early radio history

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early radio history

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early radio history

  1. 1. Company Radio Broadcasting LOGO The early years
  2. 2. Mass Media Market Newspapers Magazines/Books Phonograph 1905 Mass Media Market 1877 Movies 1904 Radio
  3. 3. Broadcasting Debuts 1. Technological advances made toward developing radio late in 19th C 2. Heinrich Hertz transmitted energy without wires 3. Guglielmo Marconi saw this as way to replace telegraph lines 4. British Government interested in technology Guglielmo Marconi 1874 - 1937 5. It had colonial empire, with ships at sea and large navy.
  4. 4. Marconi Wireless & Signal co. 1. Secured British patent in 1897 2. Formed Marconi Wireless & Signal Co. to communicate with lighthouses & ships 3. Focused on increasing distance signals traveled 4. 1901 – Sent a transmission across the Atlantic Ocean 5. U.S. Navy adopted wireless fully by WW-I 6. Specialty companies like United Fruit Company 7. Hobbyist
  5. 5. 1st Known Radio Program 1. Reginald Fessenden, a Canadian Scientist 2. Became first to transmit voice over the air 3. From experimental station in Brant Rock, Mass 4. December 24, 1906 5. Ships of United Fruit Co were listening first came static then Morris Code 6. First came static, then Morris Code, Followed by voice & music
  6. 6. Radio – A New Technology 1. Airwaves became crowded (shipping interests, navy, amateurs, universities, experimental) 2. President Taft enacted 1st radio license law in 1912 3. Commerce Dept put in charge of allocating frequencies to ships, government agencies and amateurs 4. Reserved a few for universities & experimental stations 5. 1917 – 8,562 licenses issued in U.S.
  7. 7. David Sarnoff 1. Most saw lack of privacy as a disadvantage 2. David Sarnoff was manager of American 3. Marconi’s Wanamaker’s Dept Store station in NY in 1912 4. Received important radio signals on April 15, 1891 - 1971 1912 50.14 W MGY CQD SOS SOS CQD CQD DE MGY WE ARE SINKING FAST PASSENGERS ARE BEING PUT (The signal then fades to unreadable.)
  8. 8. The Sarnoff Memo - 1916 1. Marconi should make radio receivers that tune to frequencies 2. Provide radio concerns, recitals, lectures 3. Called it – Radio Music Box 4. Programming paid for out of sales of radio sets 5. But World War I Intervened 6. All Frequencies taken over by Government
  9. 9. First Commercial Broadcasters 1. Begin as means of promoting other enterprises (dept stores; radios, churches, colleges. 2. Dr. Frank Conrad operates station out of his garage after WW-I 3. Local Dept. Store advertised sets to hear his program 1874 - 1941 4. Westinghouse decided to set up station to help sell sets 5. KDKA went on air on 11/2/20 with broadcast of Harding-Cox Presidential election returns
  10. 10. First Stations 1. Business model had been established 2. Sets moved quickly 3. Didn’t accept advertising 4. 8 stations opened by 1921
  11. 11. Making a Profit 1. Two possible sources of income – sales of radios; advertising 2. 8 Stations Licensed by end of 1921 3. Sales of radio sets began to boom 4. By Nov. 1, 1922 – 564 broadcasters licensed 5. 1922 used long distance phone lines to connect NYC with Chicago to broadcast football game. 6. 1926 – NBC purchased WEAF in NY
  12. 12. Government Regulation 1. Chaotic, unplanned system 2. Business practices threatened a possibly monopoly 3. Congress passed Radio Act of 1927 4. Agency is now called FCC 5. Allocated frequencies
  13. 13. Mass Media Market Newspapers Magazines/Books Phonograph 1930s Mass Media Market 1877 Movies 1904 Radio
  14. 14. Radio Station Growth
  15. 15. Major Source for Entertainment • 1934 – 593 broadcast stations in U.S. • 1935 – 67% of homes had radio sets; grows to 81% by 1940 • Networks provided 24 hours programming • Daytime – soaps, children’s Shows, music • Primetime – dramas, comedies, quiz shows, specials & music
  16. 16. Radio Stations - 1922 •
  17. 17. AM Radio Stations - 1946
  18. 18. FM Radio Station - 1958
  19. 19. Radio Stations - 2006
  20. 20. The Nation Enters the ‘30s Entering the 1930s Approaching the 1940s • 2,000 daily newspapers • Radio spreading hard reached about 40-million news readers • Newsreels provided • 10,000 weekly visuals newspapers • 1934 -- advertising • Advertising revenue revenue ½ of 1929 high approached $900-million • 1939 a number of dailies • Seen as a necessity & weeklies disappeared
  21. 21. Music • Programming targeted to national audience • Similar to today’s TV blocks. • Did not want recorded programs
  22. 22. Power of Broadcasting 1. Presidential Election – 1932 2. Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping – 1932 3. Hindenburg – 1937 4. Orson Welles' Broadcast of War of the Worlds – 1938 5. Trouble in Europe
  23. 23. Radio News • Only 4 network newscasts 1933 • 1930s crisis in Europe created market for news •CBS received enormous praise for broadcasts from war torn Europe
  24. 24. Power of Broadcasting Herb Morrison at Lake Hurst NJ for WLS May 6, 1937
  25. 25. Competitive Environment
  26. 26. Newspapers Face Competition We fight the growing encroachment of our field by radio, only to have the news organizations to which we belong turn around and help the radio thumb its nose at our honest effort. Every bulletin we printed in our extra was second hand. The radio with the assistance of the Associated Press scooped us miserably. – Editor & Publisher 1928
  27. 27. We cannot keep on selling news if we encourage others to give it away.
  28. 28. Newspaper Radio War American Newspapers Publisher Association Convention - 1933 Stopped providing newspapers with bulletins and printing schedules. Biltmore Agreement Two 5-minute newscasts daily No spot news Press described it as a complete defeat for broadcasters
  29. 29. The War Years
  30. 30. The War Years Edward R. Murrow
  31. 31. Golden Age of Radio Fades In 1950s, more turning to TV for entertainment The “leftovers” Tried various strategies to off TV’s impact In Dec. 1955, Nielsen ratings did not list one evening radio program in top ten How could radio survive Portability Innovative programming Recorded music Top 40 format
  32. 32. Mass Media Market - 1950 Competing for Consumer Attention Magazines TV Newspapers Radio Theatres & Books

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