Chapter 27 (1)


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Chapter 27 (1)

  1. 1. Geography (New Zealand) Chapter 27
  2. 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS Section I The Land Section II The People Section III Maori and Maori Culture
  3. 3. I. The land 1. The Name of the Country 2. Location and Size 3. Landforms 4. Climate 5. Unique Fauna and Flora 6. The North Island 7. The South Island 8. Steward Island 9. Natural Resources 10.Forestry 11.Fishery
  4. 4. I . The land 1. The name of the country given by the Dutch explorers  Staten Land by Abel Tasman  Nieuw Zeeland by later explorers: The new land is similar to Zeeland (a province in Holland)
  5. 5. 2. Location and size 1) the largest island of Polynesia 2) in the south Pacific Ocean, 34-470 s. 3) the third largest country in Oceania 4) total area: 270,534 Km2 –Japan, California, British Isles 5) a country of islands a. two main islands: North and South islands b. Steward Island: 3rd largest c. many small scattered islands d. just west of the International Date Line --the first major country to get the new day
  6. 6. 3. Landforms Diversity of physical geography a. wide variation in landscape glaciers, fiords, mountains, plains, hillsides, forests, plateau, beaches b. Mountains: 1/5 of North Island & 2/3 of South Island volcanoes:  Ruapehu the highest  Mount Egmont (west)  Mount Cook (the highest mountain)
  7. 7. c. Coastline 15,000 Km-long a) North Island  Sandy beaches: the Far North and most of the East Coast  Dark sandy beaches: the West Coast b) South Island  beautiful sandy beaches: the north  wild and rugged beaches: the rest d. Southern Alps accessible to mountaineers and hikers a) Tasman glacier (the largest) b) Franz Josef and Fox (the West Coast of South Is.)
  8. 8. TheMapofNewZealand
  9. 9. 4. Climate Maritime dominated by two geographical features 1) the mountains 2) the sea  mild temperature  moderate rainfall  abundant sunshine
  10. 10. 4. Climate  Seasons are opposite to those in the northern hemisphere 1) Spring (Sep-Nov): from cold and frosty to warm and hot 2) Summer (Dec–Feb): high temperatures and sunshine 3) Autumn (Mar-May): cool 4) Winter (June-Aug): cold and more rain
  11. 11. 5. Unique Fauna and Flora  Native birds and plants Long time isolation has helped the evolution of the unique fauna and flora. , Birds don’t fly. - National bird: Kiwi Famous birds: moa (wingless), kakapo (the rarest and heaviest parrot), tuatara (living fossil, the only beak-headed reptile), kea (native parrot), weka, takahe, tui, and morepork owl
  12. 12. Rainfall and Sunshine
  13. 13. A large number of native trees The most famous tree: a kauri called Tane Mahuta 1) named after the Maori god of the forests 2) 51 meters tall, 13 meters in girth, and 2,000 years old
  14. 14. A great variety of ferns The Silver Fern: one of New Zealand’s official symbols
  15. 15. 6. The North Island A. Size 114,500 Km2 , smaller than the South B. Population distribution vastly populated, temperate, sub-tropical climate C. Landscape a. volcanoes, b. forests peaks lakes c. vineyards d. harbors e. beaches
  16. 16. 6. The North Island D. Tongariro National Park the oldest N.P. and mountainous (three volcanoes)  Tongariro  Ruapehu (the highest peak)  Ngauruhoe (for Mt. Doom in Lord of the Ring) E. Rivers and lakes 1) Waikato: the longest 425 Km 2) Lake Taupo: the largest lake
  17. 17. 6. The North Island  Distinctive features: 1) geothermal power in the central and northern parts of the North 2) Rotorua-Taupo: the largest one , 3) hot springs and geysers, 4) electricity station: Waitakei  Nine provincial districts 1) Northland, Auckland, Waikato, Taranaki, Hawkes Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Wellington, Gisbone 2) Auckland: the largest city (the City of Sails) 3) Wellington: the national capital
  18. 18. Lake
  19. 19. River
  20. 20. Auckland—the City of Sails
  21. 21. 7. South Island A. Size 150 000 square km, Known as Te Wai Pounamu (Water of Greenstone) B. Landforms  peaks, glaciers, lakes rivers, limestone landscapes, rainforest, coastline,  Mount Cook ( 3,754 m): the highest peak  Glacial activities: Ten Anau, Wakatipu resulted in the formation of lakes C. Residence : 967,900 (2006), not densely populated D. Seven districts E. The largest city: Christchurch (Garden City)
  22. 22. Mountains
  23. 23. 8. Steward Island 1) Insulated by remoteness 2) a haven for tranquility and adventure 3) Rakiura National park 4) the western coast: a. cliffs b. beaches 5) the eastern coast:: a. sheltered inlets b. Paterson Inlet: the largest
  24. 24. 9. Natural resources Main resources: coal, gold, natural gas, iron ore, silver, petroleum, aggregate, limestone and clay Coal and gold are the most important. Coal a. the largest energy resource, b. 8.6 billion tons recoverable c. mainly in South Island Gold in Otago, South Island
  25. 25. II. The people 1. Population and Nations : 1) 2006 census :4.14 million, 2) 75% the North( 86% in cities), 3) 80% Pakeha (the European white) 2. Language Spoken 1) English (common and everyday language) 2) Maori (50,000 Maoris) 3) Other languages (immigrants) 3. Religion: a Christian country 1) Christian (Anglican, Catholic, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, other protestants): more than half 2) Buddhist, Moslems, Maori Church (Ratana and Ringatu )
  26. 26. 4. Principal Cities 1. Wellington 2. Auckland 3. Christchurch 4. Dunedin 5. Queenstown 6. Rotorua
  27. 27. Wellington: the Capital
  28. 28. Auckland: the Largest City  1.2 million population  Among the best in the world: harbor, islands, Polynesian culture and modern city environment
  29. 29. Christchurch: Garden City 1) Population: 481,400 2) The largest city in the south Island
  30. 30. Dunedin: the best preserved 1) The capital city of Otago 2) Otago University: the oldest of New Zealand
  31. 31. Queenstown 1) Population: 20,000 2) the most famous travel destination 3) Magnificent scenery, adventure opportunities and luxury lifestyle
  32. 32. Rotorua 1) Population: 68,000 2) The center of Maori culture in North Island 3) Geothermal activities, volcanic landscape, living Maori culture and hot springs
  33. 33. 5. New Zealander’s Lives A.Families and Households a. Proportion of families (2001): 35% one child, 17.7% three children, more and more single-parent families b. Marriage declining, and divorce rate rising c. 2/3 of New Zealanders own houses 80% of private dwellings: detached, single-family, larger Some have a second or more houses.
  34. 34. B. Health care a. Improved since 1950s b. Life expectancy (2006): 78 male & 82 female c. Restrictions on smoking in many public places imposed in 1990. d. Local medical centers e. Public and private hospitals f. Doctors: private practitioners g. Most prescription medicines: partly charged,
  35. 35. C. Education a. Start school (public or private) at 5 b. Free primary and secondary education: from Age 5 to 19; Compulsory from Age 6 to 16. c. Tertiary education: polytechnics, colleges, and universities d. Education based on Maori culture & values.
  36. 36. D. Welfare a. 1st cradle-to-grave welfare state by Labor Party in the 1930s b. Universal welfare scrapped by Labor Party in 1984 c. New Zealanders still enjoy high level of social welfare.
  37. 37. III. Maori and Maori Culture 1. Indigenous people of New Zealand 1) First arrival by voyaging canoes from Hawaiki over 1,000 years ago, 2) 9% of the total population 3) a major impact 2. Maori culture: Rich and varied with a tradition of mythology and oral history 3. Unique protocol: marae, ceremonial touching of noses 4. Born dancers: The famous haka and poi
  38. 38. ExercisesExercises I. Choose the correct answer and circle the letter II. Questions for discussion III. Explain the following in English
  39. 39. Exercises I. Choose the correct answer and write the related letter on the blanks. 1. The climate in New Zealand is ____, dominated by two main geographical features—mountain and sea. A. maritime B. continental C. tropical D. temperate 2. Spring in New Zealand lasts from __ to __. A. Jan., Mar B. Sep., Nov. C. Feb., May D. Oct., Dec 3.One distinctive feature of Northern Island is its ____. A. highland B. lowland C. geothermal power D. plain 4. The largest city in the South Island is ____, known as Garden City. A. Christchurch B. Dunedin C. Queenstown D. Rotorua 5. __ and __ are the most important natural resources in New Zealand. A. Water, gas B. Gas, coal C. Coal, gold D. Iron, copper
  40. 40. Exercises 6. ____ are the indigenous people of New Zealand. A. The Maori B. American Indians C. Anglo-Saxons D. The British 7. Both ___ and ____ are official languages. A. English, French B. English, Chinese C. English, Spanish D. English, Mauri 8.There are two main islands in New Zealand which are separated by ___ Channel. A. Cook B. English C. Dover D. Suez 9.The largest city in New Zealand is _____. A. Wellington B. Christchurch C. Auckland D. Queenstown 10. Education in state primary and secondary schools is free from Age __ to __. A. 5,15 B. 6, 18 C. 6,19 D. 5,19
  41. 41. Exercises II. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences. 1. What are the two most important factors that dominate the climate of New Zealand? 2. What natural resources is New Zealand blessed with? 3. Who were Maoris? Where did they come from? 4. What is the state examination in New Zealand? 5. What is the difference between the private and the public schools?
  42. 42. III. Explain the following in English. 1. Cook Strait 2. The kiwi 3. International Date Line 4. Maori
  43. 43. Thank you!