorting tasks Words / Things / Qualities / People / Places / Job-related skills Brainstorming, fact-finding Completed list or draft mind map Listing Students select the funniest experience, tell the class and give reasons for their choice Anecdotes / Personal reminiscence / Attitudes, opinions, preferences / Personal reactions Narrating, describing, exploring & explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions Social Sharing personal experiences Learners keep a diary describing their progress on a project Students do a comparing, present, justify & discuss solutions for the class to vote on the best one8s) Students design parallel tasks based on data Spot the missing item/ reach consensus from rankings/ justify decisions / Odd one out Follow up Small group activities / Creative writing / Social or historical research / Media projects / real life rehearsals Short puzzles, logic problems, real life problems / incomplete stories / Poems / Case studies Matching to identify someone or something / Compare to find similarities or differences Jumbles lists / Set of instructions / Sorting according to specific criteria / Half completed charts/ Lists of items Starting points Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering & sorting, comparing, problem solving Analyzing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning and making decisions Matching, finding similarities / differences Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying Processes Projects Solution(s) to problem Matching or assembling/ identifying similarities or differences Information or data ordered & sorted according to specified criteria Outcome Creative tasks Problem solving Comparing Ordering & sorting Task Aspects
Pre-task Warming up ; activating background knowledge Task Post-task (Follow-up) Students do something to express themselves in response to an activity. Further practice to make sure students reached lesson objective(s) Ask students to match pictures from a menu with a list of words Go to site play a game (food groups) correct suggestions about food groups organize food using “a lot”, “some”, “little” ask which food from the group classmate eats a lot, some or little report Choose one food from the group in the game. Write about it. Send it to your teacher by e-mail. Stage Example Description
Identify topic from lesson or unit Find sites related to topic Plan/design pre-task, task and follow up activities Lesson plan & external material Web-based lesson design Scan the text Search skills needed Task-based approach Print or store on the computer Miguel Mendoza, 2006. British Council, Venezuela Apply, evaluate and edit (if need be)
surprised with students' behavior (less disruptive)
developed IT skills
were in tune with the way their students are learning outside the classroom.
accepted and undertood the student-centered approach
Egbert, J. (2005). CALL essentials. TESOL. USA Chapelle, C. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press Information and Communications technologies for language teachers (ICT4LT). Retrieved information January 10th, 2006. http://www.ict4lt.org/en/index.htm Richardson, W. (2006). Blogs, wikis podcasts and other powerful web tools for classrooms . Corwin Press Dudeney, G. (2005). The internet and the language classsroom. Cambridge University Press